Fear is an emotion induced by perceived danger or threat, which causes physiological changes and behavioral changes, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events. Fear in human beings may occur in response to a certain stimulus occurring in the present, or in anticipation or expectation of a future threat perceived as a risk to oneself; the fear response arises from the perception of danger leading to confrontation with or escape from/avoiding the threat, which in extreme cases of fear can be a freeze response or paralysis. In humans and animals, fear is modulated by the process of learning, thus fear is judged appropriate and irrational or inappropriate. An irrational fear is called a phobia. Fear is related to the emotion anxiety, which occurs as the result of threats that are perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable; the fear response serves survival by engendering appropriate behavioral responses, so it has been preserved throughout evolution. Sociological and organizational research suggests that individuals’ fears are not dependent on their nature but are shaped by their social relations and culture, which guide their understanding of when and how much fear to feel.

Many physiological changes in the body are associated with fear, summarized as the fight-or-flight response. An innate response for coping with danger, it works by accelerating the breathing rate, heart rate, vasoconstriction of the peripheral blood vessels leading to blushing and sanskadania of the central vessels, increasing muscle tension including the muscles attached to each hair follicle to contract and causing "goosebumps", or more clinically, sweating, increased blood glucose, increased serum calcium, increase in white blood cells called neutrophilic leukocytes, alertness leading to sleep disturbance and "butterflies in the stomach"; this primitive mechanism may help an organism survive by either fighting the danger. With the series of physiological changes, the consciousness realizes an emotion of fear. Although many fears are learned, the capacity to fear is part of human nature. Many studies have found; these fears are easier to induce in the laboratory. This phenomenon is known as preparedness.

Because early humans that were quick to fear dangerous situations were more to survive and reproduce, preparedness is theorized to be a genetic effect, the result of natural selection. From an evolutionary psychology perspective, different fears may be different adaptations that have been useful in our evolutionary past, they may have developed during different time periods. Some fears, such as fear of heights, may be common to all mammals and developed during the mesozoic period. Other fears, such as fear of snakes, may be common to all simians and developed during the cenozoic time period. Still others, such as fear of mice and insects, may be unique to humans and developed during the paleolithic and neolithic time periods. People develop specific fears as a result of learning; this has been studied in psychology as fear conditioning, beginning with John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment in 1920, inspired after observing a child with an irrational fear of dogs. In this study, an 11-month-old boy was conditioned to fear a white rat in the laboratory.

The fear became generalized to include other white, furry objects, such as a rabbit, a ball of cotton. Fear can be learned by watching a frightening traumatic accident. For example, if a child falls into a well and struggles to get out, he or she may develop a fear of wells, enclosed spaces, or water. There are studies looking at areas of the brain; when looking at these areas, it was proposed that a person learns to fear regardless of whether they themselves have experienced trauma, or if they have observed the fear in others. In a study completed by Andreas Olsson, Katherine I. Nearing and Elizabeth A. Phelps, the amygdala were affected both when subjects observed someone else being submitted to an aversive event, knowing that the same treatment awaited themselves, when subjects were subsequently placed in a fear-provoking situation; this suggests that fear can develop in both conditions, not just from personal history. Fear is affected by historical context. For example, in the early 20th century, many Americans feared polio, a disease that can lead to paralysis.

There are consistent cross-cultural differences in. Display rules affect how people are to express the facial expression of fear and other emotions. Emotions of fear could be influenced by gender. Research has shown participants were able to recognize the facial expression of fear better on a male face than on a female face. Females recognized fear better than males. Fear of victimization is a function of perceived seriousness. According to surveys, some of the most common fears are of demons and ghosts, the existence of evil powers, spiders, heights, water, enclosed spaces, bridges, social rejection, failure and public speaking. Fear of the unknown or irrational fear is caused by negative thinking which arises from anxiety accompanied with a su

Miguel Poventud

Miguel Poventud a.k.a. "El Niño Prodigio de Guayama" and "Miguelito", was a Puerto Rican musician, singer and composer of Boleros. Among the singers who have interpreted his musical compositions are Johnny Albino, Héctor Lavoe and Daniel Santos. Poventud was born in Guayama, Puerto Rico, to Francisco Poventud, a law enforcement officer in the San Juan Police Department, Concepción Aponte, a seamstress. A descendant of Carlos Armstrong and Eulalia Pou, Poventud was the youngest of five siblings. From the age of five Poventud, known as El Niño Prodigio de Guayama, looked forward to trips to the town Plaza accompanied by his mother, dressed in clothes that she herself had sewn. While he was a student at the Escuela Parada Guamani, he suffered a spinal cord injury caused by a biking accident and was hospitalized for two years, which left him immobile at the age of 10, his mother died shortly after he was discharged from the hospital. When Poventud's father gave him a guitar, he taught himself to play it.

He re-arranged the guitar strings upside down. Soon Poventud was performing in his hometown of Guayama, winning awards, singing before large audiences at the local radio station WHOM. After his mother's death, Poventud's father remarried; the young boy resented this, resented his father's opposition to his musical career. Victor Alonso of Spanoramic records got interested in Poventud's musical work. Before her death, Alonso promised Poventud's mother, he made Poventud an offer that included the recording of Poventud's first record album titled Pobre Huerfanito in New York City. At this point, Poventud's father again resisted the boy's musical career, his older brother Carlos argued with the father about Miguelito's future. After this argument, Carlos took young Poventud to live with him in New York City, became his legal guardian. In New York, Poventud continued his primary and secondary education at P. S. 93 Elementary School at Joan of Arc High School. Poventud wrote his first composition at age 14 titled Ya No Soy Un Niño..

His primary inspirations were his deceased mother, his new reality in New York, a growing romanticism, the melancholy of diaspora - a nostalgia for the island and the people that he'd left behind. In 1956, still at the age of 14, Poventud was invited to sing in the wedding of Grace Kelly and Rainier III, Prince of Monaco. Poventud made his professional debut in El Teatro Puerto Rico, where he sang the songs he'd written in his mother's memory: Soy un Huerfanito, De Que Me Sirve la Vida, Hechame a Mi la Culpa. Poventud continued to make further presentations at the theater with Yomo Toro y su Conjunto playing Rock'n Roll in English, singing Boleros in Spanish, his sang Rock'n Roll songs such as "Prometo Recordarte". He made two appearances in a local New York television show, in which he sang De Boca a Boca and several other Rock'n Roll numbers. Poventud participated in a comedy sketch with Mexican comedian Tin Tan and was invited by the comedian to join his act in Mexico, which he did, there they recorded an album based on their act.

While in Mexico, he appeared and sang in Around the World in 80 Days, a movie based on a Jules Verne novel. In Mexico, he participated in five recordings with the musical trio El Trio Los Panchos. In 1961, he returned to New York and married his high school sweetheart Norma Iris Guzman, with whom he had two children. In 1964, Poventud filled in for Johnny Albino as a CBS musician with El Trio Los Panchos, when Albino could not sing because of a voice aliment; this occurred during the recording of "More Amor" with Eydie Gorme. Poventud went on to record the album Los Panchos by Special Request, a compilation of love songs recorded in English for CBS, with Albino, he participated as the main guitarist and voice accompaniment in the recording of "Grandes Exitos de Johnny Albino con Los Panchos" with Albino. In 1965 the light heavyweight boxing champion of the world, a Puerto Rican named José "Chegui" Torres, went to see one of Poventud's performances at Mexico's El Teatro Lirico and they became friends.

They were both invited to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show, where Torres sang Un Poco Mas accompanied by Poventud and his guitar. Poventud returned to New York, attended Boricua College in the Bronx, became politically involved in the Puerto Rican independence movement around this time. Together with his trio the Miguel Poventud y Su Trío, succeeded as a bolerista, he tried his hand at singing Salsa and Ballads in the late sixties and early seventies, working with various "guitar trios" throughout New York. In 1974 he agreed to participate in the album The Mambo Boys Classics together with Al Abreu, Manny Duran, Manny Corchado, Tito Puente, Ozzie Torrens, Charlie Palmieri and Louie Ramirez. Louie Ramirez and Chico Mendoza arranged the Salsa session, while Hector Garrido arranged the ballads. Poventud and Bobby Capó sang Tan Felices. Poventud recorded with Capo in "El Bardo" and with Tito Puente in the "Al Ladito Tuyo" albums. In 1975, Poventud and José Glóro provided the musical background for Che Guevara Speaks, a recording of an interview with Ernesto "Che" Guevarra before Guevara was sent to Bolivia.

Poventud had an accident two days before the recording and showed up with and injured thumb, held in place with a metal pin and stitches. Despite this injury, Poventud played an accordion for the occasion. In 1976, Poventud made the arrangements and was the first guitarist in Pepe and Flora'

Gateway Expressway

The Gateway Expressway is a planned toll road in Pinellas County, Florida. The project consists of two branches: an elevated highway to be designated State Road 690 above 118th Avenue North between Interstate 275 and U. S. Highway 19 and a raised highway in the median of SR 686 from 118th Avenue North to the Bayside Bridge. Construction was approved in February 2014 and began in November 2017; the expressway is expected to be completed by late 2022. The Gateway Expressway consists of two connected segments: A four-lane, elevated segment will run above 118th Avenue from US 19 to I-275; this section will be designated SR 690. A raised, four lane expressway will be built in the median of SR 686 and carry the designation SR 686A; this segment will run from the planned SR 690 segment north to the Bayside Bridge and connect to St. Petersburg–Clearwater International Airport. Both segments will be tolled using electronic toll gantries for SunPass transponders or pay-by-plate billing; the intention of the Gateway Expressway project is to solve transportation problems in Pinellas County, where several expressway projects were cancelled in the 1970s and 1980s, leaving the county without any major limited-access thoroughfares except for I-275.

Significant upgrades to US 19 in the 2000s improved traffic flow north–south in the county. However, only local roads travel east–west; the Gateway Expressway project had been identified for a long time as a priority project to improve traffic flow in Pinellas County. The project was announced by Governor Rick Scott in a press conference with local officials on February 17, 2014, it had been in the works for 15 years. Construction began in November 2017 and is expected to be complete in late 2022 at a cost of $545 million; the project was not expected to be funded for another 15–20 years. Funding will be provided by the Federal Highway Administration, Penny for Pinellas funds, the State of Florida; the entire route is in Pinellas County. The entire route is in Pinellas County. Florida portal U. S. Roads portal