Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical and decorative usage in, for example, window panes and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are silicate glasses based on the chemical compound silica, the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material. Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their use as window panes. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can be painted and printed with vitreous enamels and these qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures, because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels, vases, bottles and drinking glasses.
In its most solid forms it has used for paperweights, marbles. Some objects historically were so commonly made of glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses and these sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica, metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses are a lighter alternative than traditional glass, silica is a common fundamental constituent of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure SiO2. It has excellent resistance to shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. However, its high melting-temperature and viscosity make it difficult to work with, other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate, which lowers the transition temperature.
The soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is undesirable, so lime, some magnesium oxide. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass, soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties, lead glass or flint glass is more brilliant because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium increases the refractive index, iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared energy, for example in heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths
Anchor Hocking Company is a manufacturer of glassware that is part of EveryWare Global Inc. The Hocking Glass Company was founded in 1905 by Isaac Jacob Collins in Lancaster and that company merged with the AnchorCap and Closure Corporations in 1937. From 1937-1983 the company operated the oldest glass manufacturing facility in the United States, established in 1863, in Salem, plant #44 is located in Monaca, Pennsylvania. It had facilities in Elmira, New York and Streator, in 1987, the Newell Company acquired Anchor Hocking Corporation. The company was the sponsor of the radio drama Casey, Crime Photographer, Anchor Hocking and their headquarters in Lancaster, Ohio, is a focus of Brian Alexanders book Glass House. The company was a producer of Depression glass. The first glassware produced as Anchor Hocking Glass Company was Royal Ruby in 1939, in addition, Anchor Hocking produced Forest Green Glass, Fire-King and Anchor Ovenware. Newell Company Official website Webpage showing some marks used by Anchor Hocking
Edinburgh Crystal was a cut glass crystal manufactured in Scotland between 1867 and 2006, and was the name of the manufacturing company. In addition to drinking glasses, Edinburgh Crystal made decanters, baskets, the company produced the glass panels for the lamps on the royal carriages. The Edinburgh Crystal company went into administration in 2006 and following its subsequent acquisition by Waterford Wedgwood, there were many ranges of glassware but at the collectable end there were just four in the former Connoisseur Collection. Star of Edinburgh – decorated with a star-burst pattern, thistle – the tops of these pieces are shaped in accordance with the thistle theme while the body is stippled. King James – glassware in this range is notable for the stems and neck. Lochnagar – Lochnagar was introduced during the reign of Queen Victoria, for several years students from Wolverhampton University and the Edinburgh College of Art were employed, for periods of 12–15 months, to work in the design department.
This provided the students work experience while inputting new design ideas. The Edge range came out of this collaboration and this visitor centre, now closed, hosted around 100,000 people, each year, who came to Penicuik to see how the glass was made. It was situated off the A701 in Penicuik, OS ref, Glass container manufacturing can be traced back for at least 400 years. However, it was only in the 19th century that commercial companies appeared on the scene, amongst them, in 1867, the Edinburgh and Leith Flint Glass Company was established. Alexander Dixson Jenkinson took over the business upon the death of his father in 1880, alexander Jenkinson died in 1909 and the business was inherited by Stanley Noel Jenkinson. 1921 saw Thomas Webb and Sons Limited of Stourbridge, West Midlands,1955 brought a name change from the Edinburgh and Leith Flint Glass Company to The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company. Further corporate activity took place in 1964 when Crown House Limited acquired The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company and Thomas Webb, during 1969, there was a move to a site of over 7 acres in Penicuik, some 10 miles from Edinburgh.
Then in 1971 Edinburgh Crystal and Thomas Webb merged with Dema Glass, Thomas Webb and Sons and The Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company traded well resulting in 1987 in being incorporated into the Coloroll Group. After Coloroll went bankrupt, Caledonia Investments, with the support of senior managers, led a buy-out of the Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company, the new company moved all manufacturing and distribution to its site in Penicuik. In April 2004, Edinburgh Crystal bought Caithness Glass from the receivers Deloitte, Caithness are notable for paperweights and the trophy presented to the winner of the BBCs Mastermind programme. On 21 May 2006 the offices of the headquarters were burnt out, on 26 July 2006 the Edinburgh Crystal Glass Company Ltd went into administration. Its two subsidiaries, the Caithness Glass Company Ltd and Selkirk Glass Ltd, continued to trade, on 31 July 2006,300 of Edinburgh Crystals 450 workforce were made redundant
The Guardian Building is a landmark skyscraper in the United States, located at 500 Griswold Street in Downtown Detroit, within the Financial District. The Guardian is an office building owned by Wayne County, Michigan. Built in 1928 and finished in 1929, the building was called the Union Trust Building and is a bold example of Art Deco architecture. At the top of the Guardian Buildings spire is a large American Flag, the building has undergone recent award-winning renovations. It was designated a National Historic Landmark on June 29,1989, the Guardian building includes retail and a tourist gift shop. The main frame of the skyscraper rises 36 stories, capped by two spires, one extending for four additional stories. The roof height of the building is 496 ft, the top floor is 489 feet, rowland, of the Smith, Hinchman & Grylls firm, was the buildings architect. The building rises from a granite and stone six story base with two Corrado Parducci created sculptures flanking the Griswold Street entrance, the exterior blends brickwork with tile and terra cotta.
Rowlands attention to detail was meticulous and he supervised the creation of the colored brick cladding to achieve the desired color for the exterior. Afterward, the brick was marketed by the manufacturer as Union Trust Brick and after 1939, rowland designed furniture for the banks offices and his attention went as far as designing tableware and waitress uniforms for a restaurant in the building. The buildings three story, vaulted lobby is decorated with Pewabic and Rookwood tile. The semi-circular exterior domes are filled with Pewabic Pottery, Mary Chase Perry Stratton worked closely with the architect in the design of the symbolic decorations. A Monel metal screen divides the lobby from the hall on the second floor. The building includes works by muralist Ezra Winter in the mosaic above the lobby desk. The mural highlight’s Michigan’s industries such as manufacturing and mining, in order to dampen the sound in the banking hall, its cement-plaster ceiling features a hand-painted canvas ceiling, which was stretched over a mat of horsehair.
During World War II, the Guardian Building served as the U. S Army Command Center for war time production, the Guardian served various tenants as an office building in downtown Detroit. In 1982 it became the headquarters of Michigan Consolidated Gas Company subsequent to the divestiture of MichCon by ANR Company in 1981, under the leadership of President and COO Stephen E. Ewing, MichCon restored the lobby and vaulted ceilings on the first floor in 1986. It would stay MichCons to be called MCN Energy Group headquarters until the merger of MCN with DTE Energy in 2001 and it was sold by DTE to a local real estate developer, the Sterling Group, in 2002
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Maxfield Parrish was an American painter and illustrator active in the first half of the 20th century. He is known for his distinctive saturated hues and idealized neo-classical imagery, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he was the son of painter and etcher Stephen Parrish. He began drawing for his own amusement as a child and he was raised in a Quaker society. His given name was Frederick Parrish, but he adopted the maiden name of his paternal grandmother, Maxfield, as his middle name. Young Parrishs parents encouraged his talent, in 1884, his parents took Parrish to Europe. He toured England and France, Parrish was exposed to architecture and the paintings from the old masters. During their travels, Parrish studied at the Paris school of a Dr. Kornemann and he attended the Haverford School, Haverford College in 1888. He studied architecture there for two years, from 1892 to 1895, he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts to further his education in art. He studied under artists Robert Vonnoh and Thomas Pollock Anshutz, after graduating from the program, Parrish went to Annisquam, Massachusetts where he and his father shared a painting studio.
A year later, he attended the Drexel Institute of Art, Parrish entered into an artistic career that lasted for more than half a century, and which helped shape the Golden Age of illustration and American visual arts. During his career, he produced almost 900 pieces of art including calendars, greeting cards, Parrishs early works were mostly in black and white. In 1885, his work was on the Easter edition of Harper’s Bazaar and he did work for other magazines like Scribners Magazine. He illustrated a book in 1897, Mother Goose in Prose written by L. Frank Baum. By 1900, Parrish was already a member of the Society of American Artists, in 1903, he traveled to Europe again to visit Italy. Parrish took many commissions for commercial art until the 1920s, Parrishs commercial art included many prestigious projects, among which were Eugene Fields Poems of Childhood in 1904, and such traditional works as Arabian Nights in 1909. Books illustrated by Parrish are featured in A Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales in 1910, The Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics in 1911, Parrish worked with popular magazines throughout the 1910s and 1920s, including Hearsts and Life.
He worked with a number of advertising companies like Wanamakers, Edison-Mazda Lamps, Parrish worked with Colliers from 1904 to 1913. He received a contract to deal with exclusively for six years and he painted advertisements for D. M
Curtis Publishing Company
The Curtis Publishing Company, founded in 1891 in Philadelphia, became one of the largest and most influential publishers in the United States during the early 20th century. The companys publications included the Ladies Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post, The American Home, Jack & Jill, in the 1940s, Curtis had a comic book imprint, Novelty Press. The Curtis Publishing Company was founded in 1891 by publisher Cyrus H. K. Curtis, who published the Peoples Ledger, a news magazine he had begun in Boston in 1872 and moved to Philadelphia in 1876. He had established the Tribune and Farmer in 1879, from the section of which he fashioned the Ladies Home Journal under the editorship of his wife, Louisa Knapp. These publications were taken under the imprimatur of the new company, macNeal announced that the company had lost money for the first time since its incorporation more than seven decades before. Perfect Film loaned the company $5 million in 1968 at the request of Curtiss primary loan holder, First National Bank of Boston, to extend its loans.
Curtis sold its Philadelphia headquarters to real estate developer John W. Merriam for $7.3 million to pay off most of the First National loan, it leased half of the building back. In 1968, Curtis Publishing sold the Ladies Home Journal and The American Home to Downe Communications for $5.4 million in stock, and sold the stock for cash to operate with. Six million Post subscribers were sold to Life for cash, a $2.5 million loan, despite these attempts to revive the Saturday Evening Post, and with no purchaser for the magazine, Curtis Publishing shut down the magazine in 1969. In March 1969, the Federal Trade Commission directs Curtis to offer refunds for unfulfilled portions of Post subscriptions. Perfect Film purchased Curtis Circulation Company that same year, in 1976, The Saturday Evening Post Society was spun off from Curtis to publish its flagship magazine and U. S. Kids was formed which publishes their portfolio of childrens magazines, in 1910 the company built its headquarters building at the intersection of South Sixth and Walnut Streets about 200 feet southwest of Independence Hall.
The building was designed by Edgar Viguers Seeler in the Beaux Arts style, the square-block building stretches from South Sixth to South Seventh Street east to west and from Sansom Street to Walnut Street north to south. The building was renovated in 1990 by Oldham and Seltz and John Milner Associates, the mosaic required 100,000 pieces of hand-fixed favrile glass in 260 different colors. In 1998, the mosaic was sold to casino owner Steve Wynn and this was blocked by local historians and art lovers who raised $3.5 million to prevent the move. The money was provided by the Pew Charitable Trusts to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, FBI file on the Curtis Publishing Company
Corning Incorporated is an American manufacturer of glass and related materials, primarily for industrial and scientific applications. The company was known as Corning Glass Works until 1989, when it changed its name to Corning Incorporated. In 1998, Corning divested itself of its lines of CorningWare and Corelle tableware and Pyrex cookware selling them to World Kitchen. As of 2014, Corning had five business sectors, Display Technologies, Environmental Technologies, Life Sciences, Optical Communications. Corning is involved in two joint ventures, Dow Corning and Pittsburgh Corning, quest Diagnostics and Covance were spun off from Corning in 1996. Corning Glass Works was founded in 1851 by Amory Houghton, in Somerville, Massachusetts and it moved to Williamsburg, New York, and operated as the Brooklyn Flint Glass Works. The company moved again to its home and namesake, the city of Corning, New York, in 1868 under leadership of the founders son, Amory Houghton. Over 147 years later, Corning continues to maintain its headquarters at Corning.
The firm established one of the first industrial research labs there in 1908 and it continues to expand the nearby research and development facility, as well as operations associated with catalytic converters and diesel engine filter product lines. Corning has a history of community development and has assured community leaders that it intends to remain headquartered in its small upstate New York hometown. The California Institute of Technologys 200-inch telescope mirror at Palomar Observatory was cast by Corning during 1934–1936 out of low expansion borosilicate glass, in 1932, George Ellery Hale approached Corning with the challenge of fabricating the required optic for his Palomar project. A previous effort to fabricate the optic from fused quartz had failed, Cornings first attempt was a failure, the cast blank having voids. Using lessons learned, Corning was successful in the casting of the second blank, after a year of cooling, during which it was almost lost to a flood, in 1935 the blank was completed.
The first blank now resides in Cornings Museum of Glass, in 1935, Corning formed a partnership with bottle maker Owens-Illinois, which formed the company known today as Owens Corning. Owens Corning was spun off as a company in 1938. The company had a history of science-based innovations following World War II, Corning developed it as an alternative to laminated windshields with the intention of becoming an automotive industry supplier. As there were no mandatory safety standards for motor vehicle windshields, Corning terminated its windshield project in 1971, after it turned out to be one of the companys biggest and most expensive failures. However, like many Corning innovations, the process to manufacture this automotive glass was resurrected and is today the basis of their very profitable LCD glass business
Syrias capital and largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Sunnis, Alawites, Mandeans, Salafis, Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, in the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a number of military coups. In 1958, Syria entered a union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, in the past, others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon.
However, the discovery of the inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. The area designated by the word has changed over time, since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic, archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps preceded by only those of Mesopotamia. The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla near present-day Idlib, gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Eblas contact with Egypt. One of the earliest written texts from Syria is an agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c.2300 BC.
The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages, Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia, Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet. The Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC, Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon. Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh, the Hurrians states, the army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam
Ardagh Group is a Luxembourg-based producer of glass and metal products. It was founded in 1932 as the Irish Glass Bottle Company, in 1999 it expanded by buying Rockware Glass and in 2007 by buying the Rexam Glass Division. In 2011 Ardagh Group bought the packaging company Impress Group for €1. 7bn. In August 2012, the company acquired Anchor Glass in an $880 million transaction, in January 2013, Ardagh Group agreed to acquire St-Gobains Verallia North America for €1.275 billion. The company operates 89 facilities in 22 countries, employs approximately 23,500 people and has approximately €7.7 billion in revenue, Ardagh Glass profits surge 150pc to €43. 6m