Fayette Township, Linn County, Iowa
Fayette Township was organized in 1841.
|This article about the geography of Linn County, Iowa is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Fayette Township was organized in 1841.
|This article about the geography of Linn County, Iowa is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Civil township – A civil township is a widely used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries often coincide and may completely geographically subdivide a county, the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. Currently, there are 20 states with civil townships, Township functions are generally overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers frequently include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor, constable, in the 20th century many townships also added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases townships run local libraries, senior services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance. Depending on the state, the government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are often, the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases even within a state. Most townships in Illinois also provide such as snow removal, senior transportation. The townships in Illinois each have a board, whose board members were formerly called township trustees. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee. Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, and nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as towns rather than townships, in Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form Name Township. In both documents and conversation, town and township are used interchangeably, Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the townships name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township, where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality. Ten other states also allow townships and municipalities to overlap, in Kansas some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are fully functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services, while counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few areas of New Hampshire, Vermont and Maine
2. Linn County, Iowa – Linn County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 211,226, the county seat is Cedar Rapids. Linn county is named in honor of Senator Lewis F. Linn of Missouri, Linn County is included in the Cedar Rapids, IA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Linn County was created as a named but unorganized area on December 21,1837 and it became part of Iowa Territory on July 4,1838 when the territory was organized. Linn County was organized by the first legislative assembly of the Iowa Territory on January 15,1839, a site was selected for its first county seat along Indian Creek, and was named Marion, after the Revolutionary War general Francis Marion. The first rail line was built through Cedar Rapids in 1859, many areas of the county were damaged by the flooding of Cedar River in June 2008. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 725 square miles. Interstate 380 Iowa Highway 27 U. S. Highway 30 U. S. Highway 151 U. S. 4163/sq mi, there were 92,251 housing units, of which 86,134 were occupied. As of the census of 2000, there were 191,701 people,76,753 households, the population density was 267 people per square mile. There were 80,551 housing units at a density of 112 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93. 90% White,2. 57% Black or African American,0. 22% Native American,1. 37% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,0. 46% from other races, and 1. 44% from two or more races. 1. 42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,27. 50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the family size was 2.99. Age spread,25. 30% under the age of 18,10. 10% from 18 to 24,30. 30% from 25 to 44,22. 10% from 45 to 64, the median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 96.10 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,206, males had a median income of $38,525 versus $26,403 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,977, about 4. 30% of families and 6. 50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7. 60% of those under age 18 and 6. 40% of those age 65 or over. The supervisors serve overlapping 4-year terms, the current supervisors are, The Board of Supervisors is a governing and policy-making entity of the Linn County government
3. Iowa – Iowa is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River on the east and the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River on the west. Surrounding states include Wisconsin and Illinois to the east, Missouri to the south, Nebraska and South Dakota to the west, in colonial times, Iowa was a part of French Louisiana and Spanish Louisiana, its state flag is patterned after the flag of France. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in area and the 30th most populous of the 50 United States. Its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines, Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in which to live. Its nickname is the Hawkeye State, Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east, the Missouri River and the Big Sioux River on the west, Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed entirely by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties, but 100 county seats because Lee County has two, the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowas bedrock geology generally increases in age from west to east, in northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old, in eastern Iowa Cambrian bedrock dates to c.500 million years ago. Iowa is generally not flat, most of the consists of rolling hills. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils, topography, Loess hills lie along the western border of the state, some of which are several hundred feet thick. Northeast Iowa along the Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Zone, consisting of steep hills, several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, and East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake, man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, and Rathbun Lake. The states northwest area has remnants of the once common wetlands. Iowas natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture, crops cover 60% of the state, grasslands cover 30%, as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Meads milkweed, prairie bush clover, the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. Iowa has a continental climate throughout the state
4. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation
5. County seat – A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Canada, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name. Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, Mississippi, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont, Massachusetts, and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town. Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county
6. Cedar Rapids, Iowa – Cedar Rapids /ˈsiːdər ˈræpᵻdz/ is the second largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County. The city lies on both banks of the Cedar River,20 miles north of Iowa City and 100 miles northeast of Des Moines and it is a part of the Cedar Rapids/Iowa City Corridor of Linn, Benton, Cedar, Jones, Johnson, and Washington counties. Cedar Rapids is a hub of the state, located in the core of the Interstate 380. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city population was 126,326, the estimated population of the three-county Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes the nearby cities of Marion and Hiawatha, was 255,452 in 2008. In the 1990s and 2000s, Hollywood would feature several Cedar Rapidians including actors Bobby Driscoll, Ashton Kutcher, Elijah Wood, the city is also the setting for the musical The Pajama Game and the comedy film Cedar Rapids. Cedar Rapids is nicknamed the City of Five Seasons, for the fifth season, the symbol of the five seasons is the Tree of Five Seasons sculpture in downtown along the north river bank. The name Five Seasons and representations of the sculpture throughout the city in many forms. The location of present-day Cedar Rapids was in the territory of the Fox, the first permanent settler, Osgood Shepherd, arrived in 1838. When Cedar Rapids was first established in 1838, William Stone named the town Columbus, in 1841 it was resurveyed and renamed by N. B. They named the town Cedar Rapids for the rapids in the Cedar River at the site, Cedar Rapids was incorporated on January 15,1849. Cedar Rapids annexed the community of Kingston in 1870, the economic growth of Cedar Rapids increased in 1871 upon the founding of the Sinclair meatpacking company. In 2010, the Census Bureau reported Cedar Rapids population as 87. 98% white, and 5. 58% black. During the Iowa flood of 2008, the Cedar River reached a high of 31.12 feet on June 13,2008. 1,126 city blocks were flooded, or more than 10 square miles,561 city blocks were severely damaged and this is 14% of the citys total area. It is estimated 1300 or more properties are to be demolished in the Cedar Rapids area because of the flood, more than 4000 members of the Iowa National Guard were called up to assist the city. The temporary levies became saturated not only with the flood waters, the inundation of southern Minnesota, central and western Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa by Hurricane Paines remnants began on September 21 and 22 and continued until the end of September 2016. This cresting in Cedar Rapids was below the estimate of 25 feet and the revised estimate of 23 feet. This flood was above levels considered to have about a 1 percent chance of occurring in a given year
7. City – A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted. In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses. Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost. To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. OFlaherty then asks that we suppose the protected area is square, the advantage is expressed as, O = s 2, where O is the output and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side, the inputs depend on the length of the perimeter, I =4 s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. So there are increasing returns to scale, O = I2 /16 and this equation shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output
8. Alburnett, Iowa – Alburnett is a city in Linn County, Iowa, United States. The population was 673 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Cedar Rapids Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1887, the Illinois Central Railroad was built through Linn Countys Otter Creek township, in the winter of that year a depot was built on land donated by Albert Burnett. Because he had land for the depot, the name Burnett was chosen for its identification. Business interests began to center around the depot because the railroad offered an outlet to both the north and the south, and because of its proximity to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Burnett and his wife soon began to plat a community. Meanwhile, landowner Michael Weislogel began to lay out lots a short distance to the south and this community, called Trentham, was the site of the first general store and post office. However, because state law dictated that a depot and post office in the same community must carry the same name. Mail delivery problems soon developed between Burnett and the community of Bennett in Cedar County, consequently, Al Burnett changed the name to Alburnett. Alburnett was incorporated in 1912, becoming the municipality in Otter Creek Township. The first elected mayor was C. E. Hense, alburnetts longitude and latitude coordinates in decimal form are 42.149257, -91.619618. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 0.82 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 673 people,243 households, the population density was 820.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 252 housing units at a density of 307.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98. 1% White,0. 4% Native American, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 2% of the population. 20. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.24. The median age in the city was 35.5 years. 31. 5% of residents were under the age of 18,6. 1% were between the ages of 18 and 24,27. 1% were from 25 to 44,23. 7% were from 45 to 64, and 11. 6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49. 9% male and 50. 1% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 559 people,199 households, and 152 families residing in the city
9. Bertram, Iowa – Bertram is a city in Linn County, Iowa, United States. The population was 294 at the 2010 census, Bertram is part of the Cedar Rapids Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bertram was laid out in 1858 as an outgrowth on the railroad, john Bertram, who was instrumental in bringing the railroad there. Bertram is located at 41°57′00″N 91°32′04″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.68 square miles, all of it land. Located on the Union Pacific Railroad main line, which has a large trestle over Big Creek. Bertram is also close to Palisades-Kepler State Park, Bertram Bridge, which also spans Big Creek is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As of the census of 2010, there were 294 people,106 households, the population density was 175.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 114 housing units at a density of 67.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98. 0% White,1. 4% African American, hispanic or Latino of any race were 3. 4% of the population. 18. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the city was 46 years. 28. 9% of residents were under the age of 18,5. 5% were between the ages of 18 and 24, 15% were from 25 to 44, 31% were from 45 to 64, and 19. 7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 57. 1% male and 42. 9% female, as of the incorrect census of 2000, there were 681 people,98 households, and 76 families residing in the city. The population density was 533.5 people per square mile, there were 101 housing units at an average density of 79.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96. 18% White,1. 91% African American,0. 15% Native American,0. 15% Asian,0. 15% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 47% of the population. 18. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.66. The age spread is 10. 7% under the age of 18,62. 4% from 18 to 24,7. 9% from 25 to 44,14. 7% from 45 to 64, the median age was 21 years. For every 100 females there were 112.8 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.3 males
10. Center Point, Iowa – Center Point is a city in Linn County, Iowa, United States. The population was 2,421 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Cedar Rapids Metropolitan Statistical Area. The first house was built in Center Point in 1854, Center Point is located at 42°11′26″N 91°46′57″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.60 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,421 people,887 households, the population density was 931.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 942 housing units at a density of 362.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97. 1% White,0. 9% African American,0. 4% Native American,0. 3% Asian,0. 3% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 4% of the population. 20. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.15. The median age in the city was 34.7 years. 31. 8% of residents were under the age of 18,5. 7% were between the ages of 18 and 24,30. 6% were from 25 to 44,22. 8% were from 45 to 64, and 9. 1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49. 9% male and 50. 1% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 2,007 people,765 households, and 550 families residing in the city. The population density was 834.5 people per square mile, there were 789 housing units at an average density of 328.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98. 36% White,0. 45% African American,0. 05% Native American,0. 10% Asian,0. 15% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 35% of the population. 23. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.11. Age spread,30. 4% under the age of 18,6. 5% from 18 to 24,33. 7% from 25 to 44,18. 4% from 45 to 64, the median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 95.4 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $48,352, males had a median income of $36,702 versus $25,601 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,527, about 3. 2% of families and 4. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5. 4% of those under age 18 and 9. 0% of those age 65 or over