Saw is an American horror franchise distributed by Lionsgate, produced by Twisted Pictures and created by James Wan and Leigh Whannell, that consists of eight feature films and additional media. In 2003, Wan and Whannell made a short film to help pitch as a potential feature film; this was done in 2004 with the release of the first installment at the Sundance Film Festival. The film was released theatrically that October; the sequels were directed by Darren Lynn Bousman, David Hackl, Kevin Greutert, were written by Wan, Bousman, Patrick Melton, Marcus Dunstan, were released subsequently every October, on the Friday before Halloween, between 2004 and 2010. Both of the creators remained with the franchise as executive producers. On July 22, 2010, producer Mark Burg confirmed that the seventh film, Saw 3D, is the final installment of the series. Lionsgate expressed interest in continuing the franchise in 2012 with a reboot. In November 2013, it was reported. An eighth film, was released in October 2017.
The franchise revolves around John Kramer called the "Jigsaw Killer" or "Jigsaw". He was introduced in Saw and developed in more detail in Saw II. Rather than killing his victims outright, Jigsaw traps them in situations that he calls "tests" or "games" to test their will to live through physical or psychological torture and believes if they survive, they will be rehabilitated. Despite the fact that John was murdered in Saw III, the films continue to focus on the posthumous influence of the Jigsaw Killer and his apprentices by exploring his character via flashbacks; the franchise grossed more than $1 billion from box office and retail sales by 2009, the films have collectively grossed over $976 million at the worldwide box office as of 2018. The film series as a whole has received mixed to negative reviews by critics, but has been a financial success at the box office and is one of the highest-grossing horror film franchises of all time. While the films are classified as torture porn by critics, the creators of Saw disagree with the term.
Flashbacks from Saw IV reveal the roots of the series, presenting John Kramer as a successful civil engineer and devoted husband to his wife Jill Tuck, who opened a rehab clinic for drug addicts. Jill lost her unborn baby, due to the unwitting actions of a drug addict named Cecil, who fled the scene. Saw VI showed that another drug addict, Amanda Young had an unintentional role in the death of Gideon. John grieved over the loss of his child, distanced himself from his friends and his wife. John and Jill drifted apart and divorced. After this turn of events, John found himself trapped by his own complacency, until he was diagnosed with inoperable cancer. Bitter over his squandered life and the loss of his unborn son, John began observing the lives of others and became more depressed as he saw those around him squandering the gift of life that he had just been denied. John was denied. Flashbacks from Saw II show that, after surviving a suicide attempt where he drove his car off a cliff, John was "reborn", nurtured the idea that the only way for someone to change is for them to change themselves.
In Saw IV flashbacks, he designed the first trap and test for Cecil and decided to use the rest of his existence to design more of these "tests" or "games" as a form of "instant rehabilitation" that would change the world, "one person at a time". John was soon given the name "The Jigsaw Killer", because he removed a puzzle-piece-shaped chunk of flesh from those who did not escape his traps. John stated that this name was given to him by the media, that the cut piece of flesh was meant to represent that these victims were each missing something—what he called the "survival instinct". Few of Jigsaw's victims are able to survive his brutal mechanical traps, which are ironically symbolic representations of the problems in the victim's life and require them to undergo severe physical and psychological torture to escape. In Saw V, police lieutenant Mark Hoffman's ties with John are revealed in a series of flashbacks during the film. Hoffman's sister is murdered by Seth Baxter. Seth is arrested. Jigsaw kidnaps Hoffman and blackmails him into becoming his apprentice in his "rehabilitation" methods, though Hoffman would become a willing apprentice, helping set up John's tests from the beginning, starting with Paul's trap.
The first surviving victim, Amanda Young, views Jigsaw as a hero who changed her life for the better. Amanda, upon Jigsaw's request, agrees to become his protégée. After Amanda survives, John shows Jill her rehabilitation, Jill becomes knowledgeable of John's traps and becomes somewhat of an accomplice as well. In Saw, Jigsaw has chained the man who diagnosed his cancer, Dr. Lawrence Gordon, in a dilapidated industrial washroom with Adam Stanheight, a photographer, tailing the doctor due to belief he is cheating on his wife. Lawrence has instructions to kill Adam by six o'clock. Flashbacks show detectives David Tapp and Steven Sing, who suspect Lawrence of being Jigsaw, following a trail of clues from other Jigsaw traps. Sing's death from a shotgun trap after saving a victim named Jeff causes Tapp to obsess over catching Jigsaw. On, he chases Zep Hindle, who monitors Adam and Lawrence's tests, gets shot in the chest. Even
Reaper (TV series)
Reaper is an American comedy television series that focuses on Sam Oliver, a "reaper" who works for the Devil by retrieving souls that have escaped from Hell. The series ran on The CW from September 25, 2007 to May 26, 2009. Produced by ABC Studios and The Mark Gordon Company, Reaper aired on Tuesday nights at 8:00 p.m. Eastern/7:00 p.m. Central on The CW. However, the rights for the show have been given to Fox for its broadcast in Asia. Sam Oliver lives at home with his parents in the Seattle area. Sam took a dead-end job at the Work Bench, a home-repair superstore, he spent the rest of his time hanging out, playing video games, pining for his co-worker, Andi. On Sam's 21st birthday, his parents behave strangely, Sam himself sees hellish visions and experiences odd events, his father claims that many years ago, he was sick, in return for restoring his health, he and his wife promised their firstborn child to the Devil. Although the couple intended to cheat the Devil by not having children, this plan went awry when Satan persuaded their doctor to lie and tell the couple that they could not conceive in exchange for wiping his gambling debts clean.
Sam was born shortly thereafter. After informing him of his fate, the Devil explains to Sam that he must serve as his bounty hunter, tracking down souls that have escaped from Hell and sending them back using his new powers and "vessels", varied objects said to have been hand-made in the bowels of perdition by the iniquitous and the vile. Vessels appear inside a long wooden box sent for Sam to open, are specially designed for each job. Examples throughout the series have included a Dirt Devil vacuum cleaner, a Taser gun, a cigarette lighter. Although Sam balks, Satan tells him that should he refuse Sam's mother's soul is forfeit. Unwilling to sacrifice his mother, convinced that he is doing good in the world by tracking down evil souls, Sam accepts his fate. With the help of his slacker friends Sock and Ben, he begins his new life tracking down the corrupted souls trying to escape their own eternal punishment. Reaper premiered on September 25, 2007 in the U. S. airing on Tuesday nights at 9:00PM Eastern/8:00PM Central on the CW, following Beauty and the Geek.
The series had a full 18 episode order for the 2007-2008 season, with 13 pre-strike episodes and 5 post-strike episodes. Reaper stopped airing new episodes after the tenth episode due to the industry-wide 2007-2008 Writers Guild of America strike, it resumed new pre-strike episodes for three weeks on Thursdays in March, began airing post-strike episodes on April 22, 2008. On May 12, 2008, Reaper was renewed for a 13-episode second and final season which premiered on March 3, 2009. On May 19, 2009, Reaper was cancelled by The CW. However, ABC Studios was still in negotiations with CW affiliates to syndicate the show, or sell it to cable. Tyler Labine who plays Sock posted on his Facebook account that Reaper is cancelled and will not be returning; the pilot script, written by creators/executive producers Michele Fazekas and Tara Butters received a script commitment by The CW in September 2006. Mark Gordon and Deborah Spera joined the project as executive producers under the former's production banner at Touchstone Television, The Mark Gordon Company.
The network green-lighted a pilot order for the script in January 2007, writer/director Kevin Smith agreed to direct the first hour of the series in February 2007. The CW gave the series an early pick-up and a 13-episode order on May 15, 2007. While not making a full season order, The CW ordered an additional 3 episodes, citing a high percentage of audience retention between Reaper and Beauty and the Geek. Additional episodes were ordered to fill in the first season after the writer's strike was resolved, a second season of 13 episodes was ordered, as well. In a February 1, 2010 interview with CliqueClack TV, creators Fazekas and Butters revealed many of the unresolved plots from the series. Casting began in February 2007. At the time, his commitment to the series came second to his show at Fox, The Loop, which had yet to air its second season on the network; the show was canceled, leaving Harrison free to concentrate on Reaper. Canadian actor Tyler Labine was cast in the same month in the role of Bert "Sock" Wysocki, Sam's best friend and sidekick.
Nikki Reed, actress and co-writer of the award-winning film Thirteen, was cast as Sam's love interest, Andi, in March 2007 but she was replaced by Missy Peregrym, fresh off a high-profile recurring role on Heroes in June 2007. Actors for the roles of Ben and Josie were found in the same month when Rick Gonzalez and Valarie Rae Miller were cast. Anthony Head and James Marsters auditioned for the role of the devil before Ray Wise was cast in the part in mid-March. Kyle Switzer was cast as Sam's younger brother Keith. Keith's name would be changed to Kyle, was written out of the show after two episodes. Donovan Stinson and Andrew Airlie rounded out the cast as Ted Gallagher and John Oliver, Sam's boss and father respectively. In July 2008, it was announced that Eriko Tamura had been cast as a season 2 recurring character, playing Sock's new stepsister and love in
Video on demand
Video on demand is a programming system which allows users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content such as movies and TV shows whenever they choose, rather than at a scheduled broadcast time, the method that prevailed with over-the-air programming during the 20th century. IPTV technology is used to bring VOD to televisions and personal computers. Television VOD systems can stream content through either a set-top box, a computer or other device, allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder or portable media player for viewing at any time; the majority of cable- and telephone company–based television providers offer: VOD streaming, whereby a user selects a video program and it begins to play on the television set, or downloading to a digital video recorder rented or purchased from the provider, or downloading onto a PC or to a portable device, for viewing in the future. Internet television, using the Internet, is an popular form of video on demand.
VOD can be accessed via desktop client applications such as the Samsung iCloud online content store. Some airlines offer VOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatbacks or armrests or offered via portable media players; some video on demand services, such as Netflix, use a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content, movies shows. Other services, such as YouTube, use an advertising - model. Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the user with all of the features of Portable media players and DVD players; some VOD systems that store and stream programs from hard disk drives use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward and rewind digital videos. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks, in which case they can provide rapid response to users. Cable companies have reeled out their own versions of video on demand services through apps, allowing for TV access anywhere where there is a device, internet compatible.
In addition to cable services launching apps that offer on demand video, they have combined it with offering live streaming services as well. The recent launches of apps from cable companies have the phrases "go" or "watch" are attempts to compete with Subscription Video on Demand services since they lack having live news, etc. Streaming video servers can serve a wider community via a WAN, in which case the responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are practical to homes equipped with DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, or a newly created location called a Video Head-End Office; the first video on demand systems used tapes. GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT&T providing all components. By 1992 VOD servers were supplying encoded digital video from disks and DRAM. In the US, the 1982 anti-trust break-up of AT&T resulted in a number of smaller telephone companies called Baby Bells.
Following this the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 prohibited telephone companies from providing video services within their operating regions. In 1993 the National Communication and Information Infrastructure was proposed and passed by the US House and Senate, thus opening the way for the seven Baby Bells—Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, BellSouth, NYNEX, Pacific Telesis, Southwestern Bell, US West—to implement VOD systems. All of these companies and others began holding trials to set up systems for supplying video on demand over telephone and cable lines. In November 1992, Bell Atlantic announced a VOD trial. IBM was developing video server code-named Tiger Shark. Concurrently Digital Equipment was developing a scalable video server. Bell Atlantic selected IBM and in April 1993 the system became the first VOD over ADSL to be deployed outside the lab, serving 50 video streams. In June 1993, US West filed for a system consisting of the Digital Equipment Corporation Interactive Information Server, with Scientific Atlanta providing the network, 3DO as the set-top box, with video streams and other information to be deployed to 2500 homes.
In 1994–1995 US West went on to file for VOD at several cities: 330,000 subscribers in Denver, 290,000 in Minneapolis, 140,000 in Portland. Many VOD trials were held with various combinations of server and set-top. Of these the primary players in the US were the telephone companies, using DEC, Oracle, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, USA Video, nCube, SGI, other servers; the DEC server system was used in more of these trials than any other. The DEC VOD server architecture used interactive gateways to set up video streams and other information for delivery from any of a large number of VAX servers, enabling it in 1993 to support more than 100,000 streams with full VCR-like functionality. In 1994, it would upgrade to a DEC Alpha–based computer for its VOD servers, allowing it to support more than a million users. By 1994 the Oracle scalable VOD system used massively parallel processors to support from 500 to 30,000 users; the SGI system supported 4000 users. The servers connected to networks of increasing size to support video stream delivery to whole cities.
In the UK, from September 1994, a VOD service formed a major part of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial in England. This provided video and data to 250 homes and a number of sc
House at the End of the Street
House at the End of the Street is a 2012 American psychological thriller film directed by Mark Tonderai that stars Jennifer Lawrence. The film's plot revolves around a teenage girl, who along with her newly divorced mother Sarah, moves to a new neighborhood only to discover that the house at the end of the street was the site of a gruesome double murder committed by a girl named Carrie-Anne who disappeared without a trace. Elissa starts a relationship with Carrie-Anne's brother, who lives in the same house. Although filming had been completed in 2010, the film was not released until 2012 by Relativity Media. Despite a negative response from critics, Jennifer Lawrence's performance was praised and the film was a commercial success, ranking number one at the box office in its opening weekend. A newly-divorced medical doctor Sarah Cassidy, her 17-year-old daughter Elissa move to a small, upscale town, they are disturbed to discover the house they are moving into is on the same street as a house in which a family used to live before they were massacred.
The story of the massacre is told to them by the neighbors. Four years prior, a girl named Carrie-Anne Jacobson killed her parents fled into the forest and was never seen again, leaving her brother Ryan as the sole survivor. Ryan is hated by his neighbors; the mother-daughter relationship becomes rocky and Elissa starts seeing Ryan against her mother's wishes, finding Ryan to be lonely but a sweet boy. Ryan confides in her that he accidentally injured Carrie-Anne by allowing her to fall from a swing when they were little; the resulting brain damage from the accident made her aggressive, leading to their parents' murder. Ryan is revealed to have been secretly taking care of a now-grown Carrie-Anne in a hidden room. Carrie-Anne manages to escape and approaches a young couple in a car while brandishing a kitchen knife. Ryan catches up to her before she can reach the couple but accidentally kills her while trying to hide her. In grief, he goes to a diner; some unruly high school boys pick a fight with Ryan and he flees, Elissa drives to his house and subdues a fire the boys started.
She finds tampons in the kitchen garbage and explores the house with suspicion until she finds the secret room and is attacked by Carrie-Anne, revealed to be Peggy. Ryan restrains "Carrie-Anne" while frantically screaming at Elissa to leave. Elissa finds Peggy Jones's wallet in the kitchen. Ryan has attempted to make her look like Carrie-Anne. Elissa tells Ryan she has to go home but Ryan hits her, knocking her unconscious. Elissa wakes to find herself tied to a chair. Ryan reveals that Carrie-Anne died during the swing accident, he says his parents blamed him for it, reveals that he was the one who killed them. He explains that he needs Carrie-Anne and can not have both. Officer Weaver goes to Ryan's house to look for Elissa. Elissa frees herself and tries to escape in Ryan's car, but Ryan knocks her out with chloroform and traps her in his car trunk with Peggy's body. Sarah arrives and is stabbed by Ryan. Elissa struggles out of the car and shoots Ryan with Weaver's gun; when she approaches him, he wakes up and grabs her wrist.
When Ryan attempts to stab Elissa with the knife, Sarah strikes him in the head with the hammer. Elissa and Sarah move out. A flashback shows young Ryan in girl's clothing about to blow out birthday candles, his mother calls him "Carrie-Anne" and when Ryan protests that his name is Ryan, not Carrie-Anne, she slaps him violently. Jennifer Lawrence as Elissa Cassidy Max Thieriot as Ryan Jacobson Bobby Osborne as Young Ryan Elisabeth Shue as Sarah Cassidy Gil Bellows as Officer Bill Weaver Eva Link as "Carrie-Anne" Nolan Gerard Funk as Tyler Reynolds Allie MacDonald as Jillian Jordan Hayes as Peggy Jones Krista Bridges as Mary Jacobson John Healy as John Jacobson Grace Tucker-Duguay as Carrie-Anne Jacobson The film was announced in 2003 with Jonathan Mostow directing and Richard Kelly screenwriting, but the film was put through development hell for 9 years until production was revived in 2010 with Mark Tonderai directing and Jonathan Mostow screenwriting, instead. Principal photography and filming took place in Metcalfe and Carp, Ontario from August 2, 2010, until September 3, 2010.
The film was scheduled to be released in February 2012, but was moved to a September 2012 release. The film had its theatrical premiere in the USA on September 21, 2012, was released in Canada on the same date; the film was not released theatrically in Sweden or Spain and was released direct-to-video on January 30, 2013, in Sweden and on August 28, 2013 in Spain. A tie-in novelization of the movie was released on August 12, 2012, to accompany the movie by Little and Company. House at the End of the Street was released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc on January 8, 2013; the unrated cut was released on January 8, 2013. The extended edition increased the length of certain scenes in the final cut by a few seconds and the amount of violence and gore was increased by a small amount; the extended cut included an additional twist in which Bill Weaver was a family friend of the Jacobsons and was aware of Carrie-Anne's fate, he knew about Ryan's abuse, but did nothing to help him. On the day of Carrie-Anne's acci
Eerie, Indiana is an American television series that aired on NBC from September 15, 1991 to April 12, 1992. The series was created by José Rivera and Karl Schaefer, with Joe Dante serving as creative consultant. A total of nineteen episodes were produced; the final episode aired for the first time in 1993, when the series was syndicated on The Disney Channel. The show was rerun on The Disney Channel from October 7, 1993 to late-March 1996. In 1997, the show generated a new fan base, when Fox's children's programming block Fox Kids aired the series on Saturday mornings from January to September, gaining something of a cult following despite its short run; the renewed popularity of the series encouraged Fox to produce a spin-off Eerie, Indiana: The Other Dimension, lasting only one season in 1998. The series revolves around Marshall Teller, a teenager whose family moves to the desolate town of Eerie, population of 16,661. While moving into his new home, he meets one of the few normal people in Eerie.
Together, they are faced with bizarre scenarios, which include discovering a sinister group of intelligent dogs that are planning on taking over the world, meeting a tornado hunter, reminiscent of Captain Ahab. They confront numerous urban legends such as Bigfoot and a still-living Elvis Presley. Although the show was host to a plethora of jokes, it featured a serious tone. After thirteen episodes, one of which did not air during the network run, the series was retooled with Jason Marsden's "Dash X" added to the cast and Archie Hahn's Mr. Radford is revealed to be an imposter, with John Astin revealed to be the "actual" Mr. Radford; the final produced episode was a tongue-in-cheek, fourth wall breaking sequence of events depicting Dash X's attempts to take over as star of the show. Marshall Teller, played by Omri Katz, is the protagonist of the series. With the help of his sidekick and best friend, Simon Holmes, he manages to unravel the many mysteries that plague Eerie, Indiana. Before moving to Eerie, Indiana, he and his family once lived in the city filled with pollution and crime, which he likes.
Though arrogant, Marshall is intelligent and quick-thinking, qualities that come in handy during his investigations. He is sometimes torn between hanging out with Simon and following his burgeoning instincts about girls. Marshall compares Eerie to where he grew up in New Jersey, the epitome of'normal' in his mind, he is a fan of the New York Giants. Simon Holmes, played by Justin Shenkarow, is Marshall's best friend. Due to the constant arguing between Simon's parents, he chooses to spend most of his free time hanging out with Marshall. Prior to Marshall's arrival, Simon was a lonely child. Similar to Marshall, Simon believes. In the episode "America's Scariest Home Video", it is revealed that Simon has a younger brother, Harley Schwarzenegger Holmes, never mentioned before and never appears again. Edgar Teller, played by Francis Guinan, is Marshall's father. Edgar works at a product testing company, for a living. According to Marshall, it was Edgar's idea to leave New Jersey, move to Eerie. During the course of the series, it is revealed that Edgar interned at the Smithsonian Institution before entering the University of Syracuse to do his undergraduate work in archeology.
He received a scholarship from NASA to attend M. I. T. where he worked on his thesis, "Matter: What is it Exactly?". As Edgar is a scientist, many fans believe that his name was a subtle nod towards Edward Teller, an American nuclear physicist who helped develop the Hydrogen Bomb. Marilyn Teller, played by Mary-Margaret Humes, is Marshall's mother. Marilyn operates her own party planning business at the Eerie Mall; as shown in "Forever Ware", Marilyn is not an organised person. In episode "Who's Who", she is adopted as a mother by Sara Bob, trying to create a perfect family. Syndi Marie Priscilla Teller, played by Julie Condra, is Marshall's older sister. At the time in which Marshall introduces Syndi to the audience, she is practicing for her Drivers Ed. Test. Marshall ridicules his sister for the awkward spelling of her name. Syndi aims to be a reporter and spends time with the Eerie police and fire department to gain experience. "The Loyal Order of Corn", was the only episode in the series. Dash X, played by Jason Marsden, is a character.
First introduced in the episode "The Hole in the Head Gang", Dash claims that he woke up in "Weirdsville" without any knowledge to how he got there. Dash has no memory of parents, past or his real name. Since Dash has no home, he is forced to eat out of Dumpsters. Dash is referred to as "The Kid with the Grey Hair". People would go on to call him the "Sneaky Kid with the Hair" and "The Kid with No Name". On some occasions, Dash would help Marshall and Simon solve some of Eerie's mysteries, most notably by helping them infiltrate the Loyal Order of Corn cult. Dash X gave himself his name in the episode "The Loyal Order of the Corn", as a reference to the mysterious'-' and'+' markings on his hands which were shared by the extraterrestrial leader of the cult. Dash X wonders if the cult leader, played by Ray Walston is his father, but the leader ruefully and cryptically remarks, "If only it were that simple," before returning to his homeworld. Mr. Radford – Mr. Radford – Winifred Swanson and Mother – Sergeant Knight – Mayor Winston Chisel – The Anchorman – Elvis Presley – Bertram Wilson – (Nathan
Comcast Corporation is an American telecommunications conglomerate headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is the second-largest broadcasting and cable television company in the world by revenue and the largest pay-TV company, the largest cable TV company and largest home Internet service provider in the United States, the nation's third-largest home telephone service provider. Comcast services U. S. residential and commercial customers in 40 states and in the District of Columbia. As the owner of the international media company NBCUniversal since 2011, Comcast is a producer of feature films and television programs intended for theatrical exhibition and over-the-air and cable television broadcast, respectively. Comcast owns and operates the Xfinity residential cable communications subsidiary, Comcast Business, a commercial services provider, Xfinity Mobile, MVNO of Verizon, over-the-air national broadcast network channels, multiple cable-only channels, the film studio Universal Pictures, Universal Parks & Resorts.
It has significant holdings in digital distribution, such as thePlatform, which it acquired in 2006. In February 2014, the company agreed to merge with Time Warner Cable in an equity swap deal worth $45.2 billion, under the terms of the agreement, Comcast was to acquire 100% of Time Warner Cable. However, on April 24, 2015, Comcast terminated the agreement. Comcast and Charter Communications entered into an agreement to conduct exclusive discussions with Sprint Corporation in late June 2017. Since October 2018, it is the parent company of mass media pan-European company Sky, making it the biggest and leading media company with more than 53 million subscribers over five countries across Europe. Comcast has been criticized for multiple reasons. In addition, Comcast has violated net neutrality practices in the past. Critics point out a lack of competition in the vast majority of Comcast's service area. Furthermore, given Comcast's negotiating power as a large ISP, some suspect that Comcast could leverage paid peering agreements to unfairly influence end-user connection speeds.
Its ownership of both content production and content distribution has raised antitrust concerns. These issues, in addition to others, led to Comcast being dubbed "The Worst Company in America" by The Consumerist in 2010 and 2014. Comcast is sometimes described as a family business. Brian L. Roberts, president, CEO of Comcast, is the son of founder Ralph J. Roberts. Roberts owns or controls about 1% of all Comcast shares but all of the Class B supervoting shares, which gives him an "undilutable 33% voting power over the company". Legal expert Susan P. Crawford has said this gives him "effective control over every step". In 2010, he was one of the highest paid executives in the United States, with total compensation of about $31 million. Comcast is headquartered in Philadelphia and has corporate offices in Atlanta, Denver, New Hampshire and New York City. On January 3, 2005, Comcast announced that it would become the anchor tenant in the new Comcast Center in downtown Philadelphia; the 975 ft skyscraper is the tallest building in Pennsylvania.
Comcast has begun construction on a second 1,121 ft skyscraper directly adjacent to the original Comcast headquarters in the summer of 2014. The company is criticized by both the media and its own staff for its less upstanding policies regarding employee relations. A 2012 Reddit post written by an anonymous Comcast call center employee eager to share their negative experiences with the public received attention from publications including The Huffington Post. A 2014 investigative series published by The Verge involved interviews with 150 of Comcast's employees, it sought to examine why the company has become so criticized by its customers, the media and members of its own staff. The series claimed part of the problem is internal and that Comcast's staff endures unreasonable corporate policies. According to the report: "customer service has been replaced by an obsession with sales. A read article penned by an anonymous call center employee working for Comcast appeared in November 2014 on Cracked.
Titled "Five Nightmares You Live While Working For America's Worst Company," the article claimed that Comcast is obsessed with sales, doesn't train its employees properly and concluded that "the system makes good customer service impossible."Comcast has earned a reputation for being anti-union. According to one of the company's training manuals, "Comcast does not feel union representation is in the best interest of its employees, customers, or shareholders". A dispute in 2004 with CWA, a labor union that represented many employees at Comcast's offices in Beaverton, led to allegations of management intimidating workers, requiring them to attend anti-union meetings and unwarranted disciplinary action for union members. In 2011, Comcast received criticism from Writers Guild of America for its policies in regards to unions. Despite these criticisms, Comcast has appeared on multiple "top places to work" lists. In 2009, it was included on CableFAX magazine's "Top 10 Places to Work in Cable", which cited its "scale
Streaming media is multimedia, received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of obtaining media in this manner. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming or inherently non-streaming. For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; the term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content.
Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it is. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. If the user does not have enough bandwidth in their Internet connection, they may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content; some users may not be able to stream certain content due to not having compatible computer or software systems. Some popular streaming services include the video sharing website YouTube and Mixer, which live stream the playing of video games. Netflix and Amazon Video stream movies and TV shows, Spotify, Apple Music and TIDAL stream music. In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted patents for a system for the transmission and distribution of signals over electrical lines, the technical basis for what became Muzak, a technology streaming continuous music to commercial customers without the use of radio. Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century.
However, little progress was made for several decades due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to display various media; the primary technical issues related to streaming were having enough CPU power bus bandwidth to support the required data rates, creating low-latency interrupt paths in the operating system to prevent buffer underrun, enabling skip-free streaming of the content. However, computer networks were still limited in the mid-1990s, audio and video media were delivered over non-streaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and saving it to a local drive on the end user's computer or storing it as a digital file and playing it back from CD-ROMs. In 1991 the first commercial Ethernet Switch was introduced, which enabled more powerful computer networks leading to the first streaming video solutions used by schools and corporations such as expanding Bloomberg Television worldwide.
In the mid 1990s the World Wide Web was established, but streaming audio would not be practical until years later. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, users had increased access to computer networks the Internet. During the early 2000s, users had access to increased network bandwidth in the "last mile"; these technological improvements facilitated the streaming of audio and video content to computer users in their homes and workplaces. There was an increasing use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML as the Internet became commercialized, which led to an infusion of investment into the sector; the band Severe Tire Damage was the first group to perform live on the Internet. On June 24, 1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, scientists were discussing new technology for broadcasting on the Internet using multicasting; as proof of PARC's technology, the band's performance was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
In a March 2017 interview, band member Russ Haines stated that the band had used "half of the total bandwidth of the internet" to stream the performance, a 152-by-76 pixel video, updated eight to twelve times per second, with audio quality, "at best, a bad telephone connection". Microsoft Research developed a Microsoft TV application, compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite and tested in conjunction with Connectix QuickCam. RealNetworks was a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995; the first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, Washington on November 10, 1995. The concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash, Matt Cameron, Barrett Martin; when Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet. Metro