Battle of Nicopolis
The Battle of Nicopolis took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Bulgarian, French, Burgundian and assorted troops at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444. There were many minor crusades in the 14th century, undertaken by individual knights. Most there had been a failed crusade against Tunisia in 1390, there was ongoing warfare in northern Europe along the Baltic coast. After their victory at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the Ottomans had conquered most of the Balkans, had reduced the Byzantine Empire to the area surrounding Constantinople, which they proceeded to besiege. In 1393 the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman had lost Nicopolis — his temporary capital — to the Ottomans, while his brother, Ivan Stratsimir, still held Vidin but had been reduced to an Ottoman vassal.
In the eyes of the Bulgarian boyars and other independent Balkan rulers, the crusade was a great chance to reverse the course of the Ottoman conquest and free the Balkans from Islamic rule. In addition, the frontline between Islam and Christianity had been moving towards the Kingdom of Hungary; the Kingdom of Hungary was now the frontier between the two religions in Eastern Europe, the Hungarians were in danger of being attacked themselves. The Republic of Venice feared that an Ottoman control of the Balkan peninsula, which included Venetian territories like parts of Morea and Dalmatia, would reduce their influence over the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea; the Republic of Genoa, on the other hand, feared that if the Ottomans were to gain control over River Danube and the Turkish Straits, they would obtain a monopoly over the trade routes between Europe and the Black Sea, where the Genoese had many important colonies like Caffa and Amasra. The Genoese owned the citadel of Galata, located at the north of the Golden Horn in Constantinople, to which Bayezid had laid siege in 1395.
In 1394, Pope Boniface IX proclaimed a new crusade against the Turks, although the Western Schism had split the papacy in two, with rival popes at Avignon and Rome, the days when a pope had the authority to call a crusade were long past. The two decisive factors in the formation of the last crusade were the ongoing Hundred Years' War between Richard II's England and Charles VI's France and the support of Philip II, Duke of Burgundy. In 1389, the war had ground to one of its periodic truces. Further, in March 1395, Richard II proposed a marriage between himself and Charles VI's daughter Isabella in the interests of peace and the two kings met in October 1396 on the borders of Calais to agree to the union and agree to lengthen the Truce of Leulinghem; the support of Burgundy, among the most powerful of the French nobles was vital. In 1391, trying to decide between sending a crusade to either Prussia or Hungary, sent his envoy Guy de La Trémoille to Venice and Hungary to evaluate the situation.
Burgundy envisioned a crusade led by himself and the Dukes of Orléans and Lancaster, though none would join the eventual crusade. It was unlikely that defense against the Turks was considered a important goal of the crusade. Burgundy's interest in sponsoring the crusade was in increasing his and his house's prestige and power and, historian Barbara Tuchman notes, "since he was the prince of self-magnification, the result was that opulent display became the dominant theme. In 1394, Burgundy extracted 120,000 livres from Flanders, sufficient to begin preparations for a crusade, in January 1395 sent word to King Sigismund of Hungary that an official request to the King of France would be accepted. In August, Sigismund's delegation of four knights and a bishop arrived in the court of Paris to paint a description of how "40,000" Turks were despoiling and imperiling Christian lands and beg, on Sigismund of Hungary's behalf, for help. Charles VI, having secured a peace with England through the marriage of his daughter, was able to reply that it was his responsibility to protect Christianity and punish Sultan Bayezid.
French nobility responded enthusiastically to the declaration. The number of combatants is contested in historical accounts. Historian Tuchman notes, "Chroniclers habitually matched numbers to the awesomeness of the event," and the Battle of Nicopolis was considered so significant that the number of combatants given by medieval chroniclers ranges as high as 400,000, with each side insisting that the enemy outnumbered them two-to-one, which for the crusaders offered some solace for their defeat and for the Turks increased the glory of their victory; the oft-given figure of 100,000 crusaders is dismissed by Tuchman, who notes that 100,000 men would have taken a month to cross the Danube at Iron Gate, while the crusaders took eight days. The closest record to a first-person account was made by Johann Schiltberger, a German follower of a Bavarian noble, who witnessed the battle at the age of 16 and was captured and enslaved for 30 years by the
Revolt of Ghent (1449–53)
The revolt of Ghent was a rebellion by the city of Ghent against the Duchy of Burgundy. It lasted from 1449 to 1453; the rebellion was suppressed by the Burgundians. After their efforts in the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the guilds demanded and received the so-called small "Nering": participation in the rule of the Flemish cities, something, not an uncommon result in the wars and battles involving the low countries. In Ghent, a relative equilibrium was achieved between 1360 and 1380, where the schepenen formed a coalition called the Great council of Ghent; the council had three members. This trio was called the Rule of the Three Council Members. From around 1430, Philip the Good strove for a return of the situation before the Guldensporenslag; the Ghent city government based its defense against Philip's claims on customs and old privileges from the 12th and 13th century, before the Charter of Senlis had been signed. To enforce his attempts at gaining control over the appointment of city officials, Philip the Good searched for a reliable source of income.
This he found in the rich Flemish cities. Until he had been forced to rely on requests for individual taxes, which could be refused by the city government. During his visit to Ghent in January 1447, Philip proposed a semi-permanent tax on salt, after the French example of the Gabelle, he proposed a similar tax on flour, which would be collected by ducal officials. Salt at that time was important as it was the only way to preserve food for long periods of time. Philip had prepared a speech in Dutch, the principal language of the Council, the deacons of some of the guilds were consulted or bribed; the city government of Ghent refused to give in. After two years of negotiation, the taxes were rejected. Wanting to avoid further humiliation, Philip decided not to propose the taxes to other large Flemish cities. Philip removed them from the Council. In reaction, Ghent proposed to replace them with outspoken opponents of the Duke. Philip increased the pressure with measures such as recalling the bailiff twice, bringing all judicial procedures in the city to a halt.
The conflict escalated, on 28 October 1451, the guilds proclaimed a general strike, took up arms. In December Biervliet was taken. In Ghent, a revolutionary rule of an assembly of the people was formed. Opponents of the revolt, who realised that their city could not win, were killed; this way Ghent lost the support of the councils of the other cities who saw their own power threatened. Only Ninove kept supporting Ghent. On Friday, 31 May 1452, Philip the Good declared war on Ghent. A month earlier, from April 1452, the Ghent city government was forced to take military actions to secure supplies from the local region, they marched along the Scheldt river to Oudenaarde and Helkijn, along the Dender to Aalst and Geraardsbergen. Several strategic locations were taken and occupied by Ghent, amongst which a bridge of the Scheldt at Spiere, the castles of: Poeke, west of Ghent, near Aalter, halfway to Bruges. Schendelbeke, along the Dender at Geraardsbergen, south of Ghent. Gavere, along the Scheldt between Ghent and Oudenaarde where the Ghent garrison of 50 men was supported by 16 English mercenaries.
At the siege of Oudenaarde, which lasted 12 to 13 days, the army of Ghent used one of the largest artillery bombardments to take place in Europe at the time, but the Burgundian garrison of the city, under the leadership of Simon de Lalaing, was able to withstand the attack. Geraardsbergen, where the Burgundian main force was located withstood a siege; the Burgundian main force was able to unite with an army led by John of Burgundy, that marched from Seclin to relieve the sieges of Spiere and Helkijn on Friday 21 April, relieved the siege of Oudenaarde on Monday 24 April. The forces of Ghent were forced to retreat, leaving behind their artillery on the banks of the Scheldt river. From 1 to 15 May Ghent was bombarded by the Burgundians, who pulled back to Aalst and Oudenaarde. During the constant skirmishes, Philip's favorite illegitimate son, Corneille of Burgundy was killed at the Battle of Bazel on 14 June 1452. In July the Burgundians took the upper hand. King Charles VII of France negotiated a six-week truce between the two parties.
Philip the Good strengthened his garrisons at Aalst, Dendermonde and Kortrijk, after which his army pulled back to France for the winter. During the entire winter the garrisons, as well as the whole Flemish region, were pillaged and plundered by troops from Ghent without intervention from Philip the Good. Ghent troops were nearly able to blow up the entire Burgundian winter supply of gunpowder in Lille, but an observant guard extinguished the fuse in time. Philip attempted to negotiate a peace because Ghent, a rich city, was valuable to him, but Ghent refused any further negotiations. Halfway through 1453, Philip began a decisive military campaign that started on 18 June 1453. While a fleet moved up the Scheldt river from Sluis and Antwerp, Philip himself travelled from Lille in order to take the smaller Ghent possessions before marching on Ghent itself. On 27 June 14
Wars of Liège
The Wars of Liège were a series of three rebellions by the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, in the town of Liège in modern-day Belgium, against the expanding Duchy of Burgundy between 1465 and 1468. On each occasion, the rebels were defeated by Burgundian forces commanded by Charles the Bold and the city was twice burned to the ground. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy had become ruler of large parts of the Low Countries in the first half of the 15th century, to that extent that these were now called the Burgundian Netherlands. In 1456, Philip tried to expand his influence to the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. Through his excellent relations with Pope Callixtus III, he had Prince-Bishop John of Heinsberg deposed, replaced by his 18-year-old nephew Louis de Bourbon. De Bourbon continued his studies at the University of Leuven for 7 more years, while Philip ruled de facto over Liège. In the meantime, the resistance to the Burgundians in Prince-Bishopric grew; the leader was bailiff of Heers. He contacted King Louis XI of France.
When Louis de Bourbon took up his functions in the Prince-Bishopric in 1465, he was deposed by the States of Liège. Raes van Heers was unable to control the rebellious populace, which plundered Lands of Overmaas which belonged to the Duke of Burgundy. Philip the Good sent an army, under command of his son Charles the Bold, to Liège to restore his authority. Raes van Heers assembled an army of 4,000 men civilians and confronted Charles the Bold at the Battle of Montenaken on 20 October 1465; the battle was a clear victory for the Burgundians. Burgundian forces went on to occupy Sint-Truiden. Under the terms of the agreement, Liège lost all its rights and Louis of Bourbon was reinstated as Prince-Bishop; the unrest in Liège did not abate. In 1466, the city of Dinant, to the south-west and Philip the Good again sent troops, commanded by Charles the Bold, who punished the city by casting 800 burghers into the river Meuse and burnt the city; when Philip died in 1467, unrest broke out in the city of Liège and Louis of Bourbon was forced to flee to Huy, to the west.
There, his position was not secure and he was forced to flee the Prince-Bishopric together with all the Burgundians. Again, Raes van Heers and Count Jan de Wilde of Kessenich raised an army to confront Charles the Bold; the reinforcements promised by Louis XI of France again didn't materialise, the troops of Liège were decisively defeated in the Battle of Brustem on 28 October 1467. After the battle, Charles forced the city to surrender on 12 November; the Prince-Bishopric became a Burgundian protectorate under Guy of Humbercourt, all cities in the County of Loon were forced to tear down their defences. Still, the people of Liège refused to accept Burgundian rule. In October 1468, 240 rebels, under Jean de Wilde, Vincent de Bueren and Gosuin de Streel, invaded the city. In the confusion, Guy of Humbercourt and the entire Burgundian garrison fled. Liège was free again and Jean de Wilde occupied the Prince-Bishops' palace. One night, a Liège militia killed all Burgundians there. After this, Jean de Wilde opened negotiations with Guy of Humbercourt.
But Charles the Bold had other plans: he led an army towards Liège to deal once and for all with the rebellious city. He was accompanied by Louis XI of France. Several cities on their path were plundered, including Tongeren. On 22 October, a 500-strong militia that tried to stop the Burgundians at the village of Lantin were driven into the church and burned alive. Vincent de Bueren organised the defence of the city of Liège and achieved some successes with hit-and-run sorties. Jean de Wilde died two days later. Best known is the attack by the six hundred Franchimontois in the night of 29–30 October, who sneaked out of the city and attacked the sleeping Burgundians, with the aim of killing the Duke and the King; the plan failed and all 600, including Vincent de Bueren and Gosuin de Streel, were killed. The next day, Liège surrendered, at the command of Charles the Bold, hundreds of Liègois were tied together and thrown into the Meuse river; the city is said to have burned for seven weeks. In 1477, Charles the Bold was killed in the Battle of Nancy and was succeeded by his only heir, his nineteen-year-old daughter Mary of Burgundy.
Mary was attacked by France and turned for help to the States-General of the Netherlands. The help was given, but Mary had to concede the Great Privilege, abandoning the centralized policies of her father and grandfather. Liège benefited from this, Mary renounced her rights to the Prince-Bishopric on 19 March 1477. Louis of Bourbon remained Prince-Bishop until he was murdered on 30 August 1482 by William de La Marck, supported by Louis XI of France; the Wars of Liège were re-worked in historiography to reflect a struggle for local freedoms and autonomy, reflected in the Perron of Liège and its inclusion into the coat of arms of the town. The failed attack of the 600 Franchimontois was mythologized and celebrated as an example of Walloon heroism, equivalent to the Flemish defeat of the Kingdom of France at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302. Couque de Dinant - a biscuit said to have originated in the 1466 sacking of Dinant. Pirenne, Henri. "Le conflit Liégeois-Bourguignon et le Perron Liégeois".
Annales du congrès de Liége. WHKLMLA: Burgundian War on the Princebishopric of Liege, 1465–1468 Jean de Wilde La compagnie de la Verte Tente
Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire
The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire concerns the history of the Ottoman Empire from the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 until the second half of the sixteenth century the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During this period a system of patrimonial rule based on the absolute authority of the sultan reached its apex, the empire developed the institutional foundations which it would maintain, in modified form, for several centuries; the territory of the Ottoman Empire expanded, led to what some historians have called the Pax Ottomana. The process of centralization undergone by the empire prior to 1453 was brought to completion in the reign of Mehmed II; the Ottoman Empire of the Classical Age experienced dramatic territorial growth. The period opened with the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453. Mehmed II went on to consolidate the empire's position in the Balkans and Anatolia, conquering Serbia in 1454-5, the Peloponnese in 1458-9, Trebizond in 1461, Bosnia in 1463.
Many Venetian territories in Greece were conquered during the 1463-79 Ottoman-Venetian War. By 1474 the Ottomans had conquered their Anatolian rival the Karamanids, in 1475 conquered Kaffa on the Crimean Peninsula, establishing the Crimean Khanate as a vassal state. In 1480 an invasion of Otranto in Italy was launched, but the death of Mehmed II the following year led to an Ottoman withdrawal; the reign of Bayezid II was one of consolidation after the rapid conquests of the previous era, the empire's territory was expanded only marginally. In 1484 Bayezid led a campaign against Moldavia, subjecting it to vassal status and annexing the strategic ports of Kilia and Akkerman. Major Venetian ports were conquered in Greece and Albania during the 1499-1503 war, most Modon and Durazzo. However, by the end of his reign, Ottoman territory in the east was coming under threat from the newly established Safavid Empire. Rapid expansion resumed under Selim I, who defeated the Safavids in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, annexing much of eastern Anatolia and occupying Tabriz.
In 1516 he led a campaign against the Mamluk Sultanate, conquering first Syria and Egypt the following year. This marked a dramatic shift in the orientation of the Ottoman Empire, as it now came to rule over the Muslim heartlands of the Middle East, as well as establishing its protection over the holy cities of Mecca and Medina; this increased the influence of Islamic practices on the government of the empire, facilitated much greater interaction between the Arabic-speaking world and the Ottoman heartlands in Anatolia and the Balkans. Under Selim's reign the empire's territory expanded from 341,100 sq mi to 576,900 sq mi. Expansion continued during the first half of the reign of Suleiman I, who conquered first Belgrade and Rhodes, before invading Hungary in 1526, defeating and killing King Louis II in the Battle of Mohács and occupying Buda. Lacking a king, Hungary descended into civil war over the succession, the Ottomans gave support to John Zápolya as a vassal prince; when their rivals the Habsburgs began to achieve the upper hand, Suleiman directly intervened by again conquering Buda and annexing it to the empire in 1541.
Elsewhere, Suleiman led major campaigns against Safavid Iran, conquering Baghdad in 1534 and annexing Iraq. Ottoman rule was further extended with the incorporation of much of North Africa, the conquest of coastal Yemen in 1538, the subsequent annexation of the interior. After the annexation of Buda in 1541 the pace of Ottoman expansion slowed as the empire attempted to consolidate its vast gains, became engrossed in imperial warfare on three fronts: in Hungary, in Iran, in the Mediterranean. Additional conquests were marginal, served to shore up the Ottoman position. Ottoman control over Hungary was expanded in a series of campaigns, a second Hungarian province was established with the conquests of Temeşvar in 1552. Control over North Africa was increased with the conquest of Tripoli in 1551, while the Ottomans shored up their position in the Red Sea with the annexation of Massawa and the extension of Ottoman rule over much of coastal Eritrea and Djibouti. By the end of Suleiman's reign the empire's territory had expanded to 877,888 sq mi.
The conquest of Constantinople allowed Mehmed II to turn his attention to Anatolia. Mehmed II tried to create a single political entity in Anatolia by capturing Turkish states called Beyliks and the Greek Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia and allied himself with the Crimean Khanate. Uniting the Anatolian Beyliks was first accomplished by Sultan Bayezid I, more than fifty years earlier than Mehmed II but after the destructive Battle of Ankara back in 1402, the newly formed Anatolian unification was gone. Mehmed II recovered the Ottoman power on other Turkish states; these conquests allowed him to push further into Europe. Another important political entity which shaped the Eastern policy of Mehmed II was the White Sheep Turcomans. With the leadership of Uzun Hasan, this Turcoman kingdom gained power in the East but because of their strong relations with the Christian powers like Empire of Trebizond and the Republic of Venice and the alliance between Turcomans and Karamanid tribe, Mehmed saw them as a threat to his own power.
He led a successful campaign against Uzun Hasan in 1473 which resulted with the decisive victory of the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Otlukbeli. After the Fall of Constantinople, Mehmed would go on to conquer the Despotate of Morea in the Peloponnese in 1460, the Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia in 1461; the last two vestiges of Byzantine rule were th
Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire, of the Byzantine Empire, of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire, until falling to the Ottoman Empire. It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, dedicated on 11 May 330; the city was located in what is now the core of modern Istanbul. From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe; the city was famed for its architectural masterpieces, such as the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares. The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of Thorns and the True Cross. Constantinople was famed for its complex defences; the first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, surrounded the city on both land and sea fronts. In the 5th century, the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front; this formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the'seven hills' of Rome; because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents and two seas.
Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defences of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years. In 1204, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city, its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin misrule. In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos liberated the city, after the restoration under the Palaiologos dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery. With the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, the first known name of a settlement on the site of Constantinople was Lygos, a settlement of Thracian origin founded between the 13th and 11th centuries BC; the site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded Byzantium in around 657 BC, across from the town of Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.
The origins of the name of Byzantion, more known by the Latin Byzantium, are not clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyrian origin. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas; the Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men and Antes, though this was more just a play on the word Byzantion. The city was renamed Augusta Antonina in the early 3rd century AD by the Emperor Septimius Severus, who razed the city to the ground in 196 for supporting a rival contender in the civil war and had it rebuilt in honour of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, popularly known as Caracalla; the name appears to have been forgotten and abandoned, the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty in 235. Byzantium took on the name of Kōnstantinoupolis after its refoundation under Roman emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium in 330 and designated his new capital as Nova Roma'New Rome'.
During this time, the city was called'Second Rome','Eastern Rome', Roma Constantinopolitana. As the city became the sole remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, its wealth and influence grew, the city came to have a multitude of nicknames; as the largest and wealthiest city in Europe during the 4th–13th centuries and a centre of culture and education of the Mediterranean basin, Constantinople came to be known by prestigious titles such as Basileuousa and Megalopol
Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes. Though they can be found world over in introduced populations, the pheasant genera native range is restricted to Asia. Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being decorated with bright colors and adornments such as wattles. Males are larger than females and have longer tails. Males play no part in rearing the young. Pheasants eat seeds and some insects; the best-known is the common pheasant, widespread throughout the world, in introduced feral populations and in farm operations. Various other pheasant species are popular in aviaries, such as the golden pheasant. According to the OED, the word "pheasant" comes from Phasis, the ancient name of what is now called the Rioni River in Georgia, it passed from Greek to Latin to French to English, appearing for the first time in English around the year 1299. This list is ordered to show presumed relationships between species.
Blood pheasant Blood pheasant Koklass Koklass pheasant Gallopheasants Kalij pheasant White-crested kalij pheasant Nepal kalij pheasant Black-backed kalij pheasant Black kalij pheasant Black-breasted kalij pheasant William's kalij pheasant Oates' kalij pheasant Crawfurd's kalij pheasant Lineated kalij pheasant Silver pheasant Imperial pheasant Edward's pheasant Vietnamese pheasant Swinhoe's pheasant Hoogerwerf's pheasant Salvadori's pheasant Crestless fireback Malayan crestless fireback Bornean crestless fireback Crested fireback Lesser Bornean crested fireback Greater Bornean crested fireback Vieilott's crested fireback Delacour's crested fireback Siamese fireback Bulwer's pheasant Eared pheasants White-eared pheasant Tibetan eared pheasant Brown eared pheasant Blue eared pheasant Cheer pheasant Cheer pheasant Long-tailed pheasants Reeves's pheasant Elliot's pheasant Mrs. Hume's pheasant Mikado pheasant Copper pheasant Typical pheasants Green pheasant Common pheasant Caucasus pheasants, Phasianus colchicus colchicus group White-winged pheasants, Phasianus colchicus chrysomelas/principalis group Prince of Wales pheasant, Phasianus colchicus principalis Mongolian ring-necked pheasants or white-winged ring-necked pheasants, Phasianus colchicus mongolicus group Tarim pheasants, Phasianus colchicus tarimensis group Chinese ring-necked pheasants, Phasianus colchicus torquatus group Taiwan pheasant, Phasianus colchicus formosanus Ruffed pheasants Golden pheasant Lady Amherst's pheasant Peacock-pheasants Bronze-tailed peacock-pheasant Mountain peacock-pheasant Germain's peacock-pheasant Grey peacock-pheasant Green-Armytage, Stephen.
2002. Extraordinary Pheasants. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York. Book ISBN 0-8109-1007-1. Madge and McGowan, Pheasants and Grouse ISBN 0-7136-3966-0 Videos of pheasants in the Internet Bird Collection
Battle of Roosebeke
The Battle of Roosebeke took place on 27 November 1382 on the Goudberg between a Flemish army under Philip van Artevelde and a French army under Louis II of Flanders who had called upon the help of the French king Charles VI after he had suffered a defeat during the Battle of Beverhoutsveld. The Flemish army was defeated, Philip van Artevelde was slain and his corpse was put on display. Philip II had ruled the council of regents from 1380 till 1388, ruled France during the childhood years of Charles VI, Philip's nephew, he deployed the French army in Westrozebeke to suppress a Flemish rebellion led by Philip van Artevelde, who intended to dispose of Louis II of Flanders. Philip II was married to Margaret of Louis' daughter. Ghent had rebelled against Count Louis II of Flanders; the Count surrounded the city, when the citizens of Ghent asked for terms, Louis demanded that all men between the ages of 15 and 60 must present themselves with halters around their necks. The count would decide whom he would pardon and whom he would execute.
The men of Ghent determined to fight and on 5 May 1382, under the leadership of Philip Van Artevelde, they issued from their city and smashed Louis' overconfident army. The French nobility, facing an incipient peasant revolt at home, felt forced to move against the upstart Flemish commoners; the French royal party patched up its differences with the unruly citizens of Paris and mounted an expedition on behalf of the Count of Flanders. The army "probably numbered around 12,000" and included King Charles VI and the dukes of Burgundy and Berry, lords Clisson, Sancerre and other notables; the Oriflamme was carried for the first time since the Battle of Poitiers. At the Lys River near the town of Comines, the French army was held up by 900 Flemish soldiers commanded by Peter van den Bossche. Since the only bridge was broken, Olivier de Clisson ferried a party of 400 French knights across the river; these volunteers spent an anxious night joined battle in the morning. Soon the bridge was rebuilt, the bulk of the French army crossed and the superior force put the Flemish spearmen to flight.
Van den Bossche was managed to escape. After this skirmish, a number of Flemish towns sued for peace, paying a stiff ransom to the French king; the French had assembled a strong force in November and though the contemporary sources exaggerate its numbers, it was clear that van Artevelde's army was outnumbered. At this time he was laying siege to the town of Oudenaarde but lifted the siege to make camp on a hill, the Goudberg, situated between Oostnieuwkerke and Passendale; the French troops lay on the other side of the hill. On the morning of 27 November, van Artevelde planned to make use of the dense fog and attack the French. To prevent a breakthrough by enemy cavalry he ordered his men to advance in a tight square formation; the French had not forgotten the Battle of the Golden Spurs, first engaged the Flemings with a wave of infantry. Van Artevelde decided to attack the French; the French commander, Olivier de Clisson, reacted by attacking his opponent's unsecured flanks with heavy cavalry.
This caused a panic in the Flemish rear. The main body of Flemish troops had no other option, they were pushed back and defeated and Philip van Artevelde was killed. Philip II could not gain any advantage from this victory, he would become count of Flanders late January 1384 and needed the economic power of rebellious Ghent. The rebellion lasted till 8 December 1385. Tuchman, Barbara. A Distant Mirror. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978. ISBN 0-394-40026-7 Buonaccorso Pitti's eyewitness account of the battle