In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Legio XX Valeria Victrix
Legio vigesima Valeria Victrix, in English Twentieth Victorious Valeria Legion was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. The origin of the Legion's name is unclear and there are various theories, but the legion may have gained its title Valeria Victrix from a victory it achieved during the Great Illyrian revolt under the command of the general [[Marcus Valer The legion was founded shortly after 31 BC by the emperor Augustus. XX Valeria victrix was part of the large Roman force that fought in the Cantabrian Wars in Hispania from 25 to 19 BC; the legion moved to Burnum in Illyricum at the beginning of the Pannonian uprising in AD 6. It is recorded operating against the Marcomanni in AD 6 in the army of Tiberius. In Illyria they were led by the governor of Illyricum, Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus, who may have given his clan name Valeria to the legion. Although understrength, they managed to defeat the rebels led by Bato of the Daesitiates. In one battle the legion cut through the enemy lines, was surrounded, cut its way out again.
After the disaster of Varus in AD 9, XX Valeria Victrix moved to Germania Inferior and was based at Oppidum Ubiorum moved to Novaesium at the site of modern Neuss during Tiberius' reign. The legion was one of the four with which Claudius invaded Britain in 43 AD, it was one of the two legions that defeated Caratacus at the Battle of Caer Caradoc, after which, from the AD 50s, it was encamped at Camulodunum, with a few units at Kingsholm in Gloucester. Around AD 55 it moved to Usk, for the conquest of the Silures, a tribe resistant to the imposition of Roman rule in Wales. In AD 60 or 61 the Twentieth helped put down the revolt of queen Boudica, after having routed the Ordovices by crossing Menai Strait in Wales to destroy the Druids' sacred groves in 58. In AD 66, the legion was transferred to Viroconium. In the year of the four emperors, the legion sided with Vitellius; some units went with him to Rome. In AD 78–84, the legion was part of Gnaeus Julius Agricola's campaigns in northern Britannia and Caledonia, built the base at Inchtuthill.
In AD 88 the legion returned south and occupied Castra Deva, where it remained based for at least two centuries. The Twentieth was among the legions involved with the construction of Hadrian's Wall, the discovery of stone altars commemorating their work in Caledonia suggests that they had some role in building the Antonine Wall; the legion went on campaign in 196 under Decimus Clodius Albinus into Gaul, would have suffered heavy losses in Gaul before returning to Britain. During the Carausian Revolt, which established the Britannic Empire under Carausius and Allectus in the 280s and 290s, the XX Valeria Victrix was still active. No further information is known after this period and scholars believe the XX legion was still stationed in Britain when the usurper Constantine III pulled the bulk of the military forces from there in the year 407 for his doomed campaign on the continent; this legion has been much studied. Legio XX Valeria Victrix and their final days in Deva in the early AD 400s form the backdrop to the Tom Stevens mythic fiction genre novel The Cauldron with the story's protagonist Valerian—the Praefectus and Chief Centurion—defending the city with the rump of the legion against the incursions of Hibernian pirates as the "Dark Ages" settle on Britannia.
The movie Victrix! The Valiant of Albion features an adaptation of Tom Stevens novel. Legio XX Valeria Victrix was the legion featured in the novel Eagle in the Snow. Several of the main characters in the early novels of Jack Whyte's A Dream of Eagles series were former members of Legio XX Valeria Victrix. Gaius Petreius Ruso, protagonist of Medicus by Ruth Downie, is a military doctor in Britannia attached to Legio XX. Legio XX Valeria Victrix lends its name to the character Valeria Matuchek in Poul Anderson's Operation Chaos and its sequel Operation Luna; the first person narrator of Stephen Vincent Benét's short story "The Last of the Legions" is the senior centurion of the Valeria Victrix, who recounts the events and the impressions of soldiers and populace surrounding the departure of the legion from Britain. Legion Company of the U. S. Army's 1st battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade stationed in Vicenza, Italy is named after Legio XX, they chose this name for the paratroopers' ability to fight fiercely behind enemy lines.
Legio XX Valeria Victrix features in the six novel series "Soldier of Rome - The Artorian Chronicles" by James Mace Legio XX Valeria Victrix is mentioned in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s short story “Through the Veil”. Livius.org account of XX Valeria Victrix LEGIO XX, Maryland re-enactment group
Favonius was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a career that lasted from 1871 to 1873 he won five races. In June 1871 he won The Derby on his second racecourse appearance, he went on to prove himself a top class stayer, winning the Goodwood Cup in 1872. Favonius was regarded by contemporary observers as one of the best English-trained horses of his era. At the end of the 1873 season he was retired to stud but had little chance to make an impact as a stallion before his death four years later. Favonius’s Derby win was one of the highlights of what became known as “The Baron’s Year”, in which his owner, Baron Meyer de Rothschild won four of the five British Classic Races. Favonius was bred by Baron Meyer de Rothschild, he was sired by a male-line descendant of the Byerley Turk. Parmesan won the Gold Vase at Royal Ascot and became a successful stallion siring, in addition to Favonius, the 1871 Derby winner Cremorne. Favonius’s dam Zephyr, was a full sister to Hannah, who won the Fillies’ Triple Crown in “The Baron’s Year”.
Rothschild sent the colt to his private trainer Joseph Hayhoe at his Palace House stables at Newmarket, Suffolk. Until 1946, British racehorses were allowed to race without being named, until shortly before his Derby win, Favonius was known as “The Zephyr Colt”; the Zephyr Colt did not race as a two-year-old. He made his debut in the spring of 1871 in a Biennial Stakes at Newmarket, he was beaten a head by Albert Victor. In mid-May Hayhoe tried the colt in a private trial race against Hannah, which convinced him that the colt was sixteen pounds superior to the filly. In the Derby at Epsom, the newly named colt started at odds of 9/1 in a field of seventeen runners, with Bothwell being made the 2/1 favourite; the appearance of the name "Favonius" on the race card caused some confusion among racegoers who were unaware that the Baron had decided to name the Zephyr Colt after the personification of the West Wind. The crowd included the Prince of Wales who viewed the race from a private stand near the judge's chair.
Ridden by Tom French, Favonius made little show in the early stages, but moved up to track the leaders entering the straight. He made steady progress to take the lead inside the final furlong and won by one and a half lengths from Albert Victor and King of the Forest who dead-heated for second place; the win was popular with the huge crowd, the Baron, identifiable by his white hat was mobbed by wellwishers as he attempted to return to his carriage. Rothschild was reported to have given £1,000 to Tom French for his ride on Favonius, with an additional £200 annuity for life. In July, Favonius won the Midsummer Stakes at Newmarket. On 27 July he ran in a much anticipated race for the Goodwood Cup in which he has matched against the French-trained Ascot Gold Cup winner Mortemer. Favonius defeated the French horse, but was beaten half a length in a "most sensational race" by the 50/1 outsider Shannon to whom he was conceding ten pounds The slow pace at which the race was run in the early stages led some commentators to consider the result a "fluke".
In the Brighton Cup over two miles, Favonius started 4/6 favourite and won by three lengths. Favonius had not been entered for the St Leger and did not race again until October when he appeared at Newmarket. In the Cambridgeshire Handicap he finished unplaced carrying a weight of 123 pounds, he walked over at Newmarket in the month, after only rival, was withdrawn to pursue a match against the American champion Harry Bassett. Favonius's winning prize money of £5,900 contributed towards Baron Rothschild being the leading owner of 1871. In 1872, Favonius was aimed at the major staying races. Early in the year, Rothschild had turned down an offer of £12,000 for the colt. On his first start of the year he defeated Dutch Skater in a two-mile race at Newmarket in May. At Ascot in June he started 2/5 favourite for the Gold Cup in front of a crowd which included the Prince of Wales and many other members of the British aristocracy, he looked impressive in the paddock and took the lead in the straight but was beaten by the French colt Henry.
Two days he ran in the Alexandra Plate over three miles and finished fourth behind MusketIn July he ran in his second Goodwood Cup and produced one of his best performances, taking the lead early in the straight and drawing clear to win by ten lengths from Albert Victor. In his only race as a five-year-old, Favonius ran in the Goodwood Cup for a third time, he finished second with Cremorne finishing tailed-off in third. In May 1886 The Sporting Times carried out a poll of one hundred racing experts to create a ranking of the best British racehorses of the 19th century. Favonius was ranked having been placed in the top ten by seven of the contributors, he was the third highest-placed Derby winner of the 1870s and the sixth highest British horse of his decade behind Isonomy. Favonius was retired to his owner’s Mentmore stud, he stood for only four seasons before his death from a form of "Typhoid fever" in August 1877 when he was valued at £12,000. His most notable offspring was Sir Bevys, who won the Derby in 1879
In ancient Greek religion and myth, the Anemoi were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction from which their respective winds came, were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions. The earliest attestation of the word in Greek and of the worship of the Winds by the Greeks, are the Mycenaean Greek word-forms, a-ne-mo-i-je-re-ja, a-ne-mo,i-je-re-ja, i.e. "Priestess of the Winds". These words, written in Linear B, are found on KN Fp 13 tablets; the Anemoi are subject to the god Aeolus. They were sometimes represented as gusts of wind, at other times were personified as winged men, they were sometimes depicted as horses kept in the stables of the storm god Aeolus, who provided Odysseus with the Anemoi in the Odyssey. The Spartans were reported to sacrifice a horse to the winds on Mount Taygetus. Astraeus, the astrological deity, Eos/Aurora, the goddess of the dawn, were the parents of the Anemoi, according to the Greek poet Hesiod. Of the four chief Anemoi, Boreas was the north wind and bringer of cold winter air, Zephyrus was the west wind and bringer of light spring and early-summer breezes, Notus was the south wind and bringer of the storms of late summer and autumn.
The deities equivalent to the Anemoi in Roman mythology were the Venti. These gods had different names, but were otherwise similar to their Greek counterparts, borrowing their attributes and being conflated with them. Boreas was the bringer of winter. Although taken as the north wind, the Roman writers Aulus Gellius and Pliny the Elder both took Boreas as a north-east wind, equivalent to the Roman Aquilo. Boreas is depicted as being strong, with a violent temper to match, he was shown as a winged old man with shaggy hair and beard, holding a conch shell and wearing a billowing cloak. Pausanias wrote that Boreas had snakes instead of feet, though in art he was depicted with winged human feet. Boreas' two sons Calaïs and Zetes, known as Boreads, were in the crew of the Argo as Argonauts. Boreas was associated with horses, he was said to have fathered twelve colts after taking the form of a stallion, to the mares of Erichthonius, king of Dardania. These were said to be able to run across a field of grain without trampling the plants.
Pliny the Elder thought that mares might stand with their hindquarters to the North Wind and bear foals without a stallion. The Greeks believed that his home was in Thrace, Herodotus and Pliny both describe a northern land known as Hyperborea "Beyond the North Wind" where people lived in complete happiness and had extraordinarily long lifespans, he is said to have fathered three giant Hyperborean priests of Apollo by Chione. Boreas was said to have kidnapped Orithyia, an Athenian princess, from the Ilisos. Boreas had taken a fancy to Orithyia and had pleaded for her favours, hoping to persuade her; when this failed, he reverted to his usual temper and abducted her as she danced on the banks of the Ilisos. Boreas wrapped Orithyia up in a cloud, married her, with her, Boreas fathered two sons—the Boreads and Calais—and two daughters—Chione, goddess of snow, Cleopatra.. From on, the Athenians saw Boreas as a relative by marriage; when Athens was threatened by Xerxes, the people prayed to Boreas, said to have caused winds to sink 400 Persian ships.
A similar event had occurred twelve years earlier, Herodotus writes: Now I cannot say if this was why the Persians were caught at anchor by the stormwind, but the Athenians are quite positive that, just as Boreas helped them before, so Boreas was responsible for what happened on this occasion also. And when they went home they built the god a shrine by the River Ilissus; the abduction of Orithyia was popular in Athens before and after the Persian War, was depicted on vase paintings. In these paintings, Boreas was portrayed as a bearded man in a tunic, with shaggy hair, sometimes frosted and spiked; the abduction was dramatized in Aeschylus's lost play Oreithyia. In other accounts, Boreas was the lover of the nymph Pitys. Boreas was claimed to have killed one of Apollo's many male lovers Hyacinthus out of jealousy. Boreas killed Hyacinthus by deflecting a discus that Hyacinthus had thrown straight into his head and killed him. Though his death was said to be an accident on Apollo's part many thought that Boreas was the true culprit.
The Roman equivalent of Boreas was Aquilo. This north wind was associated with winter; the poet Virgil writes: For the wind which came directly from the north the Romans sometimes used the name Septentrio. Zephyrus, sometimes known in English as just Zephyr, in Latin Favonius, is the Greek god of the west wind; the gentlest of the winds, Zephyrus is known as the messenger of spring. It was thought. Zephyrus was reported as having several wives in different stories, he was said to be the husband of goddess of the rainbow. He abducted the goddess Chloris, gave her the domain of flowers. With Chloris, he fathered Karpos, he is said to have vied for Chloris's love with his brother Boreas winning her
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.
Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.
According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.
Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. When one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited.
Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet
Marcus Favonius was a Roman politician during the period of the fall of the Roman Republic. He is noted for his imitation of Cato the Younger, his espousal of the Cynic philosophy, for his appearance as the Poet in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar. Favonius was born in around 90 BC in Tarracina, a Roman colony on the Appian Way at the edge of the Volscian Hills. Favonius, with the support of Cato, was chosen aedile at some time between 53 and 52 BC. According to Plutarch, Favonius stood to be chosen aedile, was like to lose it. Favonius was afterwards chosen aedile, Cato, who assisted him in all things that belonged to his office undertook the care of the spectacles that were exhibited in the theatre; as well as being chosen aedile, he was chosen quaestor and served as legatus in Sicily, "probably after his quaestorship". Although many classical reference works list Favonius as having been a praetor in 49 BC, it is a matter of some controversy whether or not he was a praetor at any time between 52–48 BC.
According to F. X. Ryan, in his 1994 article'The Praetorship of Favonius', the matter hinges on the meeting at the senate at which he bade Pompey "stamp on the ground". "When we are forced to decide whether a man who spoke at a meeting summoned by consuls was a praetor or a senator, all we can say is that probability favors the latter alternative." Cassius Dio wrote of Favonius' relation to Cato that Favonius "imitated him in everything", while Plutarch wrote that Favonius was "a fair character... who supposed his own petulance and abusive talking a copy of Cato's straightforwardness". An instance of his imitation of Cato's plainspeaking, ruder and more vehement than the behaviour of his model might have allowed came in 49 BC. At which Favonius "bade Pompey stamp upon the ground, call forth the forces he had promised". According to Plutarch, Favonius was known amongst his fellow Roman aristocrats as a Cynic because of his outspokenness, but a modern writer on Greek philosophy labels him as an "early representative of pseudo-Cynic type" who fell short of the ideal cynicism of the earliest Greek proponents of the doctrine.
Despite his "wild, vehement manner", Favonius was capable of acts of humility, such as he performed to Pompey when he entertained Deiotarus I of Galatia aboard ship. Pompey, for want of his servants, began to undo his shoes himself, which Favonius noticing, ran to him and undid them, helped him to anoint himself, always after continued to wait upon, attended him in all things, as servants do their masters to the washing of his feet and preparing his supper." Favonius was a member of the optimates faction within the Roman aristocracy. Bibulus and Lucius Domitius are dismissed as wicked and dishonourable while Cato is someone "whose versatile and clever talents I do not despise." The writer continues, In addition to those whom I have mentioned the party consists of nobles of utter incapacity, like an inscription, contribute nothing but a famous name. Men like Lucius Postumius and Marcus Favonius seem to me like the superfluous deckload of a great ship; when they arrive safely, some use can be made of them.
Like Cato, Favonius opposed the corruption of many of Rome's leading politicians in general and the rise of the First Triumvirate in particular. When Caesar returned from his praetorship in Spain in 59 BC and stood for consul, he allied himself with Pompey and Clodius. Following an incident in which Cato prevented Caesar from both having a triumph and standing for consulship by a filibustering tactic, after which Cato and Bibulus were physically attacked by Caesar's supporters, Caesar's party demanded two things of the senate: first, that it sign a law concerning the distribution of land. According to Plutarch, "heavy penalties were pronounced against such as would not take the oath", which in this case meant exile. A party led by Cicero and Bibulus, to which Cato and Favonius allied themselves, opposed these measures, but either swore the oath or abstained. Cato, feared these laws and the oath as not being for the common good but as extensions of the power of Caesar and Pompey. All senators except Cato and Favonius agreed to Caesar and Pompeys's measures, whereupon Cicero made an oration urging Cato to soften his attitude.
According to Plutarch, The one, most successful in persuading and inducing him to take the oath was Cicero the orator, who advised and showed him that it was even a wrong thing to think himself alone in duty bound to disobey the general will.