A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world. The days of the week were named after the planets in the Roman era. In English, the names are Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. ISO8601 includes the ISO week date system, a system for weeks within a given year – each week begins on a Monday and is associated with the year that contains that weeks Thursday. ISO8601 assigns numbers to the days of the week, running from 1 to 7 for Monday through to Sunday, the English word week comes from the Old English wice, ultimately from a Common Germanic *wikōn-, from a root *wik- turn, change. The Germanic word probably had a wider meaning prior to the adoption of the Roman calendar, perhaps succession series, the seven-day week is named in many languages by a word derived from seven. The archaism sennight preserves the old Germanic practice of reckoning time by nights and hebdomadal week both derive from the Greek hebdomás. The obsolete septimane is cognate with the Romance terms derived from Latin septimana, Slavic has a formation *tъdьnь, from *tъ this + *dьnь day, in some cases alongside nedělja, a loan-translation of Latin feria and sedmitsa, as ἑβδομάς derived from seven.
Chinese has 星期, as it were planetary time unit, there are exactly 20,871 weeks in 400 Gregorian years, so 5 April 1617 was a Wednesday just like 5 April 2017. Relative to the path of the Moon, a week is 23. 659% of an average lunation, the system of Dominical letters has been used to facilitate calculation of the day of week. The day of the week can be calculated given a dates Julian day number. The days of the week were named for the classical planets. This naming system persisted alongside an ecclesiastical tradition of numbering the days, the ordering of the weekday names are not that of the classical order of the planets. Instead, the planetary hours systems resulted in succeeding days being named for planets that are three places apart in their traditional listing and this characteristic was apparently discussed in Plutarch in a treatise written in c. AD100, which is reported to have addressed the question of Why are the named after the planets reckoned in a different order from the actual order.
An ecclesiastical, non-astrological, system of numbering the days of the week was adopted in Late Antiquity and this model seems to have influenced the designation of Wednesday as mid-week in Old High German and Old Church Slavonic. Old Church Slavonic may have modeled the name of Monday, понєдѣльникъ
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash. Researchers believe that the town was founded in the seventh or sixth century BC by the Osci or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, by the time of its destruction,160 years later, its population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a complex water system, an amphitheatre, and a port. The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash, the site was lost for about 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599 and broader rediscovery almost 150 years by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in 1748. The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for centuries because of the lack of air and these artefacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana.
During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies and this allowed archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when he or she died. Pompeii has been a tourist destination for over 250 years, today it has UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year. Pompeii in Latin is a second declension plural, the ruins of Pompeii are located near the modern suburban town of Pompei. It stands on a formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River. Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to the coast, Pompeii is about 8 km away from Mount Vesuvius. It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares and was home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of household counts and it was a major city in the region of Campania. Three sheets of sediment have been found on top of the lava that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment, archaeologists have found bits of bone, pottery shards.
Carbon dating has placed the oldest of these layers from the 8th–6th centuries BC, the other two strata are separated either by well-developed soil layers or Roman pavement, and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century BC. It is theorized that the layers of the sediment were created by large landslides. The town was founded around the 7th-6th century BC by the Osci or Oscans and it had already been used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to Strabo, Pompeii was captured by the Etruscans, and in recent excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions. Pompeii was captured for the first time by the Greek colony of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, in the 5th century BC, the Samnites conquered it, the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town
Wednesday is the day of the week following Tuesday and before Thursday. According to international standard ISO8601 adopted in most western countries it is the day of the week. In countries that use the Sunday-first convention Wednesday is defined as the day of the week. It is the day of the week in the Judeo-Christian Hebrew calendar as well. The name is derived from Old English Wōdnesdæg and Middle English Wednesdei, day of Woden, in other languages, such as the French mercredi, the days name is a calque of dies Mercurii day of Mercury. It has the most letters out of all the Gregorian calendar days, Wednesday is in the middle of the common Western five-day workweek that starts on Monday and finishes on Friday. See Names of the days of the week for more on naming conventions, the name Wednesday continues Middle English Wednesdei. Old English still had wōdnesdæg, which would be continued as *Wodnesday, by the early 13th century, the i-mutated form was introduced unetymologically. The name is a calque of the Latin dies Mercurii day of Mercury, the Latin name dates to the late 2nd or early 3rd century.
The Latin name is reflected directly in the name in Romance languages, Mércuris, mercoledì, miércoles, dimecres, Marcuri or Mercuri. The German name for the day, replaced the former name Wodenstag in the tenth century, the Dutch name for the day, woensdag has the same etymology as English Wednesday, it comes from Middle Dutch wodenesdag, woedensdag. Most Slavic languages follow this pattern and use derivations of the middle, the Finnish name is Keskiviikko, as is the Icelandic name, Miðvikudagur, and the Faroese name, Mikudagur. Some dialects of Faroese have Ónsdagur, which shares etymology with Wednesday, in Welsh it is Dydd Mercher, meaning Mercurys Day. In Japanese, the word Wednesday is 水曜日, meaning day and is associated with 水星, Mercury. Similarly, in Korean the word Wednesday is 수요일, meaning water day, in most of the languages of India, the word for Wednesday is Budhavãra—vãra meaning day and Budh being the planet Mercury. From Armenian and Tajik languages the word means as four from Saturday.
Portuguese uses the word quarta-feira, meaning day, while in Greek the word is Tetarti meaning simply fourth. Similarly, Arabic أربعاء means fourth, Hebrew רביעי means fourth, yet the name for the day in Estonian kolmapäev, Lithuanian trečiadienis, and Latvian trešdiena means third day while in Mandarin Chinese 星期三, means day three, as Sunday is unnumbered
Treaty of Alliance (1778)
The alliance was planned to endure indefinitely into the future. The French foreign minister Choiseul had envisaged this taking place in alliance with Spain, Choiseul had been ready go to war in 1770 during the Falklands Crisis, but Louis XV had been alarmed by the British naval mobilization and instead dismissed Choiseul and backed down. With the help of the Committee of Secret Correspondence, established by the U. S, the United States is effectively guaranteed control of any land it is able to gain possession of in North America, besides the islands of St. In return the King is guaranteed any of the Islands situated in the of Mexico, article 10 of the treaty, although largely directed to Spain, invites any other nations who may have received injuries from England to negotiate terms and conditions for joining the alliance. The growing public sentiment against the treaty culminated during the Presidency of John Adams, after the refusal of France to receive American envoys, and normalize relations, during the XYZ Affair.
Hoffman, Albert, Peter J. eds and Revolution, the Franco–American Alliance of 1778. Louis XVI, Forgotten Founding Father, with a survey of the Franco–American Alliance of the Revolutionary period, French Policy and the American Alliance of 1778
Sunday is the day of the week after Saturday but before Monday. Sunday is a day of rest in most Western countries, as a part of the weekend, for most Christians, Sunday is observed as a day of worship and rest, holding it as the Lords Day and the day of Christs resurrection. In some Muslim countries and Israel, Sunday is the first work day of the week, according to the Hebrew calendars and traditional Christian calendars, Sunday is the first day of the week. However, according to the International Organization for Standardization ISO8601, Sunday is the seventh, during the 1st and 2nd century, the week of seven days was introduced into Rome from Egypt, and the Roman names of the planets were given to each successive day. Germanic peoples seem to have adopted the week as a division of time from the Romans, the dies Solis became Sunday. The Germanic term is a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, the p-Celtic Welsh language translates the Latin day of the sun as dydd Sul. Ravivāra is first day cited in Jyotish, which provides logical reason for giving the name of each week day, in the Thai solar calendar of Thailand, the name is derived from Aditya, and the associated color is red.
In Russian the word for Sunday is Воскресенье meaning Resurrection, the Modern Greek word for Sunday, Greek, Κυριακή, is derived from Greek, Κύριος also, due to its liturgical significance as the day commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ, i. e. The international standard ISO8601 for representation of dates and times, states that Sunday is the seventh and this method of representing dates and times unambiguously was first published in 1988. In the Judaic, some Christian, as well as in some Islamic tradition, a number of languages express this position either by the name for the day or by the naming of the other days. In Hebrew it is called יום ראשון yom rishon, in Arabic الأحد al-ahad, in Persian and related languages یکشنبه yek-shanbe, in Greek, the names of the days Monday, Tuesday and Thursday mean second, third and fifth respectively. This leaves Sunday in the first position of the week count, the current Greek name for Sunday, Κυριακή, means Lords Day coming from the word Κύριος, which is the Greek word for Lord.
In Vietnamese, the days in the week are named as, Thứ Hai, Thứ Ba, Thứ Tư, Thứ Năm, Thứ Sáu. Sunday is called Chủ Nhật, a form of Chúa Nhật meaning Lords Day. Some colloquial text in the south of Vietnam and from the church may use the old form to mean Sunday. In Italian Sunday is called Domenica, which means Lords Day, One finds similar cognates in French, where the name is Dimanche, as well as Romanian and Spanish and Portuguese. Slavic languages implicitly number Monday as day one, not two. For example, Polish has czwartek for Thursday and piątek for Friday, hungarian péntek is a Slavic loanword, so the correlation with five is not evident to Hungarians
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days
Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, FRS was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of British Java and Governor-General of Bencoolen, best known for his founding of Singapore. He was involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars. He was a writer and wrote a book titled The History of Java. Raffles was born on the ship Ann off the coast of Port Morant, Jamaica, to Captain Benjamin Raffles and his father was a Yorkshireman who had a burgeoning family and little luck in the West Indies trade during the American Revolution, sending the family into debt. The little money the family had went into schooling Raffles, in 1795, at the age of 14, Raffles started working as a clerk in London for the British East India Company, the trading company that shaped many of Britains overseas conquests. In 1805 he was sent to what is now Penang in the country of Malaysia, called the Prince of Wales Island and he started with a post under the Honourable Philip Dundas, the Governor of Penang.
At this time he made the acquaintance of Thomas Otho Travers. His knowledge of the Malay language, as well as his wit and ability, gained him favour with Lord Minto, Governor-General of India, and he was sent to Malacca. Then, in 1811, after the invasion and annexation of the Kingdom of Holland by France during Napoleons war, Raffles had no choice and he mounted a military expedition against the Dutch and French in Java, Indonesia. The British, led by Colonel Gillespie, stormed the fort, janssens attempted to escape inland but was captured. The British invasion of Java took a total of forty-five days and he took his residence at Buitenzorg and despite having a small subset of Britons as his senior staff, he kept many of the Dutch civil servants in the governmental structure. During the relatively brief British rule in Java, Raffles negotiated peace, Most significant of these was the 21 June 1812 assault on Yogyakarta, one of the two most powerful indigenous polities in Java. During the attack the Yogyakarta kraton was badly damaged and extensively looted by British troops, Raffles seized much of the contents of the court archive.
The event was unprecedented in Javanese history and it was the first time an indigenous court had been taken by storm by a European army, and the humiliation of the local aristocracy was profound. Under Raffless aegis, a number of ancient monuments in Java were systematically catalogued for the first time. The first detailed English-language account of Prambanan was prepared by Colin Mackenzie while Borobudur was surveyed and cleared of vegetation by H. C, under the harsh conditions of the island, his wife, died on 26 November 1814, an event that devastated Raffles. In 1815, he left again for England shortly before the island of Java was returned to control of the Netherlands following the Napoleonic Wars, under the terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. He sailed to England in early 1816 to clear his name and, en route, visited Napoleon, who was in exile at St. Helena, but found him unpleasant and unimpressive
United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens.
From September 5,1774 to March 1,1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the government of the United States. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes, some paid nothing, some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens, but no more.
No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various states
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne.
In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services.
Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition.
Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War II
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, the second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britains Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and he was replaced by his eldest, Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. James made one attempt to recover his crowns from William. After the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamites at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and he lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV. James, the surviving son of King Charles I and his wife. Later that same year, he was baptised by William Laud and he was educated by private tutors, along with his brother, the future King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral, the position was honorary, but would become a substantive office after the Restoration. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, as the Kings disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War, James stayed in Oxford, a Royalist stronghold. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, in 1648, he escaped from the Palace, aided by Joseph Bampfield, and from there he went to The Hague in disguise. When Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed Jamess older brother as Charles II of England, Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, and was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and consequently fled to France, like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, and against their Spanish allies.
In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he ventures himself, in the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, in consequence, James was expelled from France and forced to leave Turennes army. James quarrelled with his brother over the choice of Spain over France. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace, doubtful of his brothers chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy. Ultimately, he declined the position, by the year the situation in England had changed. After Richard Cromwells resignation as Lord Protector in 1659 and the subsequent collapse of the Commonwealth in 1660, although James was the heir presumptive, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children