click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

February 29

February 29 known as leap day or leap year day, is a date added to most years that are divisible by 4, such as 2016, 2020, 2024. A leap day is added in various solar calendars, including the Gregorian calendar standard in most of the world. Lunisolar calendars instead add a intercalary month. In the Gregorian calendar, years that are divisible by 100, but not by 400, do not contain a leap day. Thus, 1700, 1800, 1900 did not contain a leap day. Conversely, 1600 and 2000 did and 2400 will. Years containing a leap day are called leap years. Years not containing a leap day are called common years. February 29 is the 60th day of the Gregorian calendar in such a year, with 306 days remaining until the end of the year. In the Chinese calendar, this day will only occur in years of the monkey and rat. A leap day is observed because the Earth's period of orbital revolution around the Sun takes six hours longer than 365 whole days. A leap day compensates for this lag, realigning the calendar with the Earth's position in the Solar System.

The Julian calendar used in Christendom. By the 16th century the vernal equinox had drifted to March 11, the Gregorian calendar was introduced both to shift it back by omitting several days, to reduce the number of leap years via the aforementioned century rule to keep the equinoxes more or less fixed and the date of Easter close to the vernal equinox. Leap days can present a particular problem in computing known as the leap year bug when February 29 is not handled in logic that accepts or manipulates dates. For example, this has happened with Microsoft's cloud system Azure. Although most modern calendar years have 365 days, a complete revolution around the Sun takes 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 46 seconds. An extra 23 hours, 15 minutes, 4 seconds thus accumulates every four years, requiring that an extra calendar day be added to align the calendar with the Sun's apparent position. Without the added day, in future years the seasons would occur in the calendar leading to confusion about when to undertake activities dependent on weather, ecology, or hours of daylight.

Solar years are slightly shorter than 365 days and 6 hours, known since the 2nd century BC when Hipparchus stated that it lasted 365 + 1/4 − 1/300 days, but this was ignored by Julius Caesar and his astronomical adviser Sosigenes. The Gregorian calendar corrected this by adopting the length of the tropical year stated in three medieval sources, the Alfonsine tables, De Revolutionibus, the Prutenic Tables, truncated to two sexagesimal places, 365 14/60 33/3600 days or 365 + 1/4 − 3/400 days or 365.2425 days. The length of the tropical year in 2000 was 365.24217 mean solar days, Adding a calendar day every four years, results in an excess of around 44 minutes every four years, or about 3 days every 400 years. To compensate for this, three days are removed every 400 years; the Gregorian calendar reform implements this adjustment by making an exception to the general rule that there is a leap year every four years. Instead, a year divisible by 100 is not a leap year unless that year is divisible by 400.

This means that the years 1600, 2000, 2400 are leap years, while the years 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2500 are not leap years. The Gregorian calendar repeats itself every 400 years, 20,871 weeks including 97 leap days. Over this period, February 29 falls on Sunday and Thursday 13 times each. Excepting when a century mark, not a multiple of 400 intervenes, consecutive leap days fall in order Sunday, Wednesday, Saturday and Tuesday; the calendar of the Roman king Numa Pompilius had only 355 days which meant that it would become unsynchronized with the solar year. An earlier Roman solution to this problem was to lengthen the calendar periodically by adding extra days to February, the last month of the year. February consisted of each with an odd number of days; the first part ended with the Terminalia on the 23rd, considered the end of the religious year, the five remaining days formed the second part. To keep the calendar year aligned with the solar year, a leap month, called Mensis Intercalaris, was added from time to time between these two parts of February.

The second part of February was incorporated in the intercalary month as its last five days, with no change either in their dates or the festivals observed on them. This followed because the days after the Ides of February or the Ides of Intercalaris both counted down to the Kalends of March; the Nones and Ides of Intercalaris occupied their normal positions. The third-century writer Censorinus says:When it was thought necessary to add an intercalary month of 22 or 23 days, so that the civil year should correspond to t

The Unknown DJ

Andre Manuel, better known by his stage name The Unknown DJ, is a disc jockey and producer of hip-hop and electro music, considered to be an early West Coast hip hop-electro pioneer and legend. Manuel got his start in the music industry through Alonzo Williams, a Los Angeles-based disc jockey and party promoter. Williams mentored Manuel, teaching him how to DJ and the two began working together. Williams added Andre Manuel to his newly-formed Disco Construction and Wreckin' Cru, a collective of disc jockeys that would DJ around the Los Angeles area. Manuel began using the stage name DJ Unknown with the Cru; the Wreckin' Cru would grow to include DJ Yella, Dr. Dre and branch out into recording music as well. After spending some time building on his DJ skills with the Cru, Unknown founded his own independent record label called Techno Hop Records, he started to produce and release records on his new label beginning in 1984 that fused electro-funk with hip-hop, a genre of music which he described as "techno hop".

Some notable records he released include "Basstronic", "808 Beats" and "Let's Jam". He produced several tracks for Ice-T on his label, including his first gangsta rap recording, "6 in the Mornin'"; the Unknown DJ continued as a producer for MC Eiht's crew Compton's Most Wanted. He produced music for artists such as A. L. T. Brownside, N. W. A, Bobby Jimmy, King Tee; the Unknown DJ has been credited in playing a minor role during the formation of the legendary Death Row Records. Dr. Dre, a former associate and alumni of the Wreckin' Cru, began the process of starting a record label and music partnership in anticipation of his departure from Ruthless Records; the D. O. C. One of Dre's new music venture partners, claimed to have suggested using the name "Def Row" for the new label, but rights to the name were owned by The Unknown DJ. Unknown stated in an interview that he created the name "Def Row" for a potential deal to start another record label under Morgan Creek Entertainment Group; however he sold the naming rights to Dr. Dre and his partners in July 1991 and by 1992 the name changed to its eventual title of Death Row Records.

Unknown's House 808 Beats Beatronic Let's Jam Break-Down X-Men Revenge of the X-Men Basstronic This Is Electro Techno Hop Records The Unknown DJ at westcoastpioneers.com Global Darkness Discography The Unknown DJ on Twitter The Unknown DJ on Instagram

The Fiddle Concerto

The Fiddle Concerto is an album by Mark O'Connor. It contains two pieces written by O'Connor, the first of, a violin concerto in American fiddle style, commissioned by the Santa Fe Symphony and premiered in 1993; the second piece is a string quartet for violin, viola and double bass commissioned by the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival in 1990. All music was written by Mark O'Connor. "The Fiddle Concerto: I" – 13:07 "The Fiddle Concerto: Cadenza" – 4:53 "The Fiddle Concerto: II" – 12:58 "The Fiddle Concerto: III" – 5:45 "The Fiddle Concerto: Cadenza" – 8:26 "Quartet for Violin, Viola and Doublebass: I" – 6:40 "Quartet for Violin, Viola and Doublebass: II" – 8:21 "Quartet for Violin, Viola and Doublebass: III" – 7:51 "Quartet for Violin, Viola and Doublebass: IV" – 7:17 Mark O'Connor - Violin Daniel Phillips - Viola Carter Brey - Cello Edgar Meyer - Double bass The Concordia Orchestra Marin Alsop - Conductoralso Mark O'Connor - Producer Craig Miller - Executive Producer Marc Aubort - Recording Engineer

Arwa Othman

Arwa Othman is a Yemeni writer, human rights activist and former Minister of Culture in the cabinet of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi. Human Rights Watch has cited Othman as one of the "most outspoken activists calling for human rights and gender equality" during the 2011 Yemeni Revolution. Arwa Othman has headed the House of a museum in Sana'a. In 2013 she was appointed to the Yemeni National Dialogue Conference, where she headed the Rights and Freedom Committee. Under her the committee recommended reforms for improving the lives of Yemeni women, making 18 the minimum age for marriage and action against people involved in the forced marriage of a child. In September 2013 she highlighted the case of an eight year old child bride who died of internal bleeding. However, Othman's advocacy brought her to the notice of orthodox sections of society, from whom she received death threats. Othman was one of the recipients of Human Rights Watch's Alison Des Forges Award for Extraordinary Activism in 2014.

She was honoured for her activism against child advocacy for gender equality. She dedicated her award to the Jewish community residing in Yemen, her "brothers and friends from the Jewish community". In November 2014 Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi appointed Arwa Othman to the cabinet as Minister of Culture; the cabinet was dissolved in January 2015. In 2017 she was among signatories condemning a wave of arrests of Baha'i in Yemen

Princess Marie of Windisch-Graetz

Princess Marie of Windisch-Graetz was an Austrian noble. She was the daughter of Hugo, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, Princess Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Princess Marie was born Marie Gabriele Ernestine Alexandra in Vienna in 1856. In Schwerin on 5 May 1881, she married her first cousin, the German-born Duke Paul Frederick of Mecklenburg, second son of Frederick Francis II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, his wife, Princess Augusta Reuss of Köstritz; the couple had three surviving children, all of whom were raised as Roman Catholics, Marie's religion, lived a quiet life in Venice, where they befriended Cardinal Sarto, who visited the family and acted as their spiritual advisor. On 21 April 1884 Duke Paul Frederick deferred his and his sons' rights of succession to Mecklenburg-Schwerin in favour of his younger brothers and their sons, so they would take precedence over him and his. In 1887 her husband, raised a Lutheran, converted to Roman Catholicism, the religion of his wife and their common children.

Marie née Windisch-Graetz surveyed several archaeological excavations in Austria and Carniola, including excavations at Hallstatt Archaeological Site in Vače. Some of the artifacts were sold to museums in Harvard and Berlin by her daughter Duchess Marie Antoinette of Mecklenburg. In 1906 after raising the concerns of his nephew Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, about his expenses Duke Paul Frederick and his wife were ordered to submit expenditures to the comptroller of the royal household. Duke Paul Friedrich of Mecklenburg Duchess Marie Louise of Mecklenburg Duchess Marie Antoinette of Mecklenburg Duke Henry Borwin of Mecklenburg married 1. Elizabeth Tibbits Pratt. Natália Oelrichs and 3. Carola von Chamisso. Duke Joseph of Mecklenburg Viola Maier: Die Herzogin Marie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin. In: Julia K. Koch, Eva-Maria Mertens: Eine Dame zwischen 500 Herren. Johanna Mestorf, Werk und Wirkung. Waxmann, Münster etc. 2002, ISBN 3-8309-1066-5, pp. 257–265. Andrea Rottloff: Archäologen.

Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2009, ISBN 978-3-8053-4063-2 pp. 87–89. Grewolls, Grete. Wer war wer in Mecklenburg und Vorpommern. Das Personenlexikon. Rostock: Hinstorff Verlag. P. 6319. ISBN 978-3-356-01301-6

Gerd Dudenhöffer

Gerd Dudenhöffer is a German cabaret artist and writer. Dudenhöffer studied design in Munich, he works in Germany as a cabaret artist. His famous role is Heinz Becker. 1991: Pappa ante Portas 1992–2004: Familie Heinz Becker 1999: Tach, Herr Dokter! – Der Heinz-Becker-Film 1984: Die Heinz Becker Story, ISBN 978-3-921815-52-6 1986: "…alles geschwätzt!" Heinz Becker erzählt, ISBN 978-3-499-15949-7 1998: Opuscula - Lyrische Gedichde, Eichborn, ISBN 978-3-8218-3536-5 1999: Tach Herr Dokter, Eichborn, ISBN 978-3-8218-3489-4 2001: Opuscula Nova, Eichborn, ISBN 978-3-8218-3725-3 2005: Die Reise nach Talibu, Handwerker Promotion, ISBN 978-3-00-017191-8 1994: - Telestar for "Beste Comedy-Serie": „Familie Heinz Becker“ 1996: - Saarländischer Verdienstorden 1997: - Goldene Europa by SR: erfolgreichste Comedy-Serie in der ARD: „Familie Heinz Becker“ 2004: - Deutscher Comedypreis: Beste Comedy-Serie: „Familie Heinz Becker“ Official website by Gerd Dudenhöffer