Lord of the Isles
The Lord of the Isles is a title of Scottish nobility with historical roots that go back beyond the Kingdom of Scotland. It emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, although they were, at times, nominal vassals of the Kings of Norway, Ireland, or Scotland, the island chiefs remained functionally independent for many centuries. Their territory included the Hebrides, Knoydart and the Kintyre peninsula, at their height they were the greatest landowners and most powerful lords in the British Isles after the Kings of England and Scotland. The end of the MacDonald Lords came in 1493 when John MacDonald forfeited his estates and titles to King James IV of Scotland, thus Prince Charles is the current Lord of the Isles. The only island still in the possession of the MacDonalds is tiny Cara off Kintyre, which is owned by the MacDonalds of Largie, the west coast and islands of present-day Scotland were those of a people or peoples of uncertain cultural affiliation until the 5th century.
They were invaded by Gaels from Ireland starting perhaps in the 4th century or earlier, whose language eventually predominated. In the 8th and 9th centuries this area, like others, suffered raids and invasions by Vikings from Norway, and the became known to the Gaels as Innse-Gall. The following year, the people of the Isles, both Gael and Norse, harald sent his cousin Ketill Flatnose to regain control, and Ketil became King of the Isles. Scotland and Norway would continue to dispute overlordship of the area, the Norse nobleman Godred Crovan became ruler of Man and the Isles, but he was deposed in 1095 by the new King of Norway, Magnus Bareleg. In 1098, Magnus entered into a treaty with King Edgar of Scotland, Magnus was confirmed in control of the Isles and Edgar of the mainland. Lavery cites a tale from the Orkneyinga saga, according to which King Malcolm III of Scotland offered Earl Magnus of Orkney all the islands off the west coast navigable with the rudder set. Magnus allegedly had a skiff hauled across the neck of land at Tarbert, Loch Fyne with himself at the helm, Gilledommans grandson, seized the Isles from the King of Man in 1156 and founded a dynasty that in time became the Lords of the Isles.
He had Celtic blood on his fathers side and Norse on his mothers, his contemporaries knew him as Somerled Macgilbred and he took the title Rí Innse Gall as well as King of Man. King Haakon IV of Norway confirmed Donalds son Angus Mor Mac Donald as Lord of Islay, when that ended with an effective victory for Scotland, Angus Mor accepted King Alexander III of Scotland as his overlord and retained his own territory. The Lord was advised by a Council, in practice and attendance must have varied with the times and the occasion. Angus Ogs son Good John of Islay first formally assumed the title Dominus Insularum – Lord of the Isles – in 1336, in their maritime domain the Lords of the Isles used galleys for both warfare and transport. These ships had developed from the Viking longships and knarrs, clinker-built with a square sail, from the 14th century they changed from using a steering oar to a stern rudder. These ships took part in sea battles and attacked castles or forts built close to the sea, the Lordship specified the feudal dues of its subjects in terms of numbers and sizes of the galleys each area had to provide in service to their Lord
Edward IV of England
Edward IV was the King of England from 4 March 1461 until 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England, before becoming king, he was 4th Duke of York, 7th Earl of March, 5th Earl of Cambridge and 9th Earl of Ulster. He was the 65th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Edward of York was born at Rouen in France, the second son of Richard, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. He was the eldest of the four sons who survived to adulthood and he bore the title Earl of March before his fathers death and his accession to the throne. Edwards father Richard, Duke of York, had been heir to King Henry VI until the birth of Henrys son Edward in 1453, Richard carried on a factional struggle with the kings Beaufort relatives. He established a dominant position after his victory at the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, in which his chief rival Edmund Beaufort, Henrys Queen, Margaret of Anjou, rebuilt a powerful faction to oppose the Yorkists over the following years.
The Yorkist leaders fled from England after the collapse of their army in the confrontation at Ludford Bridge, the Duke of York took refuge in Ireland, while Edward went with the Nevilles to Calais where Warwick was governor. In 1460 Edward landed in Kent with Salisbury and Salisburys brother William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, raised an army and this left Edward, now Duke of York, at the head of the Yorkist faction. He defeated a Lancastrian army at Mortimers Cross in Herefordshire on 2–3 February 1461 and he united his forces with those of Warwick, whom Margarets army had defeated at the Second Battle of St Albans, during which Henry VI had been rescued by his supporters. Edwards father had restricted his ambitions to becoming Henrys heir, and he advanced against the Lancastrians, having his life saved on the battlefield by the Welsh Knight Sir David Ap Mathew. He defeated the Lancastrian army in the exceptionally bloody Battle of Towton in Yorkshire on 29 March 1461, Edward had effectively broken the military strength of the Lancastrians, and he returned to London for his coronation.
King Edward IV named Sir David Ap Mathew Standard Bearer of England, Lancastrian resistance continued in the north, but posed no serious threat to the new regime and was finally extinguished by Warwicks brother John Neville in the Battle of Hexham in 1464. Henry VI had escaped into the Pennines, where he spent a year in hiding, Queen Margaret fled abroad with the young Prince Edward and many of their leading supporters. Even at the age of nineteen, Edward exhibited remarkable military acumen and he had a notable physique and was described as handsome and affable. His height is estimated at 6 feet 4.5 inches, making him the tallest among all English, most of Englands leading families had remained loyal to Henry VI or remained uncommitted in the recent conflict. The new regime, relied heavily on the support of the Nevilles, the king increasingly became estranged from their leader the Earl of Warwick, due primarily to his marriage. Warwick, acting on Edwards behalf, made arrangements with King Louis XI of France for Edward to marry either Louis daughter Anne or his sister-in-law Bona of Savoy.
He was humiliated and enraged to discover that, while he was negotiating, Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville, Edwards marriage to Elizabeth Woodville has been criticised as an impulsive action that did not add anything to the security of England or the York dynasty
Treaty of Westminster (1462)
The Treaty of Westminster was signed on 13 February 1462 between Edward IV of England of the House of York and the Scottish Lord of the Isles, John of Islay, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles. The Scottish crown in the minority of James III of Scotland had taken the Lancastrian part in the Wars of the Roses by welcoming the fugitive Henry VI of England. Edward IV was forming an alliance with these disaffected nobles to reduce the threat posed by the former king. The Earl of Douglas and his brother John Douglas of Balvenie made their way to the west of Scotland with Edward IVs proposals. The highlands lords gave their assent from Ardtornish Castle on 19 October 1461, the articles were finalised and sealed at Westminster Palace on 13 February 1462 and signed by Edward IV on 17 March 1462. Its consequence was an attack by the Earl of Ross on crown lands near Inverness in 1462 and 1463, the Scotland crown allied with Edward IV by the treaty of York in 1464. It is notable that Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus was to play a significant role in the future Treaty of Perpetual Peace and its offspring, the Treaty of Greenwich.
The Douglases were generally at that time, the heads of the party in Scotland, pushing for what eventually became a Union of the Crowns. List of treaties Timeline for Scotland during the 1400s Landscapes of Scotland Rymer, Foedera, literae. Inter Reges Angliae et alios, vol.5 part 1 &2, Johannes Neaulm, Hague, in part 1, p. 107-9 Lang, Andrew, A History of Scotland from the Roman Occupation, vol
Catherine Howard was Queen of England from 1540 until 1541, as the fifth wife of Henry VIII. Catherine married Henry VIII on 28 July 1540, at Oatlands Palace, in Surrey, Catherine was stripped of her title as queen within 16 months, in November 1541. She was beheaded three months later, on the grounds of treason for committing adultery while married to the King, Catherine was one of the daughters of Lord Edmund Howard and Joyce Culpeper. Her fathers sister, Elizabeth Howard, was the mother of Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard was the first cousin of Anne Boleyn, and the first cousin once removed of Lady Elizabeth, King Henry VIII and Annes daughter. As a granddaughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and her father was not wealthy, being a younger son among 21 children and disfavoured in the custom of primogeniture, in which the eldest son inherits all his fathers estate. With little to sustain the family, her father was often reduced to begging for handouts from his affluent relatives. After Catherines mother died in 1528, her father married twice more, in 1531 he was appointed Controller of Calais.
He was dismissed from his post in 1539, and died in March 1539, Catherine was the third of Henry VIIIs wives to have been a member of the English nobility or gentry, Catherine of Aragon and Anne of Cleves were of Continental royalty. Catherine was probably born in Lambeth in about 1523, but the date of her birth remains uncertain. Soon after the death of her mother, when Catherine was aged five, she was sent with some of her siblings to live in the care of her fathers stepmother. The Dowager Duchess was often at Court and seems to have had direct involvement in the upbringing of her wards. As a result of the Dowager Duchesss lack of discipline, Catherine became influenced by some girls who candidly allowed men into the sleeping areas at night for entertainment. The girls were rewarded with food and wine and gifts, Catherine was not as well educated as some of Henrys other wives, although, on its own, her ability to read and write was impressive enough at the time. Her character has often described as vivacious and brisk.
She displayed great interest in her lessons, but would often be distracted during them. She had a side for animals, particularly dogs. In the Duchesss household at Horsham, in around 1536, Catherine and her teacher, Henry Mannox. Catherine was aged about thirteen and he gave evidence in the inquiry against her
Henry III of France
Henry III was a monarch of the House of Valois who was elected the monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and ruled as King of France from 1574 until his death. He was the last French monarch of the Valois dynasty, as the fourth son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici, Henry was not expected to assume the throne of France. He was thus a candidate for the vacant Commonwealth throne. Henrys rule over Commonwealth was brief, but notable, the Henrician Articles he signed into law accepting the Commonwealth throne established Poland as an elective monarchy subject to free election by the Polish nobility. Of his three brothers, two would live long enough to ascend the French throne, but both died young and without a legitimate male heir. He abandoned Commonwealth upon receiving word that he had inherited the throne of France at the age of 22, Henry III was himself a politique, arguing that a strong and religiously tolerant monarchy would save France from collapse.
Henry IIIs legitimate heir was his distant cousin Henry, King of Navarre, the Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise, sought to exclude Protestants from the succession and championed the Catholic Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon, as Henry IIIs heir. Henry was born at the royal Château de Fontainebleau, the son of King Henry II and Catherine de Medici and grandson of Francis I of France. His older brothers were Francis II of France, Charles IX of France and he was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orléans in 1560, Duke of Anjou in 1566. He was his mothers favourite, she called him chers yeux and lavished fondness and his elder brother, grew to detest him, partially because he resented his better health. In his youth, Henry was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de Medici, unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise. Although he was fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts.
These predilections were attributed to his Italian mother, at one point in his youth he showed a tendency towards Protestantism as a means of rebelling. At the age of nine, calling himself a little Huguenot, he refused to attend Mass, sang Protestant psalms to his sister Margaret and his mother firmly cautioned her children against such behaviour, and he would never again show any Protestant tendencies. Instead, he became nominally Roman Catholic, reports that Henry engaged in same sex relations with his court favourites, known as the mignons, date back to his own time. Certainly he enjoyed relationships with them. The scholar Louis Crompton provides substantial contemporary evidence of Henry IIIs homosexuality, and it is difficult, he writes, to reconcile the king whose use of favourites is so logically strategic with the man who goes to pieces when one of them dies. In 1570, discussions commenced to arrange for Henry to court Queen Elizabeth I of England, almost 37, was expected by many parties in her country to marry and produce an heir
Pope John XII
Pope John XII can refer to Pope John XII of Alexandria. Pope John XII was Pope and ruler of the Papal States from 16 December 955 to his death in 964 and he was related to the Counts of Tusculum and a member of the powerful Roman family of Theophylact which had dominated papal politics for over half a century. His pontificate became infamous for the alleged depravity and worldliness with which he conducted it, John XII was born Octavianus, the son of Alberic II of Spoleto and self-styled prince of Rome. His mother is believed to have been Alda of Vienne, Alberic’s stepsister, there is some doubt about this. Benedict of Soracte recorded that Octavianus was the son of a concubine, if he was the son of Alda, he would have been 18 when he became pope, but if the son of a concubine he could have been up to 7 years older. With his father’s death, and without any opposition, he succeeded his father as Princeps of the Romans, somewhere between the ages of 17 and 24. With the death of Pope Agapetus II in November 955, Octavianus and his adoption of the apostolic name of John XII was the third example of a pontiff taking a regnal name upon elevation to the papal chair, the first being John II and the second John III.
In around 960, John personally led an attack against the Lombard duchies of Beneventum and Capua, presumably to reclaim parts of the papal states which had been lost to them. Confronted by the sight of John marching at the head of an army of men from Tusculum and Spoleto, the dukes of Beneventum and Capua appealed for help from Gisulf I of Salerno, John retreated north and entered into negotiations with Gisulf at Terracina. A treaty was secured between the two parties, and the price for Gisulf’s non-interference was John agreeing that the papacy would no longer claim Salerno as a Papal patrimony, John soon found that he was unable to control the powerful Roman nobility as his father had so effortlessly done. At around the time, Berengar II, King of Italy. Agreeing to John’s invitation, Otto entered Italy in 961, Berengar quickly retreated to his strongholds, and Otto proceeded to enter Rome on 31 January 962. And without your consent never, within the city of Rome, whatever territory of St.
Peter comes within my grasp, I will give up to you. And to whomsoever I shall entrust the kingdom of Italy, I will make him swear to help you as far as he can to defend the lands of St. Peter. John proceeded to crown Otto as Roman Emperor, the first in the west since the death of Berengar I of Italy almost 40 years before. The pope and the Roman nobility swore an oath over the remains of Saint Peter to be faithful to Otto. This was the first effective guarantee of protection since the collapse of the Carolingian Empire nearly 100 years before. Although Pope John XII was condemned for his ways, he still managed to devote some time towards church affairs
Adultery is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, moral, or legal grounds. A single act of intercourse is generally sufficient to constitute adultery. Historically, many cultures have considered adultery to be a serious crime. Adultery often incurred severe punishment, usually for the woman and sometimes for the man, with penalties including capital punishment, such punishments have gradually fallen into disfavor, especially in Western countries from the 19th century. In most Western countries, adultery itself is no longer a criminal offense, Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions which have adopted a no-fault divorce model. In some societies and among certain religious adherents, adultery may affect the status of those involved. In countries where adultery is an offense, punishments range from fines to caning. A joint statement by the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in states that. In Muslim countries that follow Sharia law for justice, the punishment for adultery may be stoning.
There are fifteen countries in which stoning is authorized as lawful punishment, though in recent times it has been carried out only in Iran. In some jurisdictions, having sexual relations with the wife or the wife of his eldest son constitutes treason. The term adultery refers to acts between a married person and someone who is not that persons spouse. It may arise in criminal law or in family law, for instance, in the United Kingdom, adultery is not a criminal offense, but is a ground for divorce, with the legal definition of adultery being physical contact with an alien and unlawful organ. Extramarital sexual acts not fitting this definition are not adultery though they may constitute unreasonable behavior, the application of the term to the act appears to arise from the idea that criminal intercourse with a married woman. Tended to adulterate the issue of an innocent husband, and to expose him to support and provide for another mans. Thus, the purity of the children of a marriage is corrupted, the term adultery, rather than extramarital sex, implies a moral condemnation of the act, as such it is usually not a neutral term because it carries an implied judgment that the act is wrong.
In the traditional English common law, adultery was a felony, although the legal definition of adultery differs in nearly every legal system, the common theme is sexual relations outside of marriage, in one form or another. Traditionally, many cultures, particularly Latin American ones, had double standards regarding male and female adultery
Challenge of Barletta
The Challenge of Barletta was a tournament fought in the countryside of Trani, near Barletta, southern Italy, on 13 February 1503, on the plains between Corato and Andria. The tournament was provoked by a French knight Charles de la Motte who, after drinking too much of the local wine, made disparaging remarks about the Italians. It consisted in a mounted tourney between 13 Italians, who were part of the Spanish army based in Barletta, and 13 French knights who were based in Canosa di Puglia, the Italian knights won the battle, and the French had to pay ransom. Barletta has since acquired the appellation Città della Disfida as a result, the event inspired a historical novel by the Italian writer Massimo DAzeglio, Ettore Fieramosca, or La disfida di Barletta, written in 1833. French troops made an incursion up to Canosa di Puglia, where they had a fight with Spanish troops. A few French soldiers were prisoners and were brought to Barletta. Among the French prisoners there was the nobleman Charles de Torgues, on 15 January 1503 the French prisoners were invited to take part to a banquet during which la Motte questioned the valor and courage of Italian soldiers, allied with the Spaniards.
In order to solve the question, the French waged a challenge according to rules set up by the French in order to show whether the Italians were up to the valor of French soldiers. The challenge consisted in a mounted tourney between 13 Italians, who were part of the Spanish army based in Barletta, and 13 French knights who were based in Canosa di Puglia. The winners would receive as a bounty the weapons and the horses of the army who had to pay a ransom of 100 ducats for each knight. Moreover, each army had to provide two hostages as a collateral, prospero Colonna and Fabrizio Colonna were put in charge of making the Italian team. The captain of the Italians was Fieramosca, for the two armies, the participants were as follows, Battle of Cerignola Simonis, Damien, et al
Guo Wei, known by his temple name Taizu, was the founding emperor of imperial Chinas short-lived Later Zhou during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 951 until his death. Nicknamed Sparrow Guo for a tattoo on his neck, he rose to high position in the Later Han as an assistant military commissioner. He founded the Later Zhou in 951, when Guo Wei was born in 904 in Yaoshan, the Tang Dynasty had disintegrated into regions controlled by warlords fighting amongst one other. Guo was just a toddler when his family moved to Taiyuan, as his father Guo Jian became the prefect of Shunzhou, serving the Taiyuan-based warlord Li Keyong. Shortly afterwards, Guo Jian was killed by warlord Liu Rengongs forces which conquered Shunzhou, the young boy was raised by a distant relative Lady Han. Guo Wei grew up into a young man interested more in warfare than agriculture. He was fond of drinking and gambling and frequently participated in brawls, when he was around 17, to escape arrest he went to live with an acquaintance Gentleman Chang in Huguan close to Luzhou, shortly before joining the army of Luzhous interim regent Li Jitao.
Li Jitao was serving Jin, ruled by Li Keyongs son Li Cunxu, in 923, Li Cunxu established the Later Tang and overthrew Later Liang. Li Jitao was killed a few months and all of his former soldiers, as Guo was literate and good at mathematics, he soon became an officer. He delved into the literature on military strategy as much as he could, particularly enjoying Spring and Autumn Annals for a Wider World. In 927, the Later Tang emperor Li Siyuan personally led an army to suppress Zhu Shouyins rebellion, Guo Wei, under the leadership of general Shi Jingtang, was among the first soldiers scaling the defensive wall of Xun. Shi saw Guos literary talents and tasked him to military records. Guo proved very popular among generals and ministers, Later Tang was replaced by the Later Jin in 936. The Later Han was founded by a Shatuo Turk by the name of Liu Zhiyuan, Guo Wei was already familiar with life under the Shatuo Turks as he had lived under their rule since he was nineteen years old. He served as the Assistant Military Commissioner to the founder of the Later Han and he was the first Han Chinese Emperor in northern China since 923.
His rule was able and he passed reforms that attempted to relieve pressures on China’s massive peasantry, however, he died from an illness three years into his reign in 954
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII, Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and he achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich and his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king, and he has been described as one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne.
He was an author and composer, as he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his life as a lustful, harsh. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI, born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henrys six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales and Mary – survived infancy and he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, and was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York, in May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. Henry was given an education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French.
Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king, as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, Arthurs death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was strictly supervised and did not appear in public, as a result, the young Henry would ascend the throne untrained in the exacting art of kingship
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth