Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement

Note: Within this article, "CAFTA" refers to the agreement as it stood before January 2004, "CAFTA-DR" is used after that. The Dominican Republic– Central America Free Trade Agreement is a free trade agreement; the agreement encompassed the United States and the Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua, was called CAFTA. In 2004, the Dominican Republic joined the negotiations, the agreement was renamed CAFTA-DR. CAFTA-DR, the North American Free Trade Agreement, active bilateral free trade agreements such as the Canada-Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement are seen as bloc agreements instead of a Free Trade Area of the Americas agreement. Panama has completed negotiations with the United States for a bilateral free trade agreement known as the Panama–U. S. Trade Promotion Agreement, has been in effect since October 2012; the CAFTA-DR constitutes the first free trade agreement between the United States and a small group of developing countries. It was created with the purpose of creating new and better economic opportunities by opening markets, eliminating tariffs, reducing barriers to services, more.

In 2015, it was estimated. Nearly all Central American exports to the United States had been tariff-free thanks to the 1984 Caribbean Basin Initiative; the agreement is a treaty under international law, but not under the U. S. Constitution because in the United States laws require majority approval in both houses, while treaties require two-thirds approval in the Senate only. Under U. S. law, CAFTA-DR is a congressional-executive agreement. The U. S. Senate approved the CAFTA-DR on June 30, 2005, by a vote of 54–45, the U. S. House of Representatives approved the pact on July 28, 2005, by a vote of 217–215, with two representatives not voting. Controversy arose over this vote because it was held open 1 hour and 45 minutes longer than the normal 15 minutes in order to get some members to change their votes. For procedural reasons, the Senate took a second vote on CAFTA on July 28 and the pact garnered an additional vote from Sen. Joe Lieberman—who had been absent on June 30—in favor of the agreement.

The implementing legislation became Public Law 109-053 when it was signed by President George W. Bush on August 2, 2005; the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras have approved the agreement. They are all the current members of CAFTA-DR. El Salvador became the first country to formally implement CAFTA, which went into effect on March 1, 2006, when the Organization of American States received signed copies of the treaty. On April 1, 2006, Honduras and Nicaragua implemented the agreement. On May 18, 2006, the Congress of Guatemala ratified CAFTA-DR, which went into effect on July 1, 2006; the Dominican Republic implemented the agreement on March 1, 2007. In a referendum on October 7, 2007, Costa Rica narrowly backed the free trade agreement, with 51.6% voting "Yes". The goal of the agreement is the creation of a free trade area similar to NAFTA, which encompasses the United States and Mexico. CAFTA-DR is seen as a stepping stone towards the FTAA, another free trade agreement that would encompass all the South American and Caribbean nations as well as those of North and Central America except Cuba.

Canada is negotiating a similar treaty called the Canada–Central American Free Trade Agreement. Once passed by the countries involved, tariffs on about 80% of U. S. exports to the participating countries were eliminated and the rest were phased out over the subsequent decade. As a result, CAFTA-DR does not require substantial reductions in U. S. import duties with respect to the other countries, as the vast majority of goods produced in the participating countries entered the United States duty-free due to the U. S. government's Caribbean Basin Initiative. With the addition of the Dominican Republic, the trade group's largest economy, the region covered by CAFTA-DR is the second-largest Latin American export market for U. S. producers, behind only Mexico, buying $29 billion of goods in 2015. Two-way trade amounted to about $50 billion in the same year. While not a part of Plan Puebla Panama, CAFTA is a necessary precursor to the execution of Plan Puebla Panama by the Inter-American Development Bank.

The plan includes construction of highways linking Panama City to Mexico City and the rest of the United States. CAFTA-DR reduces tariffs. In January 2002 U. S. President George W. Bush declared CAFTA as a priority and received "fast track" authority from Congress to negotiate it. Negotiations began in January 2003, agreement was reached with El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua on December 17, 2003, with Costa Rica on January 25, 2004; that same month, negotiations began with the Dominican Republic to join CAFTA. On May 28, 2004, U. S. Trade Representative Robert Zoellick, Costa Rican Minister of Trade Alberto Trejos, Salvadoran Economy Minister Miguel Lacayo, Guatemalan Economy Minister Marcio Cuevas, Honduran Minister of Industry and Commerce Norman García, Nicaraguan Minister of Development and Commerce Mario Arana signed the 2,400-page document at headquarters of the Organization of American States. Negotiations with the Dominican Republic concluded on March 15, 2004, a second signing ceremony including Dominican Republic Minister of Industry and Commerce Sonia Guzmán was held on August 5, 2004.

In May 2004 the Salvadoran American National Network, the largest national association of Central American community-based organizations in t

Cordón del Azufre

Cordón del Azufre is a small, inactive complex volcano located in the Central Andes, at the border of Argentina and Chile. The centre contains a series of craters and lava flows covering a surface area of 60 square kilometres. A western component with four craters aligned in a north–south direction on a 5-kilometre-long ridge forms the oldest part; the eastern component is formed by lava flows and craters in Argentina, the youngest part la Moyra volcano in the western component generated a lava flow that advanced 6 kilometres westwards. Weakly porphyritic Andesite and dacite form the rocks of the volcano. No activity, including fumarolic activity, has been recorded at Cordón del Azufre, but the appearance and radiometric age of the lava flows suggest a recent age, it is located 300 kilometres east of the Chile Trench within the Puna where the volcanic arc intersects a deep-seated structural area named the Archibarca corridor. Since the Eocene, underlying convergence and subduction of the Nazca plate at a speed of 6–7 centimetres per year result in the volcanic activity of the Central Volcanic Zone, the activity of fault zones and active deformation south of 23° S.

Several large calderas lie in the CVZ, some of which have erupted volumes of over 1,000 cubic kilometres. The area is remote. Observations of this volcano and neighbouring Lastarria indicate that they are part of an deforming system, named by Pritchard and Simons the Lazufre system with an axis length of 70 kilometres; the modelled centre of deformation is closer to Azufre than Lastarria. Sometimes Cerro Bayo Gorbea is associated to this complex; this inflation started in the late 1990s and is due to the accumulation of volcanic fluids beneath the volcanic system. The precise date when the uplift started is unclear, because satellite observation of the area is scarce; the start of the uplift may be related to an earthquake in Chile in 1998. Aftershocks of the 1995 Antofagasta earthquake may be responsible instead. Between 1998 and 2000 the long axis of deformation amounted to 35 kilometres, with a increase to 50 kilometres. In 2008 the area had reached a diameter of c. 45 kilometres and surface area of 1,100 square kilometres.

In 2015 deformation was observed over a surface of 2,000 square kilometres, at depths 2–18 kilometres and with speeds of 3 centimetres per year until 2010. This uncertainty is because estimates trade off between depth and shape of the deformation. Research in 2016 indicated. Since 2005 uplift speeds of 3.5 centimetres per year have been observed with InSAR and a magma flux rate of 14,000,000–17,000,000 cubic metres per year has been inferred. Other research has indicated an inflation rate of 12,500,000–148,000,000 cubic metres per year, comparable with other plutons in the area. One estimate in 2009 indicated a depth 12–15 kilometres. Another estimate in 2016 indicated a chamber depth of 18 kilometres. Research in 2009 indicated that the deforming area has increased by about 8 kilometres per year laterally and covered 800 square kilometres; the researchers concluded that sill fluid dynamics may explain the pattern of uplift and growth in the uplifting area but without major changes in the magma flux rate.

Other data indicate. A study in 2014 indicated that the source of the deformation is most elliptical and has a volume of 400 cubic kilometres; the deformation pattern may be controlled by local tectonic stress patterns. There are several Pleistocene volcanoes around the uplift region, which may be supplied from the sill; this deformation system is among the largest on Earth. It has been compared to deformation occurring at Uturuncu volcano, but the deformation source beneath Lazufre has not been imaged due to resolution limitations; the size of the deformation area is comparable with the size of calderas such as Long Valley and Yellowstone. Such deformation patterns are found in active caldera systems and in the case of Lazufre may be caused by the refilling of a magma chamber; the hydrothermal system of Lastarria may be influenced by the uplift, but it's not that hydrothermal effects are responsible for the Lazufre deformation. It is not clear whether this deformation is a signal of a future volcanic eruption, but monitoring has been recommended as it may be at risk of a major silicic eruption.

Research published in 2016 indicated that the uplift has been ongoing since at least 400,000 years, based on the deformation of lava flows and volcanoes erupted within this time period. Depending on the uncertain estimates for the volume of the magma chamber, a modest overpressue may be sufficient to cause the roof of the chamber to fail and an eruption to start. List of volcanoes in Chile List of volcanoes in Argentina Los Colorados