Thomas (bishop of Finland)
Thomas is the first known Bishop of Finland. Only a few facts are known about his life and he resigned in 1245 and died in Visby three years later. The only reference to Bishop Thomas during his episcopate in Finland is a signed by him in Nousiainen in 1234. The lands may be related to the permission from Pope Gregory IX in early 1229 that authorized the church to take over all non-Christian places of worship in Finland. The letter is the oldest surviving letter written in Finland, no further information on the bishops activities has survived before he was granted resignation by Pope Innocent IV on 21 February 1245. According to the Pope, Thomas had admitted committing several felonies, such as torturing a man to death, church representatives to oversee the resignation were the Archbishop of Uppsala and the Dominican prior of the Dacian province. Thomas donated his books to the newly established Dominican convent in Sigtuna and went on to live his last years in the Dominican convent in Visby and he died there in 1248, shortly before the Second Swedish Crusade, which cemented Swedish rule in Finland for more than 550 years.
This was a realignment of the bishoprics position, since the Pope had earlier used Swedish bishops to assist the Finnish church. On 24 November 1232, the Pope even asked the Livonian Brothers of the Sword to provide forces for the unnamed Bishop of Finland to defend the country against the Novgorodian attacks, after Thomas had resigned in 1245, there was no immediate successor to him. The diocese was overseen by William at least until 5 June 1248, Finland is not listed among the Swedish dioceses in surviving documents from 1241 and 1248, but appears among them in 1253. Even though Thomas is the first known Bishop of Finland, it is certain that he was not the first bishop overall, an unnamed Bishop of Finland is mentioned dead in a letter by Pope Innocent III already in 1209. A 15th-century chronicle names bishops Henry and Folquinus before him, being the first historical figure of importance in Finland, historians have tried to attribute more significance to Thomas than what is evident from the existing sources.
Church representatives ordered by the Pope to assist the bishop were the Bishop of Linköping. Thomas identification with the bishop remains doubtful, a surviving letter by Pope Gregory IX directly to the chaplain of Nousiainen on 20 October 1232 makes the Finnish see appear vacant. The letter handled the same land dispute that Thomas himself addressed two years later, in some copies of the letter, the Bishop of Finland is referred to as N. while not directly saying whether he was still in office or not. A papal letter to an unknown Bishop of Finland was sent already in 1221, the letter, addressed to the Archbishop of Uppsala, does not mention the Bishop or Diocese of Finland in any way. The Pope had clearly not known where Tavastia exactly was, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword had been all but annihilated in the Battle of Saule in 1236. Even if there is no evidence of their presence in Finland than the earlier papal letter from 1232
Penydarren Ironworks was the fourth of the great ironworks established at Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales. Built in 1784 by the brothers Samuel Homfray, Jeremiah Homfray and their father, for a time managed a nail warehouse there for Ambrose Crowley. Most of the family were involved in trade as ironmasters or ironmongers, Samuel built Penydarren House on the opposite bank of the River Taf, as a home for the family locally. This Penydarren Tramroad was used for a trial of the first railway steam locomotive and this successfully hauled wagons but was so heavy that it broke many rails. The engine was used for other purposes as a stationary engine. The business was financed by William Forman of the Tower of London, Samuel Homfray left the business in 1813. In 1819, the partners were William Forman and William Thompson of London, William Forman offered the works for sale in 1859, and the Dowlais Iron Company bought the mineral ground. The works were used intermittently by various others until 1883, some remains of the works can still be seen.
The South Wales Iron Industry 1750–1885 G. Rattenbury and M. J. T, Merthyr Tydfil Tramroads and their Locomotives. Old Merthyr Tydfil, Penydarren – Historical Photographs of Penydarren, old Merthyr Tydfil, Penydarren Ironworks – Historical Photographs of Penydarren Ironworks. Old Merthyr Tydfil, Penydarren Locomotive – Historical Photographs of the Penydarren Locomotive
The Prussian Confederation was an organization formed on 21 February 1440 at Kwidzyn by a group of 53 nobles and clergy and 19 cities in Prussia, to oppose the arbitrariness of the Teutonic Knights. It was based on the basis of a similar organization. In 1454, the leader of the Confederation, Johannes von Baysen, formally asked King Casimir IV Jagiellon and this marked the beginning of the Thirteen Years War between the Orders State and Poland, with the Prussian cities financing the military costs of the latter. According to the 1411 First Peace of Thorn which followed the Teutonic Knights defeat in the Battle of Grunwald, the monastic state imposed high taxes on the cities to raise the funds as well as to re-arm for another war against Poland. After about three decades of growing discontent, the Prussian leaders organized themselves to oppose the rule of the more effectively. Several more towns joined on 3 April, although Bütow did not, in Danzig, the new members signed a document which was kept in the archives of Thorn.
After Grand Master Paul von Rusdorf died in 1441, his successor, Konrad von Erlichshausen, the confederation lobbied for support against the Teutonic Order within the Holy Roman Empire. Ludwig von Erlichshausen, Grand Master from 1450 to 1467, took an aggressive stance towards the confederation. He filed a lawsuit at the court of Emperor Friedrich III, in February 1454, the Prussian Confederation rose against the Teutonic Orders rule. They asked for, and received, a guarantee of their city rights. The resulting Thirteen Years War ended in the defeat of the Teutonic Order, the Order lost control of western Prussia. As Royal Prussia, it became a province of Poland, with some rights of autonomy. Stibor de Poniec of the Clan of Ostoja become Lord of tregality of Malbork, the Teutonic Knights retained eastern Prussia, but only under the overlordship of the Polish king. The Prussian Confederation, with its members now practically divided, ceased to exist as such, soon after, however, a dispute about the status of the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia started a smaller conflict called the War of the Priests.
Towns which founded the Prussian Confederation on 14 March 1440, Towns which joined the Prussian Confederation on 3 April 1440
Archdiocese of Turku
The Archdiocese of Turku, historically known as Archdiocese of Åbo, is the seat of the Archbishop of Turku. It is a part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Archbishop has many administrative tasks relating to the National church, and is the Metropolitan and Primate) of the church. In common with other Lutheran and Anglican churches the Archbishop is considered primus inter pares, influenced by papal bulls, Swedish magnates in the 12th century set up crusading expeditions to convert the heathens in the eastern Baltic. This resulted in the establishment of the Catholic Church, the Christian religion, Turku, or Åbo, became the principal city in Finland and residence of a Bishopric. After the Finnish War in 1809, Finland became a part of the Russian Empire as a grand duchy. In 1817 the Bishop was created Archbishop and became head of the Church in Finland, in 1870, the church was detached from the state as a separate judicial entity. The bishopric of Turku was elevated to an archbishopric in 1817, there has been a continuous succession of archbishops since that time.
Since the retirement of Archbishop Jukka Paarma in 2010, Kari Mäkinen has been the incumbent Archbishop of Turku and he previously served in the archdiocese as the Bishop of Turku. Since 1998, the Diocese of Turku has had a bishop in addition to the Archbishop, the Bishop of Turku is responsible for the oversight of all the parishes of the diocese except for those in the deaneries of Turku and Naantali, which are led by the Archbishop. This arrangement allows the Archbishop to take a role on the national and international stages. List of bishops of Turku Turku Cathedral Archdiocese of Turku Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
Society of United Irishmen
The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a liberal political organisation in 18th century Ireland that initially sought Parliamentary reform. However, it evolved into a revolutionary organisation, inspired by the American Revolution. It launched the Irish Rebellion of 1798 with the objective of ending British monarchical rule over Ireland and founding a sovereign, backing them up was the Irish Volunteers movement, which had widespread Protestant support. Whilst they had limited success such as the establishment of Grattans Parliament, when the parliamentary reform movement collapsed in 1784, it left radicals without a political cause. By the mid-1780s, radicalism in Ireland was taking a new, bolder form, typified by the letters penned by William Drennan which were published in the Belfast Newsletter and in pamphlets. Also in 1789 the Whig party was founded in Ireland and soon it became an alliance of radicals, reform-minded parliamentarians, by 1791 this alliance however was already fracturing, and several rival Whig clubs were set up by people such as Napper Tandy in Dublin and Belfast.
Another grouping was an organisation of eleven people headed by Samuel Neilson. A couple of months the Belfast Volunteer company gathered to celebrate the anniversary of the fall of the Bastille. It was intended that a new society was to be announced during the celebrations which William Drennan. Drennan refused due to the notice of the request and suggested that a Theobald Wolfe Tone be asked. Tones reformist radicalism had advanced beyond that of the Whigs, the first resolution was for the denouncing of the continuing interference of the British establishment in Irish affairs. The second was for the reform of the Irish parliament. The last resolution called for a union of religious faiths in Ireland to abolish the differences that had long divided Irishmen and this last proposal however was quietly dropped by the Belfast Volunteers to ensure unanimity for the proposals amongst the people. That October, Tone was invited to a debate on the creation of a new society by a group of people including Neilson, here he found that his resolutions were now found a few months to be too tame.
A new set of resolutions were drafted and agreed to on 14 October, which the Belfast branch of the Society of United Irishmen adopted on 18 October, and the Dublin branch on 9 November. The main problem they identified for Ireland was the issue of national sovereignty, two were Anglicans and the rest Presbyterian, most of whom were involved in the linen trade in Belfast. After forming, the Society named chandler Samuel McTier as its first President, the popularity of the society continued to grow throughout Ulster especially amongst the Presbyterians. In 1795 the United Irishmen linked up with the Defenders, a Catholic agrarian secret society, the movement quickly developed a strategy of spreading its ideals by means of pamphlets, newspapers, ballads and travelling emissaries
House of Romanov
The Romanovs achieved prominence as boyars of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Tsardom of Russia. In 1613, following years of interregnum, the zemsky sobor offered the Russian crown to Mikhail Romanov and he acceded to the throne as Michael I, becoming the first Tsar of Russia from the House of Romanov. His grandson Peter I established the Russian Empire and transformed the country into a continental power through a series of wars, the direct male line of the Romanovs came to an end when Elizabeth of Russia died in 1762. After an era of crisis, the House of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg which reigned in Denmark, ascended the throne in 1762 with Peter III. All rulers from the middle of the 18th century to the revolution of 1917 were descended from that branch, though officially known as the House of Romanov, these descendants of the Romanov and Oldenburg dynasties are sometimes referred to as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. In early 1917 the Romanov dynasty had 65 members,18 of whom were killed by the Bolsheviks, the remaining 47 members went into exile abroad.
In 1924, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, the senior, surviving male-line descendant of Alexander II of Russia by primogeniture, since 1991, the succession to the former Russian throne has been in dispute, largely due to disagreements over the validity of dynasts marriages. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia claims to hold the title of empress in pretense with her child, George Mikhailovich. There is a rival non-Romanov claim put forth by Prince Karl Emich of the House of Leiningen supported by the Monarchist Party, according to the Almanach de Gotha, the name of Russias ruling dynasty from the time of Peter III was Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. However, the name Romanov and House of Romanov were often used in references to the Russian imperial family. The coat of arms of the Romanov boyars was included in legislation on the imperial dynasty, after the February Revolution all members of the imperial family were given the surname Romanov by special decree of the Provisional Government of Russia.
Their earliest common ancestor is one Andrei Kobyla, attested around 1347 as a boyar in the service of Semyon I of Moscow, generations assigned to Kobyla an illustrious pedigree. An 18th-century genealogy claimed that he was the son of the Prussian prince Glanda Kambila, one of the leaders of the Old Prussian rebellion of 1260–1274 against the Teutonic order was named Glande. His actual origin may have been less spectacular, not only is Kobyla Russian for mare, some of his relatives had as nicknames the terms for horses and other domestic animals, thus suggesting descent from one of the royal equerries. One of Kobylas sons, Feodor, a member of the boyar Duma of Dmitri Donskoi, was nicknamed Koshka and his descendants took the surname Koshkin, changed it to Zakharin, which family split into two branches, Zakharin-Yakovlev and Zakharin-Yuriev. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the family became known as Yakovlev. The family fortunes soared when Romans daughter, Anastasia Zakharyina, married Ivan IV, since her husband had assumed the title of tsar, which literally means Caesar, on 16 January 1547, she was crowned the very first tsaritsa of Russia.
Her mysterious death in 1560 changed Ivans character for the worse, suspecting the boyars of having poisoned his beloved, Tsar Ivan started a reign of terror against them
Athanasius of Alexandria
His episcopate lasted 45 years, of which over 17 were spent in five exiles ordered by four different Roman emperors. Athanasius was a Christian theologian, a Church Father, the defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism. Conflict with Arius and Arianism as well as successive Roman emperors shaped Athanasius career, in 325, at the age of 27, Athanasius began his leading role against the Arians as a deacon and assistant to Bishop Alexander of Alexandria during the First Council of Nicaea. Roman emperor Constantine the Great had convened the council in May–August 325 to address the Arian position that the Son of God, three years after that council, Athanasius succeeded his mentor as archbishop of Alexandria. In addition to the conflict with the Arians, he struggled against the Emperors Constantine, Constantius II, Julian the Apostate and he was known as Athanasius Contra Mundum. Nonetheless, within a few years after his death, Gregory of Nazianzus called him the Pillar of the Church, Athanasius is counted as one of the four great Eastern Doctors of the Church in the Roman Catholic Church.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, he is labeled as the Father of Orthodoxy, some Protestants label him as Father of the Canon. Athanasius is venerated as a Christian saint, whose feast day is 2 May in Western Christianity,15 May in the Coptic Orthodox Church and he is venerated by the Oriental and Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutherans, and the Anglican Communion. Athanasius was born to a Christian family in the city of Alexandria or possibly the nearby Nile Delta town of Damanhur sometime between the years 293 and 298, the accusation must have seemed plausible. The Orthodox Church places his year of birth around 297 and his parents were wealthy enough to afford giving him a fine secular education. Some Western scholars consider his command of Greek, in which he wrote most of his surviving works, however, in Coptic literature, Athanasius is the first patriarch of Alexandria to use Coptic as well as Greek in his writings. Rufinus relates a story that as Bishop Alexander stood by a window, he watched boys playing on the seashore below and he sent for the children and discovered that one of the boys had acted as bishop.
He invited Athanasius and his playfellows to prepare for clerical careers, Alexandria was the most important trade center in the whole empire during Athanasiuss boyhood. Intellectually and politically—it epitomized the ethnically diverse Graeco-Roman world, even more than Rome or Constantinople, Athanasius recounts being a student, as well as being educated by the Martyrs of the Great and last persecution of Christianity by pagan Rome. This persecution was most severe in the East, particularly in Egypt, Peter of Alexandria, the 17th archbishop of Alexandria, was martyred in 311 in the closing days of that persecution, and may have been one of those teachers. His successor as bishop of Alexandria, Alexander of Alexandria was an Origenist as well as a mentor of Athanasius. According to Sozomen, Bishop Alexander invited Athanasius to be his commensal, Athanasius earliest work, Against the Heathen – On the Incarnation, bears traces of Origenist Alexandrian thought but in an orthodox way. Athanasius was familiar with the theories of philosophical schools
The zemsky sobor was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. The term roughly means assembly of the land and it could be summoned either by tsar, or patriarch, or the Boyar Duma. The Holy Sobor of high Orthodox clergy, the first zemsky sobor was held by tsar Ivan the Terrible in 1549. During his reign he held a number of gatherings and they became a common tool used to enact major pieces of legislation or to decide controversial issues. Although the Sobors were primarily a tool used to rubberstamp decisions that Ivan had already made, sometimes initiative was taken by the lower nobility, for instance, the tsar was scandalized when the assembly of 1566 asked him to abolish the Oprichnina. When the Rurik Dynasty died out in 1598 it was a sobor that appointed Boris Godunov as the next tsar, another grand council, featuring even peasants, elected Mikhail Romanov to take the throne in 1613 after the Time of Troubles. During Mikhails reign, when the Romanov dynasty was still weak, once the Romanovs were firmly in power, the sobor gradually lost its power.
A major council assembled to ratify the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654 was the last for thirty years, the last sobors were held by the great Galitzine in 1682, to abolish the mestnichestvo, and in 1684, to ratify the Eternal Peace with Poland. Four years after the death of the last Russian tsar, on July 23,1922, dieterichs of the Far Eastern White Army convened the Zemsky Sobor of Amur region in Vladivostok. This sobor, calling to all Russian people to repent for the overthrow of the tsar, patriarch Tikhon was named as the honorary chairman of the sobor. Two months the Amur region fell to the Bolsheviks, Земские соборы The encyclopedia Brockhaus and Efron, Moscow,1993
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Fishguard is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, south-west Wales, with a population of 3,419 recorded in the 2011 Census. The community of Fishguard and Goodwick had a population of 5,043 in 2001 and 5,407 in 2011, the town is divided into two parts, the main town of Fishguard and Lower Fishguard. Lower Fishguard is believed to be the site of the hamlet from which modern Fishguard has grown. It is situated in a valley where the River Gwaun meets the sea. It is a fishing village with a short tidal quay. The settlement stretches along the slope of the valley. The western part of the town, facing Goodwick, grew up in the first decade of the 20th century with the development of Fishguard Harbour and Goodwick are now Twin Towns with a joint Town Council. Fishguard is within the historic Welsh cantref of Cemais, and part of the Welsh province of Dyfed, the town name Fishguard derives from old Norse fiskigarðr meaning fish catching enclosure, indicating that there may have been a Scandinavian trading post, although no evidence has been found.
The Norman settlement lay along what is now High Street between the church at its end and the remains of a Norman motte at its south end. Lower Fishguard developed as a fishery and port, trading with Ireland. In the late 18th century it had 50 coasting vessels, and exported oats, in 1779, the port was raided by the privateer Black Prince, which bombarded the town when the payment of a £1,000 ransom was refused. As a result, Fishguard Fort was completed in 1781, overlooking Lower Fishguard, the port declined in the latter half of the 19th century. The story is told in the Fishguard Tapestry created for the 200th anniversary to emulate the Bayeux Tapestry, a 19th-century vicar of Fishguard, the Rev. Samuel Fenton MA, wrote the book The History of Pembrokeshire. The ancient Parliamentary Borough of Fishguard was contributory to the Borough of Haverfordwest, in 1907, it was created an urban district, which included Goodwick from 1934 until it was abolished in 1974. During the Second World War, the Fishguard Bay Hotel was Station IXc of Special Operations Executive where submersibles were tested in Fishguard Bay, Fishguard & Goodwick Golf Club was founded in 1921 and closed in the 1960s.
It has a mild climate due to its coastal position. The winds coming from the west or south-west have an influence on temperature. There is an islet in Fishguard Bay, Needle Rock which reaches 131 feet, wildlife around Fishguard is rich with a wide variety of colourful wild flowers and sea mammals including the grey seal and dolphins
A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning combustible material—usually coal, the steam moves reciprocating pistons which are mechanically connected to the locomotives main wheels. Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons pulled behind, the first steam locomotive, made by Richard Trevithick, first operated on 21 February 1804, three years after the road locomotive he made in 1801. The first practical steam locomotive was built in 1812-13 by John Blenkinsop, Steam locomotives were first developed in Great Britain during the early 19th century and used for railway transport until the middle of the 20th century. From the early 1900s they were superseded by electric and diesel locomotives, with full conversions to electric. The majority of locomotives were retired from regular service by the 1980s, though several continue to run on tourist.
The earliest railways employed horses to draw carts along railway tracks, in 1784, William Murdoch, a Scottish inventor, built a small-scale prototype of a steam road locomotive. An early working model of a rail locomotive was designed and constructed by steamboat pioneer John Fitch in the US during 1794. His steam locomotive used interior bladed wheels guided by rails or tracks, the model still exists at the Ohio Historical Society Museum in Columbus. The authenticity and date of this locomotive is disputed by some experts, accompanied by Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success. The design incorporated a number of important innovations that included using high-pressure steam which reduced the weight of the engine, Trevithick visited the Newcastle area in 1804 and had a ready audience of colliery owners and engineers. The visit was so successful that the railways in north-east England became the leading centre for experimentation. Trevithick continued his own steam propulsion experiments through another trio of locomotives, Four years later, the successful twin-cylinder locomotive Salamanca by Matthew Murray for the edge railed rack and pinion Middleton Railway debuted in 1812.
Another well known early locomotive was Puffing Billy built 1813–14 by engineer William Hedley and it was intended to work on the Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne. This locomotive is the oldest preserved, and is on display in the Science Museum. George Stephenson built Locomotion No.1 for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, north-east England, in 1829, his son Robert built in Newcastle The Rocket which was entered in and won the Rainhill Trials. This success led to the company emerging as the pre-eminent builder of locomotives used on railways in the UK, US. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened a year making exclusive use of power for passenger