The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation; the Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, being annexed by the United States. The revolution began in October 1835, after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas; the Mexican government had become centralized and the rights of its citizens had become curtailed regarding immigration from the United States.
Colonists and Tejanos disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the war's motives, Texians and a flood of volunteers from the United States defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835; the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to retake Texas, his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered.
Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar, where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing all of the defenders. A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston was on the move, while terrified civilians fled with the army, in a melee known as the Runaway Scrape. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groce's Landing on the Brazos River, for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his vanguard force at the Battle of San Jacinto; the Mexican troops were routed, vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s; the annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, led directly to the Mexican–American War.
After a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, Spanish Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. On the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States claimed the land west of the Sabine River, all the way to the Rio Grande. From 1812 to 1813 anti-Spanish republicans and U. S. filibusters rebelled against the Spanish Empire in what is known today as the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition during the Mexican War of Independence. They won battles in the beginning and captured many Texas cities from the Spanish that led to a declaration of independence of the state of Texas as part of the Mexican Republic on April 17, 1813; the new Texas government and army met their doom in the Battle of Medina in August 1813, 20 miles south of San Antonio, where 1,300 of the 1,400 rebel army were killed in battle or executed shortly afterwards by royalist soldiers.
It was the deadliest single battle in Texas history. 300 republican government officials in San Antonio were captured and executed by the Spanish royalists shortly after the battle. What is significant is a Spanish royalist lieutenant named Antonio López de Santa Anna fought in this battle and followed his superiors' orders to take no prisoners. Another interesting note is two founding fathers of the Republic of Texas and future signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836, José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruiz, took part in the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition. Although the United States renounced that claim as part of the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain in 1819, many Americans continued to believe that Texas should belong to their nation, over the next decade the United States made several offers to purchase the region. Following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, the provinces of Texas and Coahuila were combined to become the state Coahuila y Tejas.
Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. After months of grumbling by Tejanos outraged at the loss of their political autonomy, state officials agreed to make Tex
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Lavaca County, Texas
Lavaca County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 19,263, its county seat is Hallettsville. The county was created in 1846, it is named for the Lavaca River which curves its way South East through Moulton and Hallettsville before reaching the coast at Matagorda Bay. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 970 square miles, of which 970 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 77 U. S. Highway 77 Alternate U. S. Highway 90 Alternate State Highway 95 State Highway 111 Fayette County Colorado County Jackson County Victoria County DeWitt County Gonzales County As of the census of 2000, there were 19,210 people, 7,669 households, 5,391 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 9,657 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.86% White, 6.79% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.84% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races.
11.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.0% were of Czech, 24.1% German, 9.1% American and 5.1% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 86.3 % spoke 7.7 % Spanish, 4.6 % Czech and 1.2 % German as their first language. In terms of ancestry in 2016, 32.8% were of German, 30.7% were of Czech, 10.8% were of Irish, 5.4% were of English, 3.4% were of American, 2.2% were of French. There were 7,669 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.70% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 23.50% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 21.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,132, the median income for a family was $36,760. Males had a median income of $26,988 versus $17,537 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,398. About 10.20% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.20% of those under age 18 and 18.40% of those age 65 or over. The following school public school districts are located in Lavaca County. Hallettsville Independent School District Moulton Independent School District Shiner Independent School District Sweet Home Independent School District Vysehrad Independent School District Yoakum Independent School District Ezzell Independent School District Hallettsville Shiner Yoakum Moulton Breslau Sweet Home Speaks Sublime Lavaca County Texas is a conservative County and has been getting more conservative since 1992; the last Democrat to win the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976.
List of museums in South Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Lavaca County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Lavaca County Lavaca County website Lavaca County from the Handbook of Texas Online https://web.archive.org/web/20101205061757/http://www.tamu.edu/ccbn/dewitt/freelavaca.htm
Lee County, Texas
Lee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 16,612, its county seat is Giddings. The county is named for the first settler of the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 634 square miles, of which 629 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 77 U. S. Highway 290 State Highway 21 Milam County Burleson County Washington County Fayette County Bastrop County Williamson County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,657 people, 5,663 households, 4,150 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 6,851 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.59% White, 12.08% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 8.87% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 18.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.5% were of German and 8.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000.
80.1% spoke English, 14.4% Spanish and 5.1% German as their first language. There were 5,663 households out of which 35.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.00% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.80% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,280, the median income for a family was $42,073. Males had a median income of $30,635 versus $21,611 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,163.
About 9.70% of families and 11.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.70% of those under age 18 and 16.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, Lee County has a similar ethnic makeup relative to the overall United States. Lee County was Democratic, although less so than the majority of Texas as it was somewhat allied with the isolated Republican German-American Unionist stronghold centred upon Gillespie and Kendall Counties, it nonetheless voted Democratic in every election up to 1976 except the landslide Republican triumphs of 1956 and 1972, plus the war-influenced elections of 1916 and 1940 when its German-American population was suspicious of the Democratic Party's position towards Germany. Since 1980, like all of the rural White South, Lee County has become powerfully Republican. No Democratic Presidential candidate has won a majority in the county since Jimmy Carter in 1976, although during the drought- and farm crisis-dominated 1988 election Michael Dukakis won a fourteen-vote plurality.
In the past five elections the GOP candidate has always passed two third of the county's vote and Donald Trump exceeded three-quarters in 2016. The Texas Youth Commission operates the Giddings State School in unincorporated Lee County, near Giddings; as of 2004 the Giddings State School, a Texas Youth Commission facility, was Lee County's largest employer. Giddings Lexington Corinth Dime Box Hills Lincoln Old Dime Box Serbin List of memorials to Robert E. Lee National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Lee County Lee County Lee County from the Handbook of Texas Online
Colorado County, Texas
Colorado County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 20,874, its county seat is Columbus. It is named for the Colorado River of Texas; the county was organized the next year. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 974 square miles, of which 960 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. Interstate 10 U. S. Highway 90 U. S. Highway 90 Alternate State Highway 71 Austin County Wharton County Jackson County Lavaca County Fayette County Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 20,390 people, 7,641 households, 5,402 families residing in the county; the population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 9,431 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 72.79% White, 14.80% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 10.04% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races.
19.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,641 households out of which 31.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 23.80% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, 18.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,425, the median income for a family was $41,388. Males had a median income of $30,063 versus $20,014 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,910.
About 12.30% of families and 16.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.00% of those under age 18 and 15.80% of those age 65 or over. Columbus Eagle Lake Weimar Glidden Osage Pisek Provident City Like many southern counties, Colorado County was predominantly Democratic prior to the 1960s and predominantly Republican since then; the last Democrat to carry the state was Jimmy Carter in 1976. List of museums in East Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Colorado County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Colorado County Colorado County government’s website Colorado County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Weimar Information and Events Columbus Information and Events