Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces; the invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering the Korean Peninsula and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and by the Ming dynasty, respectively. Japan succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, in Busan and nearby southern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese with righteous armies and supply difficulties hampering both sides, neither the Japanese nor the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military stalemate.
The first phase of the invasion lasted from 1592 until 1596, was followed by unsuccessful peace negotiations between Japan and the Ming between 1596 and 1597. In 1597, Japan renewed its offensive by invading Korea a second time; the pattern of the second invasion mirrored that of the first. The Japanese had initial successes on land, capturing several cities and fortresses, only to be halted and forced to withdraw to the southern coastal regions of the peninsula; the pursuing Ming and Joseon forces, were unable to dislodge the Japanese from their remaining fortresses and entrenched positions in the southern coastal areas, where both sides again became locked in a ten-month long military stalemate. With Hideyoshi's death in 1598, limited progress on land, continued disruption of supply lines by the Joseon navy, the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the new governing Council of Five Elders. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years resulting in the normalization of relations.
In Korean, the first invasion is called the "Japanese Disturbance of Imjin". The second invasion is called the "Second War of Jeong-yu". Collectively, the invasions are referred to as the Imjin War. In Chinese, the wars are referred to as the "Wanli Korean Campaign", after the reigning Chinese emperor, or the "Renchen War to Defend the Nation", where renchen is the Chinese reading of imjin. In Japanese, the war is called Bunroku no eki. Bunroku referring to the Japanese era name of Emperor Go-Yōzei, spanning the period from 1592 to 1596; the second invasion is called "Keichō no eki". During the Edo period, the war was called "Kara iri", because Japan's ultimate purpose at the commencement of the invasion was the conquest of Ming China, although with the reality that the conflict was confined to the Korean Peninsula for the duration of the war, the armies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi would alter their immediate objectives during the course of the campaign. In 1592, with an army of 158,000 troops, Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched what would end up being the first of two invasions of Korea, with the intent of conquering Joseon Korea and Ming-dynasty China.
The Japanese forces saw overwhelming success on land, capturing both Hanseong, the capital of Korea, Pyongyang, completing the occupation of large portions of the Korean Peninsula in three months. The Japanese forces, well trained and experienced after the numerous battles and conflicts of the Sengoku period held the field in most land engagements; this success on land, was constrained by the naval campaigns of the Korean navy which would continue to raid Japanese supply fleets in its coastal waters, hampering the Japanese advances as supply lines were disrupted along the Western Korean coast and Japanese naval reinforcements were repelled. These trends, with some exceptions on both sides, held true throughout much of the conflict. Under the rule of the Wanli Emperor, Ming China interpreted the Japanese invasions as a challenge and threat to the Imperial Chinese tributary system; the Ming's interest was to keep the war confined to the Korean peninsula and out of its own territory. In the engagements that followed, the majority of the Joseon army was focused on defending the northern provinces from Japanese offensives, while supporting Ming army campaigns to recapture territory occupied by the Japanese.
It was the combination of these Ming-led land campaigns and Joseon-led naval warfare that forced the Japanese army to withdraw from Pyongyang to the south, where the Japanese continued to occupy Hanseong and the southern regions with the exception of the southwestern Jeolla Province. The pursuing Ming and Joseon armies attempted to advance further into the south, but were halted by the Japanese army at the Battle of Byeokjegwan. Subsequently, the Japanese armies launched a counterattack in an attempt to reoccupy the northern provinces but were repelled by the defending Joseon army at Haengju fortress. Additionally, Joseon's civilian-led righteous armies waged guerrilla warfare against the Japanese forces in the south, which weakened the Japanese hold in the cities they occupied. Afterwards, with supply difficulties hampering bot
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
Battle of the Herrings
The Battle of the Herrings called the Battle of Rouvray, was a military action near the town of Rouvray in France, just north of Orléans, which took place on 12 February 1429 during the siege of Orléans in the Hundred Years' War. The immediate cause of the battle was an attempt by French and Scottish forces, led by Charles of Bourbon and Sir John Stewart of Darnley, to intercept a supply convoy headed for the English army at Orléans; the English had been laying siege to the city since the previous October. This supply convoy was escorted by an English force under Sir John Fastolf and had been outfitted in Paris, whence it had departed some time earlier; the battle was decisively won by the English. According to Régine Pernoud, the supply train consisted of "some 300 carts and wagons, carrying crossbow shafts and cannonballs but barrels of herring"; the latter were being sent. It was the presence of this stock of fish; the field of battle was an featureless, flat plain. The French army, numbering between 3,000 and 4,000, confronted the much smaller English force who had set up defensive positions by drawing up the supply wagons into a makeshift fortification.
The entire defensive formation was further protected by the placement of sharpened spikes all around to prevent the French cavalry from charging, a tactic, employed, with great success, at the Battle of Agincourt. The French attack began with a bombardment using gunpowder artillery, a new weapon for the time and one whose proper usage was not well understood although it was damaging to the wagons and caused English casualties; the 400-strong Scottish infantry, contrary to the orders of the Count of Clermont went on the attack against the English formation. This, according to deVries, forced the premature cessation of the artillery bombardment out of fear of striking their own forces; the Scots were not well protected by armour and great damage was visited upon them by the English archers and crossbowmen who were shooting from behind the protection of their wagon fort. French cavalry were stopped by the archers and stakes. At this point, the English, seeing that the remaining French infantry forces were slow to join the Scots in the attack, decided themselves to go on a counterattack.
They put them to flight. The convoy continued on to supply the besieging English soldiers; the morale effect of the battle affected both sides. There are two places called Rouvray in the region in question. In his biography of Sir John Fastolf, Stephen Cooper gives reasons why the battle took place near Rouvray-Sainte-Croix, rather than Rouvray-Saint-Denis. Pernoud states that the combined French/Scottish forces lost about 400 men, including Stewart, the leader of the Scots. Among the wounded was Jean de Dunois, known as the Bastard of Orléans, who escaped with his life and who would play a crucial role, along with Joan of Arc, in the lifting of the siege of Orléans and the French Loire campaign which followed. While it is felt today that the Battle of the Herrings was lost by the French because of the failure to continue the artillery bombardment to its full effect, such was not the view at the time, at least in the besieged city of Orléans. Within the city walls, as can be seen from the passage in the Journal du siege, the Count of Clermont was blamed for the disaster, being considered a coward and held in disdain.
Soon thereafter, together with the wounded Count Dunois, left Orléans together with about 2000 soldiers. Morale within the city and among its leaders was at a low point, so much so that consideration was given to surrendering the city; the Battle of the Herrings was the most significant military action during the siege of Orléans from its inception in October 1428 until the appearance on the scene, in May of the following year, of Joan of Arc. So, it was, to all appearances, a rather minor engagement and, were it not for the context in which it occurred, would most have been relegated to the merest of footnotes in military history or forgotten altogether, but not only was it part of one of the most famous siege actions in history, the story gained currency that it played a pivotal role in convincing Robert de Baudricourt in Vaucouleurs, to accede to Joan's demand for support and safe conduct to Chinon. For it was on the day of the battle that Joan met with de Baudricourt for the final time.
According to the story, recounted in several places, Joan gave out the information that "the Dauphin's arms had that day suffered a great reverse near Orléans". When, several days news of the military setback near Rouvrey did in fact reach Vaucouleurs, de Baudricourt, according to the story and agreed to sponsor her journey to the Dauphin in Chinon. Joan left Vaucouleurs for Chinon on 23 February 1429. Polish fantasy writer, Lux perpetua; the novel is part of the Hussite Trilogy, which takes place in 15th century Silesia, during the Hussite Wars. The short description of the battle is not connected with the main plot. Sir John Fastolf is shown as a comical figure who wins the battle thanks to rumours he may have heard about the Bohemian heretics and their commander, Jan Žižka (whose name
Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva was a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. After serving with the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, where he served as lieutenant under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, acting as his second in command. In 1540 he led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he defeated a large force of indigenous natives and founded Santiago in 1541, he extended Spanish rule south to the Biobío River in 1546, fought again in Peru, returned to Chile as governor in 1549. He began to conquer Chile south of the Biobío and founded Concepción in 1550, he was killed in a campaign against the Mapuche. The city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him. Pedro de Valdivia is believed to have been born in Villanueva de la Serena in Extremadura, Spain around 1500 to an impoverished hidalgo family. In 1520 he joined the Spanish army of Charles I and fought in Flanders in 1521 and Italy between 1522 and 1525, participating in the battle of Pavia as part of the troops of the Marquis of Pescara.
He reached America in 1535, spent an uneventful year in Venezuela, moved on to Peru in 1537. There he took part on the side of Hernando Pizarro in his struggle against Diego de Almagro and fought in the battle of Las Salinas in 1538, which saw Almagro defeated and captured. Afterwards he accompanied Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro to conquer both the province of Collao and las Charcas in High Peru; as compensation for his help in conquering these lands, he was awarded a silver mine and became a wealthy man. Valdivia had married Marina Ortíz de Gaete in Spain, but in Peru he became attached to the widow Inés de Suárez, to accompany him to Chile as his mistress. After the failure of the expedition of Diego de Almagro in 1536, the lands to the south of Peru had remained unexplored. Valdivia asked governor Francisco Pizarro for permission to complete the conquest of that territory, he got his permission but was appointed only Lieutenant Governor, not Governor as he had wanted. The expedition was fraught with problems from the beginning.
Valdivia had to sell the lands and the mine, assigned to him in order to finance the expedition. A shortage of soldiers and adventurers was problematic since they were not interested in conquering what they were sure were poor lands. Furthermore, while he was preparing the expedition, Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz arrived from Spain with a royal grant for the same country. To avoid difficulties, Pizarro advised the two competitors to join their interests, on December 28, 1539, a contract of partnership was signed; the small expedition left Cuzco, Peru in January, 1540, with Pizarro's permission and Pedro Sancho de Hoz as partner. They carried with them a plethora of seeds for planting, a drove of swine and brood mares, a thousand native Indians but were composed of only a few Spaniards. Only one woman was among the travelers, Inés de Suárez, Valdivia's mistress. En route more Spaniards joined the expedition, attracted by Valdivia's fame as a brilliant leader; these conquistadores had formed part of the failed campaigns to the highlands of Bolivia and all in all around 150 Spaniards joined the expedition.
Valdivia resolved to avoid the road over the Andes, which had proved fatal to Almagro's army, set out resolutely through the Atacama Desert. On the way, Pedro Sancho de Hoz, seeking sole leadership, failed, he was pardoned but from on had to accept subordinate status. The natives of the region were not pleased by the return of the Spaniards due to the maltreatment they had suffered under Almagro. With many promises, Valdivia was able to regain their trust. After a march of five months, suffering great privations, they arrived at the Copiapo valley, where Valdivia took possession of the land in the name of the Spanish king. Soon thereafter they continued south and in December 1540, eleven months after they left Cuzco and his expedition reached the valley of the Mapocho river, where they were able to establish the capital of the territory; the valley was well populated with natives. Its soil was fertile and there was abundant fresh water. Two high hills provided defensive positions. Soon after their arrival, Valdivia tried to convince the native inhabitants of his good intentions, sending out delegations bearing gifts for the caciques.
On February 12, 1541, Valdivia founded the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura. The ceremony was held at the foot of the Huelén hill. After arriving in Chile and his men went out of their way to restore the relationship between conquistador and Indian, harmed by Almagro and his merciless ways. At first, Valdivia was successful in his efforts to deal benevolently with the native population, but this peaceful coexistence did not last long. One of the first orders that Valdivia gave was to have a ship constructed at the mouth of the Aconcagua River to send to Peru for further supplies and to serve as a courier service, but soon was obliged to return in haste to Santiago to subdue a mutiny; the Spaniards' greed surfaced and overshadowed previous intentions when rumors of gold at the Marga Marga mines, in the vicinity of Valparaiso arose, the settlers began forcing the natives to work there
Gwon Yul was a Korean Army General and the Commander-in-chief of Korea, who led the Korean forces against Japan during the Japanese invasions of Korea. He is best known for the Battle of Haengju where he defeated an attacking force of about 30,000 Japanese with 2,800 troops. After the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592, Lee Gwang-gwan and Kwokyeong, a North Korean patrol in Jeolla Province, joined the army of some 40,000 people. After that, he was stationed in Namwon, where he collected more than 1,000 volunteer soldiers and was promoted to a small division of Dakage, Japan. In addition, during the North Korean invasion, Dongwangsansan Fortress in Suwon was located, a strong position was built, but the army was engaged in a war of land and a war of guerrilla fighters. In 1593, he divided his forces and ordered SeonguI, the deputy commander, to take the army to the Kimchusan Mountain, cross the Han River with 2,800 soldiers. 幸 He was dismissed for summary disposal of a police sergeant after earning his degree in the field, but was re-appointed as a judge of the Han family and was appointed as a police officer in 1596.
When Jeong Yu-jaran broke out in 1597, he was forced to leave Ulsan with the emperor of Ming to block the enemy's north, but he retired as the commander of the Ming Dynasty. Afterwards, he attempted to attack the Japanese troops stationed in Yegyo Bridge in Suncheon, but failed due to the uncooperative efforts of the Ming Dynasty men who were reluctant to expand the war, he was a general who conducted the military for seven years during the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, earned a major in history along with Admiral Yi Sun-shin of the sea. In 1599, he resigned his office due to old age and returned to his hometown, he was awarded the title of Prime Minister, first rank in 1604, was designated as Yeongna County, was named Chungjangsa.. Gwon Ryul hailed from the prestigious Gwon clan of Andong. However, Gwon did not begin his political or military career until he was 46. In 1582, he was first appointed a position in the Korean government and promoted to several different positions including the mayor of Uiju in 1591.
When the Japanese forces invaded Korea in 1592, Gwon was appointed the mayor of Gwangju, Jeolla province and given the military command of the region. Gwon and his troops followed his commander Yi Gwang and headed towards Seoul to join the main force. However, Yi was defeated by Japanese at Yongin. Gwon managed to retreat back to Gwangju, gathered around 1,000 militia; when Japanese troops at Geumsan, Jeolla province began to move to Jeonju, Gwon moved his army to Ichi, a gateway to Jeonju. Ten thousand Japanese troops under Kobayakawa Takakage attacked Ichi. About 1,000 of Gwon's men won the battle. Gwon supervised his unit by executing deserters and his vanguard commander Hwang Jin kept fighting despite a gunshot injury; the battle resulted in the recapture of the Jeolla province. The Joseon Government recognized Gwon's heroics, named him the new governor of the Jeolla province in the following year. Gwon led an army of 10,000 to Gyeonggi to recapture Seoul once more, where he was joined by local militia and monks, which enabled Gwon to gather up to 20,000 men.
Gwon's troops were stationed in the fortress Doksung near Suwon. Japanese forces led by Ukita Hideie laid siege to the fort for one month, Gwon's army was running out of water supplies. One day, Gwon ordered several war horses to be brought on the fort wall and washed with grains of rice. From a distance, it looked; the Japanese, who were waiting for the fort's water supply to run out, lost their spirits and retreated to Seoul. Gwon chased the retreating Japanese. After the war, the king Seonjo built a monument on the top of Doksung named Semadae, "the place where horses were washed", as a tribute to Gwon. After the battle, the Joseon government ordered Gwon to march northward and combat the Japanese in Seoul. Gwon and his men set up camp in the run-down fortress of Haengju near Seoul. Although his forces were joined by local militias led by Kim Chun-il and monk soldiers led by Cheo Yung, his entire unit in Haengju was no more than 2,800 men. Threatened by this action, Japanese commanders Katō Kiyomasa and Ukita, attacked Haengju fortress with 30,000 men, trying to finish off Gwon's troops once and for all.
Ukita, who never led the attack in the frontline directly, led the Japanese toward the fortress. The Battle of Haengju commenced early in the morning of 12 February 1593. Japanese troops under Kato and Ukita, armed with muskets, surrounded the fortress and launched several massive attacks. However, Gwon's forces and the civilians at the fortress resisted throwing rocks, iron pellets, burning oil and molten iron at the Japanese. Korean anti-personnel gunpowder weapons called hwachas and explosive cannon shells called bigyeokjincheolloi were utilized in this battle; the Japanese, with over 10,000 casualties and top generals Ukita, Ishida Mitsunari, Kikkawa Hiroie wounded, were compelled to retreat and fled the region. It was one of the three greatest Korean military victories during the Seven-Year War, along with the Battle of Hansan Island and the Siege of Jinju. After the battle, he kept his position, until the peace talks between Ming Dynasty and Toyotomi Hideyoshi began, he moved to Jeolla province, from on, Gwon Ryul be
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death. Her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon became the basis for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind, her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects, for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World and to the establishment of Spain as the first global power which dominated Europe and much of the world for more than a century. Isabella, granted together with her husband the title "the Catholic" by Pope Alexander VI, was recognized as a Servant of God by the Catholic Church in 1974.
Isabella was born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Ávila, to John II of Castile and his second wife, Isabella of Portugal on 22 April 1451. At the time of her birth, she was second in line to the throne after her older half-brother Henry IV of Castile. Henry childless, her younger brother Alfonso of Castile was born two years on 17 November 1453, lowering her position to third in line. When her father died in 1454, her half-brother ascended to the throne as King Henry IV of Castile. Isabella and her brother Alfonso were left in King Henry's care. She, her mother, Alfonso moved to Arévalo; these were times of turmoil for Isabella. The living conditions at their castle in Arévalo were poor, they suffered from a shortage of money. Although her father arranged in his will for his children to be financially well taken care of, King Henry did not comply with their father's wishes, either from a desire to keep his half-siblings restricted, or from ineptitude. Though living conditions were difficult, under the careful eye of her mother, Isabella was instructed in lessons of practical piety and in a deep reverence for religion.
When the King's wife, Joan of Portugal, was about to give birth to their daughter Joanna and her brother Alfonso were summoned to court in Segovia to come under the direct supervision of the King and to finish their education. Alfonso was placed in the care of a tutor; some of Isabella's living conditions improved in Segovia. She always had food and clothing and lived in a castle, adorned with gold and silver. Isabella's basic education consisted of reading, writing, mathematics, chess, embroidery and religious instruction, she and her ladies-in-waiting entertained themselves with art and music. She lived a relaxed lifestyle, but she left Segovia since King Henry forbade this, her half-brother was keeping her from the political turmoils going on in the kingdom, though Isabella had full knowledge of what was going on and of her role in the feuds. The noblemen, anxious for power, confronted King Henry, demanding that his younger half-brother Infante Alfonso be named his successor, they went so far as to ask Alfonso to seize the throne.
The nobles, now in control of Alfonso and claiming that he was the true heir, clashed with King Henry's forces at the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467. The battle was a draw. King Henry agreed to recognize Alfonso as his heir presumptive, provided that he would marry his daughter, Princess Joanna la Beltraneja. Soon after he was named Prince of Asturias, Isabella's younger brother Alfonso died in July 1468 of the plague; the nobles who had supported him suspected poisoning. As she had been named in her brother's will as his successor, the nobles asked Isabella to take his place as champion of the rebellion. However, support for the rebels had begun to wane, Isabella preferred a negotiated settlement to continuing the war, she met with her elder brother Henry at Toros de Guisando and they reached a compromise: the war would stop, King Henry would name Isabella his heir-presumptive instead of his daughter Joanna, Isabella would not marry without her brother's consent, but he would not be able to force her to marry against her will.
Isabella's side came out with most of what the nobles desired, though they did not go so far as to depose King Henry. The question of Isabella's marriage was not a new one, she had made her debut in the matrimonial market at the age of six with a betrothal to Ferdinand, the younger son of John II of Navarre. At that time, the two kings and John, were eager to show their mutual love and confidence and they believed that this double alliance would make their eternal friendship obvious to the world; this arrangement, did not last long. Ferdinand's uncle Alfonso V of Aragon died in 1458. All of Alfonso's Spanish territories, as well as the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, were left to his brother John II. John now had a stronger position than before and no longer needed the security of Henry's friendship. Henry was now in need of a new alliance, he saw the chance for this much needed new friendship in Charles of John's elder son. Charles was at odds with his father, because of this, he secretly entered into an alliance with Henry IV of Castile.
A major part of the alliance was