History of Japan
It is widely accepted that first Human habitation in the Japanese archipelago traced back to prehistoric times. The Jōmon period, named after its cord-marked pottery, was followed by the Yayoi in the first millennium BC, during this period, in the first century AD, the first known written reference to Japan was recorded in the Chinese Book of Han. Between the fourth century and the century, Japans many kingdoms and tribes gradually came to be unified under a centralized government. The imperial dynasty established at this time continues to reign over Japan to this day, in 794, a new imperial capital was established at Heian-kyō, marking the beginning of the Heian period, which lasted until 1185. The Heian period is considered an age of classical Japanese culture. Japanese religious life from time and onwards was a mix of Buddhism. Over the following centuries the power of the Emperor and the imperial court gradually declined and passed to the military clans, the Minamoto clan under Minamoto no Yoritomo emerged victorious from the Genpei War of 1180–85.
After seizing power, Yoritomo set up his capital in Kamakura, in 1274 and 1281, the Kamakura shogunate withstood two Mongol invasions, but in 1333 it was toppled by a rival claimant to the shogunate, ushering in the Muromachi period. During the Muromachi period regional warlords called daimyō grew in power at the expense of the shogun, Japan descended into a period of civil war. Over the course of the sixteenth century, Japan was reunified under the leadership of the daimyō Oda Nobunaga. After Hideyoshis death in 1598, Tokugawa Ieyasu came to power and was appointed shogun by the Emperor, the Tokugawa shogunate, which governed from Edo, presided over a prosperous and peaceful era known as the Edo period. The Tokugawa shogunate imposed a strict class system on Japanese society, the American Perry Expedition in 1853–54 ended Japans seclusion, this in turn contributed to the fall of the shogunate and the return of power to the Emperor in 1868. The new national leadership of the following Meiji period transformed their isolated, underdeveloped island country into an empire that closely followed Western models and became a world power.
Although democracy developed and modern civilian culture prospered during the Taishō period, Japans powerful military had great autonomy, the military invaded Manchuria in 1931, and from 1937 the conflict escalated into a prolonged war with China. Japans attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 led to war with the United States, Japans forces soon became overextended, but the military held out in spite of Allied air attacks that inflicted severe damage on population centers. Japans unconditional surrender was announced by Emperor Hirohito on 14 August 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Allies occupied Japan until 1952, during which a new constitution was enacted in 1947 that transformed Japan into a constitutional monarchy, after 1955, Japan enjoyed very high economic growth, and became a world economic powerhouse. Since the 1990s, economic stagnation has been a major issue, an earthquake and tsunami in 2011 caused massive economic dislocations and a serious nuclear power disaster
Oath of Fealty (novel)
Oath of Fealty is a 1981 novel by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, published originally by Phantasia Press, by Timescape Books, with numerous reprints. The novel popularized the phrase think of it as evolution in action, the novel anticipated the building of the Los Angeles Subway. It was included in David Pringles book Science Fiction, The 100 Best Novels, in the near future, a race riot results in the destruction of an area just outside Los Angeles. The city sells the rights to a private company, which constructs an arcology. The higher standard of living enjoyed by Todos Santos residents causes resentment among Angelenos, the arcology dwellers have evolved a different culture, sacrificing privacy - there are cameras even in the private apartments - in exchange for security. The residents are fiercely loyal to the arcology and its management, during the course of the novel, Todos Santos is compared to a feudal society, with loyalty and obligations running both ways, hence the title. The systems at the arcology are run by MILLIE, a computer system.
Other workers in the work by telepresence, including one woman who remotely operates construction equipment on a lunar base. Todos Santos causes resentment among Angelenos, but has improved their lives as well, the company that owns the arcology tows icebergs in, solving the water shortage for all Southern Californians. Todos Santos has dug a Los Angeles subway using a digging machine, Todos Santos is at the hub of the subway system, and contains a huge mall, which Angelenos may visit. This easy access causes Los Angeles city officials to complain about the shopping dollars, as the story opens, three young Angelenos sneak into the maintenance areas of Todos Santos. When they are detected by Todos Santos security systems and personnel, they give every appearance of being terrorists, when non-lethal means of stopping the three fail, Deputy Manager Preston Sanders orders lethal gas released rather than risk a bomb going off. Two of the intruders are killed and they turn out to be youths, with high tech equipment and boxes with such labels as bomb, but without the actual means of harming the arcology.
The deaths of the two youths cause political problems, while arcology manager Art Bonner is quite prepared to defy the city authorities, Sanders turns himself in. The arcology is forced to turn off its lethal defenses as the FROMATEs planned, while city authorities are still reacting to this, the arcology launches a jailbreak, the idea of chief engineer Tony Rand. They tunnel under the jail, release gas into the jail. In effect, Todos Santos has won, if only by restoring the status quo ante, notable Quote, Think of it as Evolution in Action It was chosen as one of the 100 best science fiction novels from 1949-1984, by critic David Pringle. It has been nominated numerous times for a Prometheus Award for best classic libertarian science fiction novel, Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle, Oath of Fealty
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
A commendation ceremony is a formal ceremony that evolved during the Early Medieval period to create a bond between a lord and his fighting man, called his vassal. The first recorded ceremony of commendatio was in 7th century France, but the relationship of vassalage was older, the lords man might be born unfree, but the commendatio freed him. When two men entered into a relationship, they underwent a ceremony known as commendation ceremony. The purpose of the commendation was to make a person a vassal of a lord. The commendation ceremony is composed of two elements, one to perform the act of homage and the other an oath of fealty, in some countries, such as the Kingdom of Sicily, the commendation ceremony came to be referred to as investiture. The would-be vassal appeared bareheaded and weaponless as a sign of his submission to the will of the lord, the vassal would clasp his hands before him in the ultimate sign of submission, the typical Christian prayer pose, and would stretch his clasped hands outward to his lord.
The lord in turn grasped the vassals hands between his own, showing he was the superior in the relationship, an act known variously as the immixtio manuum, Handgang. The vassal would announce he wished to become the man, the act of homage was complete. The vassus thus entered into a new realm of protection and mutual services, through the touching of hands the warrior chief caused to pass from this own body into the body of the vassal something like a sacred fluid, the hail. Made taboo, as it were, the vassal thereupon fell under the power, pagan in origin, of the lord, his mundeburdium, or mainbour, true power. The physical position for Western Christian prayer that is thought of as typical today—kneeling, the gesture of homage survives in the ceremony for conferring degrees at the University of Cambridge. And the men of birth who accompanied him swore likewise. The vassal would place his hands on a Bible, or a saints relic, once the vassal had sworn the oath of fealty, the lord and vassal had a feudal relationship.
Feudalism Nulle terre sans seigneur Rouche, Private life conquers state and society, in A History of Private Life vol I, Paul Veyne, Harvard University Press 1987 ISBN 0-674-39974-9
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the Holy table of post-reformation Anglican churches. Altars are usually found at shrines, and they can be located in temples, today they are used particularly in Christianity, Hinduism, Taoism, as well as in Neopaganism and Ceremonial Magic. Judaism used such a structure until the destruction of the Second Temple, many historical faiths made use of them, including Greek and Norse religion. Altars in the Hebrew Bible were typically made of earth or unwrought stone, altars were generally erected in conspicuous places. The first altar recorded in the Hebrew Bible is that erected by Noah, altars were erected by Abraham, by Isaac, by Jacob, and by Moses. In Catholic and Orthodox Christian theology, the Eucharist is a re-presentation, the table upon which the Eucharist is consecrated is called an altar. The altar plays a role in the celebration of the Eucharist, which takes place at the altar on which the bread.
The altar is often on a higher elevation than the rest of the church, in Reformed and Anabaptist churches, a table, often called a Communion table, serves an analogous function. In some colloquial usage, the altar is used to denote the altar rail also. The main altar was referred to as the high altar, in the earliest days of the Church, the Eucharist appears to have been celebrated on portable altars set up for the purpose. Some historians hold that, during the persecutions, the Eucharist was celebrated among the tombs in the Catacombs of Rome, other historians dispute this, but it is thought to be the origin of the tradition of placing relics beneath the altar. Although in the days of the Jerusalem Temple the High Priest indeed faced east when sacrificing on Yom Kippur, the ministers, celebrated the Eucharist facing east, towards the entrance. Some hold that for the part of the celebration the congregation faced the same way. After the sixth century the contrary orientation prevailed, with the entrance to the west and the altar at the east end.
Then the ministers and congregation all faced east during the whole celebration, most rubrics, even in books of the seventeenth century and later, such as the Pontificale Romanum, continued to envisage the altar as free-standing. The rite of the Dedication of the Church continued to presume that the officiating Bishop could circle the altar during the consecration of the church and its altar. Despite this, with the increase in the size and importance of the reredos, most altars were built against the wall or barely separated from it. This diversity was recognized in the rubrics of the Roman Missal from the 1604 typical edition of Pope Clement VIII to the 1962 edition of Pope John XXIII, Si altare sit ad orientem, versus populum
According to Sylvette Lemagnen, conservator of the tapestry, The Bayeux tapestry is one of the supreme achievements of the Norman Romanesque. Its survival almost intact over nine centuries is little short of miraculous and its exceptional length, the harmony and freshness of its colours, its exquisite workmanship, and the genius of its guiding spirit combine to make it endlessly fascinating. The tapestry consists of some fifty scenes with Latin tituli, embroidered on linen with coloured woollen yarns and it is likely that it was commissioned by Bishop Odo, Williams half-brother, and made in England—not Bayeux—in the 1070s. In 1729 the hanging was rediscovered by scholars at a time when it was being displayed annually in Bayeux Cathedral, the tapestry is now exhibited at the Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux in Bayeux, France. The designs on the Bayeux Tapestry are embroidered rather than woven, nevertheless, it has always been called a tapestry until recent years, when the more correct name Bayeux Embroidery has gained ground among art historians.
Such tapestries adorned both churches and wealthy houses in England, though at 0.5 by 68.38 metres the Bayeux Tapestry is exceptionally large. Only the figures and decoration are embroidered, on a background left plain, the earliest known written reference to the tapestry is a 1476 inventory of Bayeux Cathedral, but its origins have been the subject of much speculation and controversy. French legend maintained the tapestry was commissioned and created by Queen Matilda, William the Conquerors wife, indeed, in France it is occasionally known as La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde. The actual physical work of stitching was most likely undertaken by female needle workers, Anglo-Saxon needlework of the more detailed type known as Opus Anglicanum was famous across Europe. It was perhaps commissioned for display in the hall of his palace and bequeathed to the cathedral he built, following the pattern of the documented, carola Hicks has suggested it could possibly have been commissioned by Edith of Wessex.
George Beech suggests the tapestry was executed at the Abbey of St. Florent in the Loire Valley, andrew Bridgeford has suggested that the tapestry was actually of English design and encoded with secret messages meant to undermine Norman rule. Nine linen panels, between fourteen and three metres in length, were together after each was embroidered and the joins were disguised with subsequent embroidery. At the first join the borders do not line up properly, the design involved a broad central zone with narrow decorative borders top and bottom. By inspecting the woollen threads behind the linen it is apparent all these aspects were embroidered together at a session, generations have patched the hanging in numerous places and some of the embroidery has been reworked. The tapestry may well have maintained much of its original appearance—it now compares closely with a drawing made in 1730. The main yarn colours are terracotta or russet, blue-green, dull gold, olive green, repairs are worked in light yellow and light greens.
Laid yarns are couched in place with yarn of the same or contrasting colour, the tapestrys central zone contains most of the action, which sometimes overflows into the borders either for dramatic effect or because depictions would otherwise be very cramped. Events take place in a series of scenes which are generally separated by highly stylised trees
Harold Godwinson, often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. Harold reigned from 6 January 1066 until his death at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October and his death marked the end of Anglo-Saxon rule over England. Harold was an earl and member of a prominent Anglo-Saxon family with ties to Cnut the Great. Upon the death of Edward the Confessor in January 1066, the Witenagemot convened and chose Harold to succeed, he was crowned in Westminster Abbey. In late September, he repelled an invasion by rival claimant Harald Hardrada of Norway before marching his army back south to meet William the Conqueror at Hastings some two weeks later. Harold was a son of Godwin, the powerful Earl of Wessex, gythas brother was Ulf the Earl, who married Cnuts sister Estrith. This made Ulf the son-in-law of King Sweyn Forkbeard, Godwin was the son of Wulfnoth, probably a thegn and a native of Sussex. Godwin began his career by supporting King Edmund Ironside, but switched to supporting King Cnut by 1018.
Godwin remained an earl throughout the remainder of Cnuts reign, one of two earls to survive to the end of that reign. Harthacnuts death in 1042 probably involved Godwin in a role as kingmaker, in 1045 Godwin reached the height of his power when the new king married Godwins daughter Edith. Godwin and Gytha had several children – six sons, Harold, Gyrth and Wulfnoth, the birthdates of the children are unknown, but Sweyn was the eldest and Harold was the second son. Harold was aged about 25 in 1045, which makes his birth year around 1020, Edith married Edward on 23 January 1045 and, around that time, Harold became Earl of East Anglia. Harold is called earl when he appears as a witness in a will that may date to 1044, one reason for his appointment to East Anglia may have been a need to defend against the threat from King Magnus the Good of Norway. It is possible that Harold led some of the ships from his earldom that were sent to Sandwich in 1045 against Magnus, Harolds elder brother, had been named an earl in 1043.
The relationship was a form of marriage that was not blessed or sanctioned by the Church, known as more Danico, or in the Danish manner, any children of such a union were considered legitimate. Harold probably entered the relationship in part to support in his new earldom. Harolds elder brother Sweyn was exiled in 1047 after abducting the abbess of Leominster, sweyns lands were divided between Harold and a cousin, Beorn. In 1049, Harold was in command of a ship or ships that were sent with a fleet to aid the German Emperor Henry III against Baldwin V, Count of Flanders, who was in revolt against Henry
Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the modern era. Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt, a series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare and England experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the Jacquerie and the Peasants Revolt, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict in the Hundred Years War. To add to the problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism. Collectively these events are called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Despite these crises, the 14th century was a time of progress in the arts. Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing, which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning.
These two things would lead to the Protestant Reformation. Toward the end of the period, the Age of Discovery began, the rise of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, eroded the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire and cut off trading possibilities with the east. Europeans were forced to seek new trading routes, leading to the expedition of Columbus to the Americas in 1492 and their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations. The changes brought about by these developments have led scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and beginning of modern history. However, the division is artificial, since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European society. As a result there was continuity between the ancient age and the modern age. Some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages at all, but rather see the period of the Middle Ages transitioning to the Renaissance. The term Late Middle Ages refers to one of the three periods of the Middle Ages, along with the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodization in his History of the Florentine People.
Flavio Biondo used a framework in Decades of History from the Deterioration of the Roman Empire. Tripartite periodization became standard after the German historian Christoph Cellarius published Universal History Divided into an Ancient, for 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the central theme was the Renaissance, with its rediscovery of ancient learning and the emergence of an individual spirit
Traditionally an oath is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity. A common legal substitute for those who object to making sacred oaths is to give an affirmation instead. Nowadays, even when theres no notion of sanctity involved, certain promises said out loud in ceremonial or juridical purpose are referred to as oaths, to swear is a verb used to describe the taking of an oath, to making a solemn vow. Usually oaths have referred to a deity significant in the sphere in question. The reciters personal views upon the divinity of the aspects considered sacred in a text of an oath may or may not be taken in to account. There might not be alternative personal proclamations with no mention of the dogma in question, such as affirmations. This might mean an impasse to those with unwillingness to edify the dogma they see as untrue, the essence of a divine oath is an invocation of divine agency to be a guarantor of the oath takers own honesty and integrity in the matter under question.
By implication, this invokes divine displeasure if the oath taker fails in their sworn duties and it therefore implies greater care than usual in the act of the performance of ones duty, such as in testimony to the facts of the matter in a court of law. A person taking an oath indicates this in a number of ways. The most usual is the explicit I swear, but any statement or promise that includes with * as my witness or so help me *, with * being something or someone the oath-taker holds sacred, is an oath. However, the purpose of such an act is for ceremony or solemnity. Making vows and taking oaths became a concept in law practice that developed over time in different cultures. The concept of oaths is deeply rooted within Judaism and it is found in Genesis 8,21, when God swears that he will never again curse the ground because of man and never again smite every living thing. This repetition of the term never again is explained by Rashi, according to the Rabbis, a neder refers to the object, a shâmar to the person.
In the Roman tradition, oaths were sworn upon Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone located in the Temple of Jupiter, the punisher of broken oaths was the infernal deity Orcus. Various religious groups have objected to the taking of oaths, most notably the Religious Society of Friends and Anabaptist groups, like Mennonites, Amish and this is principally based on Matthew 5, 34-37, the Antithesis of the Law. Here, Christ is written to say I say to you, James the Just stated in James 5,12, Above all, my brothers, do not swear—not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. Let your Yes be yes, and your No, no, not all Christians interpret this reading as forbidding all types of oaths, however
Feudalism in the Holy Roman Empire
In German the system is variously referred to Lehnswesen, Feudalwesen or Benefizialwesen. Feudalism in Europe emerged in the Early Middle Ages, based on Roman clientship and it obliged the feudatory to render personal services to the lord. These included e. g. holding his stirrup, joining him on festive occasions, both pledged mutual loyalty, the lord to shelter and protect, the vassal to help and advise. Furthermore, feudal lord and vassal were bound to respect one another, i. e. the lord could not, by law, beat his vassal. The highest liege lord was the sovereign, the king or duke, in turn, they could award fiefs to other nobles, who wanted to be enfeoffed by them and who were often subordinate to the liege lord in the aristocratic hierarchy. Enfeoffment gave the vassal extensive, hereditary usufruct of the fief, the Latin word beneficum implied, not only the actual estate or property, the fief - in Latin usually called the feodum - but the associated legal relationship. The owner was the liege lord or feudal lord, who was usually the territorial lord or reigning monarch.
The beneficiary was his vassal, liegeman or feudatory, both parties swore an oath of fealty to one another. The rights conferred on the vassal were so similar to actual possession that it was described as beneficial ownership, the fief usually comprised an estate or a complex of estates, but specified rights of use and rights of taxation or duties. e. Cattle, but generally meant goods or property, the opposite of a fief was the freehold, allod or allodium, which roughly corresponds to the present freehold estate. There were numerous different types of feudal arrangement depending on regional tradition, the best-known of these were, Afterlehen, A mesne fief whereby the vassal awarded his fief to a third party Altarlehen, A medieval proto-foundation. Falllehen, a fief that expired on the death of the vassal, see Schupflehen Freistift, a fief that could be cancelled at 12 months notice Handlehen, a fief awarded for a specified period or the life of the vassal. Originally, a fief sealed by a handshake instead of an oath of fealty.
The lower vassals would hire the land to be cultivated by unfree farmers, there were no feudal relationships between farmers and the lower vassals. e. Free knights who could bear arms and were in possession of their title. Later, unfree ministeriales rose to the knighthood, vassalage consisted mainly of military campaigns and court duty. From court service, the state and imperial diets emerged, the fief was only given to the vassal to utilize, the vassal became a sub-owner, but the feudal lord always retained the rights to this office. Eventually, the heritability of fiefs evolved later, but the landowner nevertheless remain the liege lord, in Roman culture, it was common for a patron to automatically retain his freed slaves in a dependent relationship, known as patronage
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour, since the publication of Elizabeth A. R. There is no commonly accepted definition of feudalism, at least among scholars. Since the publication of Elizabeth A. R, outside a European context, the concept of feudalism is often used only by analogy, most often in discussions of feudal Japan under the shoguns, and sometimes medieval and Gondarine Ethiopia. The term feudalism has been applied—often inappropriately or pejoratively—to non-Western societies where institutions, the term féodal was used in 17th-century French legal treatises and translated into English legal treatises as an adjective, such as feodal government. In the 18th century, Adam Smith, seeking to describe systems, effectively coined the forms feudal government. In the 19th century the adjective feudal evolved into a noun, the term feudalism is recent, first appearing in French in 1823, Italian in 1827, English in 1839, and in German in the second half of the 19th century.
The term feudal or feodal is derived from the medieval Latin word feodum, the etymology of feodum is complex with multiple theories, some suggesting a Germanic origin and others suggesting an Arabic origin. Initially in medieval Latin European documents, a grant in exchange for service was called a beneficium. Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents, the first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one-hundred years earlier. The origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, the most widely held theory is put forth by Marc Bloch. Bloch said it is related to the Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which means cattle and -ôd means goods. This was known as feos, a term that took on the meaning of paying for something in lieu of money. This meaning was applied to itself, in which land was used to pay for fealty. Thus the old word feos meaning movable property changed little by little to feus meaning the exact opposite and this Germanic origin theory was shared by William Stubbs in the 19th century.
Another theory was put forward by Archibald R. Lewis, Lewis said the origin of fief is not feudum, but rather foderum, the earliest attested use being in Astronomuss Vita Hludovici. In that text is a passage about Louis the Pious that says annona militaris quas vulgo foderum vocant, another theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from fuyū. Samarrais theory is that early forms of fief include feo, feuz and others, the first use of these terms is in Languedoc, one of the least Germanic areas of Europe and bordering Muslim Spain
The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure, these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade. In ancient Rome a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered, originally, in medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service continued to be called a beneficium. Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents, the first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one hundred years earlier. The origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below. The most widely held theory is put forth by Marc Bloch that it is related to the Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which means cattle and -ôd means goods. When land replaced currency as the store of value, the Germanic word *fehu-ôd replaced the Latin word beneficium.
This Germanic origin theory was shared by William Stubbs in the nineteenth century, a theory put forward by Archibald R. Lewis that the origin of fief is not feudum, but rather foderum, the earliest attested use being in Astronomuss Vita Hludovici. In that text is a passage about Louis the Pious which says annona militaris quas vulgo foderum vocant, a theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from fuyū. Samarrais theory is that early forms of fief include feo, feuz and others, however, advises medieval and early modern Muslim scribes often used etymologically fanciful roots in order to claim the most outlandish things to be of Arabian or Muslim origin. It lacked a precise meaning until the middle of the 12th century, in English usage, the word fee is first attested around 1250–1300, the word fief from around 1605–15. In French, the fief is found from the middle of the 13th century. In French, one finds seigneurie, which rise to the expression seigneurial system to describe feudalism.
Originally, vassalage did not imply the giving or receiving of landholdings, by the middle of the 10th century, fee had largely become hereditary. The eldest son of a deceased vassal would inherit, but first he had to do homage and fealty to the lord, the fees of the 11th and the 12th century derived from two separate sources. The first was land carved out of the estates of the upper nobility, the second source was allodial land transformed into dependent tenures. The process occurred in Germany, and was going on in the 13th century. In England, Henry II transformed them into important sources of royal income, the discontent of barons with royal claims to arbitrarily assessed reliefs and other feudal payments under Henrys son King John resulted in Magna Carta of 1215