Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija
Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija, the national Scouting organization of Republic of North Macedonia, became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1997. The coeducational Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija has 2140 members as of 2016. Scouting activities in today's North Macedonia began in 1921 under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia with the formation of groups known as stegs in the cities of Skopje, Kumanovo, Štip, Strumica and Struga; as part of Yugoslavia Socialist Republic Macedonia was a founding member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1922 to 1948. In this period, summer camps and other Scouting events were held; until 1941, Macedonian youth was organized in Falcons. Scouting in Yugoslavia was coopted by the Tito government in 1950, at which time WOSM membership was forfeited. In November, 1953 Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija was founded, on the initiative of former Scout organization members, as a branch of the Yugoslav Scout association Savez Izviđača Jugoslavije, which it remained until the breakup of Yugoslavia.
After North Macedonia had proclaimed independence on September 8, 1991, Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija members made efforts to be admitted to the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija was declared an independent and nongovernmental organization of young people in 1993. North Macedonia became a full member of the World Organization membership on July 25, 1997; the Scout Association of Macedonia is active in community development programs and engage large number of young people in social projects. It is key player in the civil society and full member organization of the National Youth Council of Macedonia. Along with the numerous project and programs the Scout Association of Macedonia is traditionally organising the following brand programs: National Scout League DION Macedonian Scout Jamboree Youth Academy As of 2016, Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija had 2140 registered Scouts and female, assigned in 24 units all over the country; the primary geographic structure of Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija is the District conforming to Skopje, Veles, Sveti Nikole, Kriva Palanka, Kocani, Ohrid, Struga and Tetovo boundaries.
Today, SIM is the largest youth organization in the Republic of North Macedonia. Cub Scouts-7 to 11 Scouts-12 to 15 Explorers - 16 to 18 Rovers-18 to 29The Scout Motto is Биди Подготвен, translating as Be Prepared in Macedonian; the membership badge of Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija Scout emblem incorporates the national colors of the flag of North Macedonia on the maple leaf design of the original Savez Izviđača Jugoslavije. The Scout Association of Macedonia is active in community development programs and engage large number of young people in social projects, it is key player in the civil society and full member organization of the National Youth Council of Macedonia. Along with the numerous project and programs the Scout Association of Macedonia is traditionally organising the following brand programs: National Scout League DION Macedonian Scout Jamboree Youth Academy The Scout Association of Macedonia is owner of the biggest youth training center in the country located in the shore of the Lake Ohrid.
The center is open for commercial use and function as social enterprise with all profit invest in Scouting. The Scout laws are: A Scout should be trusted. A Scout is helpful. A Scout is a good friend. A Scout is courteous. A Scout is an optimist A Scout is responsible. A Scout uses knowledge. A Scout respects the nature. A Scout develops spiritual and cultural values. A Scout is one in thought and deeds. Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonijascout.org / World Organisation of the Scout Movement Partially distilled from Eurofax 59, August 1997. Eurofax is the monthly newsletter of the European Region of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, it is produced by the European Scout Office and is distributed by fax to all member associations in the European Scout Region and the Europe Region WAGGGS, others
Scouting and Guiding in Spain
The Scout Movement in Spain consists of about 30 independent associations, most of them active on the regional level. Due to the regionalisation of Spain the larger nationwide associations are divided into regional sub-associations with individual emblems and Scout programs. Spanish Scout associations are divided in three organizational groups: Associations affiliated to the World Organization of the Scout Movement Associations affiliated to the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Independent organizations, including a number of members of the smaller international umbrella organizations; the Federación de Escultismo en España is the National Scout Organization within WOSM. It serves 58,744 Scouts and consists of three member organizations: Federación de Scouts-Exploradores de España ). Spanish Guiding is affiliated to WAGGGS via the Comité de Enlace del Guidismo en España, an umbrella federation serving 7.154 members. The Comité has two member organizations. Boy Scouts of America, served by the Transatlantic Council in Madrid and Rota Girlguiding UK, served by British Guides in Foreign Countries Girl Scouts of the USA, served by USAGSO headquarters The Scout Association served by British Scouting Overseas, operates units in Fuengirola and Madrid Scouts et Guides de France operates one group in Barcelona Organización Juvenil Española Scouts de España Federation of Scouting in Spain - official website Federacion Española de Guidismo - official website
Laïcité "secularity", is a French concept of secularism. It discourages religious involvement in government affairs religious influence in the determination of state policies. Dictionaries ordinarily translate laïcité as "secularity" or "secularism", although it is sometimes rendered in English as laicity or laicism by its opponents. While the term was first used with this meaning in 1871 in the dispute over the removal of religious teachers and instruction from elementary schools, the word laïcisme dates to 1842. In its strict and official acceptance, it is the principle of separation of state. Etymologically, laïcité is a noun formed by adding the suffix -ité to the Latin adjective lāicus, a loanword from the Greek λᾱϊκός, the adjective from λᾱός. French secularism has a long history. For the last century, the French government policy has been based on the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State. Laïcité is a concept rooted in the French Revolution, as it started to develop since the French Third Republic, after the Republicans gained control of the state.
The word laïcité has been used, from the end of the 19th century on, to mean the freedom of public institutions primary schools, from the influence of the Catholic Church in countries where it had retained its influence, in the context of a secularization process. Today, the concept covers other religious movements as well. Proponents assert the French state secularism is based on respect for freedom of thought and freedom of religion, thus the absence of a state religion, the subsequent separation of the state and Church, is considered by proponents to be a prerequisite for such freedom of thought. Proponents maintain that laïcité is thus distinct from anti-clericalism, which opposes the influence of religion and the clergy. Laïcité relies on the division between private life, where adherents believe religion belongs, the public sphere, in which each individual, adherents believe, should appear as a simple citizen equal to all other citizens, devoid of ethnic, religious or other particularities.
According to this concept, the government must refrain from taking positions on religious doctrine and only consider religious subjects for their practical consequences on inhabitants' lives. Supporters argue that laïcité by itself does not imply any hostility of the government with respect to any religion, it is best described as a belief that government and political issues should be kept separate from religious organizations and religious issues. This is meant to protect both the government from any possible interference from religious organizations, to protect the religious organization from political quarrels and controversies. Critics of laïcité argue that it is a disguised form of anti-clericalism and infringement on individual right to religious expression, that, instead of promoting freedom of thought and freedom of religion, it prevents the believer from observing his or her religion. Another critique is that, in countries dominated by one religious tradition avoiding taking any positions on religious matters favors the dominant religious tradition of the relevant country.
In the current French Fifth Republic, school holidays follow the Christian liturgical year, that include Christmas and holiday seasons, though Easter holidays have been replaced by Spring holidays which may or may not include Easter, depending on the vagaries of the liturgical calendar. However, schools have long given leave to students for important holidays of their specific non-majority religions, food menus served in secondary schools pay particular attention to ensuring that each religious observer may respect his religion's specific restrictions concerning diets. Other countries, following in the French model, have forms of Laïcité – examples include Albania and Turkey; the principle of laïcité in France is implemented through a number of policies. The French government is prohibited from recognizing any religion. Instead, it recognizes religious organizations, according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine: whether the sole purpose of the organization is to organize religious activities whether the organization disrupts public order.
French political leaders, though not by any means prohibited from making religious remarks refrain from it. Religious considerations are considered incompatible with reasoned political debate. Political leaders may practice their religion but they are expected to differentiate their religious beliefs from their political arguments. Christine Boutin, who argued on religious grounds against a legal domestic partnership available regardless of the sex of the partners became the butt of late-night comedy jokes; the term was the French equivalent of the term laity, that is, everyone, not clergy. After the French Revolution this meaning changed and it came to mean keeping religion separate from the executive and legislative branches of government; this includes prohibitions on having a state religion, as well as for the government to endorse any religious position, be it a religion or atheism. Although the term was current throughou
Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija
Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija is the primary national Scouting and Guiding organization of Latvia and a member of both the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts and the World Organization of the Scout Movement. The coeducational Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija serves 759 members as of 2011; the Latvian Scouting program is based on the principles and methods created by Robert Baden-Powell banned by the Soviet government in 1940. The first Scout troop in Latvia was established on April 17, 1917 under Tsarist Russia by Arvīds Bredermanis and other Scouts from Tartu, followed by several other Scout troops in the Riga area; the official founding year of scouting in Latvia is thus stated as 1917. The Latvian Scout Organization was established in 1921, Latvia was a founding member of the World Organization, from 1922 to 1940. Guiding was started in Latvia in 1921 under the Latvian Youth Organizations. In early 1922 Latvijas Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija was set up, Girl Guiding was permitted to operate as an independent organization.
Latvia enjoyed a visit from Olave Baden-Powell, World Chief Guide, in 1933 and had a active Guiding movement until it was banned in 1940. In 1940, after the Soviet occupation of Latvia, a special officer was appointed by the communists to abolish Scouting. Scouting continued unofficially and underground, operating without uniforms and in the forests to avoid detection. In 1941, the Communists killed President, General Kārlis Goppers; the former Scout Commissioner for Latvia, Valdemārs Klētnieks, fled to the United States as a refugee after World War II. With the fall of communism, Scouting reemerged, in 1989, the first Latvian Scout and Guide camp was organized. In 1990, Latvian Scouts held their fifth National Jamboree, "Renewal" and invited several other countries to participate. Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija rejoined the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1993, as well as the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. There were 984 registered Guides. In 2000 and 2001 Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija and Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs worked together on the WAGGGS project „Food & Nutrition“ and Latvian Scouts and Guides took part in the Austrian National Jamboree in 2001.
The organization is based on the following principles: Duty to God-encourage the fulfillment of their religion. Duty to others-to help other people, your nation and country Develop friendship and cooperation among all nations. Duty to oneself-being responsible for ones development; the Scout and Guide Motto is Esi Modrs, translating as Be Watchful in Latvian, the response to, Arvien Modrs!, Arvien Modra!, Always Watchful! The Little Fire Motto is Centīšos!, I will try. The Latvian noun for a single Scout is Skauts. Ar goda vārdu solos visiem spēkiem censties: būt uzticīga Dievam un Latvijai, palīdzēt tuvākajiem katrā brīdi, pildīt gaidu likumus. On my honor, I will do my best. A Scout is trustworthy A Scout is loyal to fatherland A Scout is unselfish and helpful A Scout is friendly and tolerant A Scout is courteous A Scout is a friend to nature A Scout is obedient A Scout is alert in hardships A Scout is hard-working and thrifty A Scout is clean in thoughts and deeds Mazskauts-Cub Scouts/Guntiņa "Little Fire" or Brownies - 7 to 11 Skauts or Scouts/Gaida or Guides - 12 to 16 Lielgaida or Rovers/Rangers - over 16 Gaida ir patiesa Gaida ir uzticīga Tēvijai Gaida ir pašaizliedzīga un palīdzīga Gaida ir draudzīga un iecietīga Gaida ir pieklājīga Gaida ir dabas draudzene Gaida ir paklausīga Gaida ir moža grūtībās Gaida ir darbīga un taupīga Gaida ir tīra domās, vārdos un darbos.
Censties gribu guntiņa Paklausīga, laba būt, Lai mirdz mans tikumiņš Kā mirdz spoža uguntiņa Guntiņa klausa vecāko Guntiņa valda sevi The membership badge of Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrālā Organizācija Scout emblem incorporates three stars of the coat of arms of Latvia, which embody the idea of the inclusion of historical districts (Vidzeme and combined Courland-Semigalia into the united Latvia. Scouts-in-Exile Scouting in displaced persons camps World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau, Trefoil Round the World. Eleventh Edition 1997. ISBN 0-900827-75-0 Official website "Always Prepared! — 100 Years of Latvian Scouting", official documentary produced in 2018 on the centenary of Scouting in Latvia
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
Scouterna - the Guides and Scouts of Sweden is the national Scouting and Guiding organisation of Sweden. The organisation was formed in 2012 by a restructuring of the Svenska Scoutförbundet and accepted as the successor of the Svenska Scoutrådet by the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts and the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 2013; the co-educational organisation has about 70,000 members. The first Swedish organisations for Boy Scouts were founded in 1911 and 1912 and for Girl Guides in 1913; the movement developed in two distinct branches: Non-religious units were organised in Sveriges Scoutförbundet and Sveriges Flickors Scoutförbund and Protestant units formed the KFUM:s Scoutförbund and the Sveriges KFUK:s Scoutförbund. Scouting and Guiding existed within some smaller organisations like the IOGT and the NTO. In 1930, the Sveriges Scoutförbund and the KFUM:s Scoutförbund founded the Svenska Scoutunionen as an umbrella organisation aiming at the external representation of Swedish Scouting and at the harmonisation of the Scout programme.
The Girl Guides followed in 1931 with the foundation of Sveriges Flickscoutråd. In the 1960s, Swedish Scouting and Guiding became co-educational. Sveriges Scoutförbundet and Sveriges Flickors Scoutförbund merged into Svenska Scoutförbundet in 1960, KFUM:s Scoutförbund and Sveriges KFUK:s Scoutförbund formed the KFUK-KFUMs Scoutförbund in 1966. In 1968, this was followed by the merger of both national bodies into the Svenska Scoutrådet. Started by a grassroots' movement within the five member associations of the Svenska Scoutrådet, the unification of the Swedish Scout and Guide movement was discussed since the mid-1990s. Important steps towards this goal were the national jamborees in 2001 and 2007 as well as the introduction of a common Scout uniform in 2007. In 2010 and 2011, the general meetings of all five associations voted for the unification; the Svenska Scoutförbundet was renamed to Scouterna in 2012. The Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund and the KFUK-KFUMs Scoutförbund were integrated into Scouterna, Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund and SMU Scout partly.
The current structure of Scouterna takes into account that Scouting and Guiding in Sweden developed in several distinct organisations, most of them sponsored by religious institutions. It tries to unify all organisations into a single movement while maintaining the ties between the local units and their sponsoring bodies. All local units are represented in "Scouternas stämma", the general meeting of Scouterna, but their integration into Scouterna's structures and the ways and means of organisational support differ. About two thirds of the 1,100 local units are directly served by the national office of Scouterna and organised in its regional districts, among them the units of the former Svenska Scoutförbundet as well as all units of the Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund and the KFUK-KFUMs Scoutförbund. Three so-called "samverkansorganisationer" make up the remainder of the members. Scouterna is divided in five age groups. Most local units cater for all age groups. Spårarscout — ages 8 to 10 Upptäckarscout — ages 10 to 12 Äventyrsscout — ages 12 to 15 Utmanarscout — ages 15 to 18 Roverscout — ages 19 to 25 All age groups use the same Scout promise: The Scout law was formulated in 1970 for all member organisations of the Svenska Scoutrådet: The Scout motto is Var redo!
- Alltid redo! — Be Prepared! - Always Prepared! Sea Scouting is available to all age groups within Scouterna. About 70 local units with 7,000 members are active in Sea Scouting along the coastline in the Stockholm archipelago, they are organised in Sveriges sjöscouters riksskeppslag, the national council of Swedish Sea Scouts, a special interest group which coordinates the activities of the Sea Scout units. The national headquarters is located in Swedens capital Stockholm; the organisation runs its own Scout shop. Scouterna and its local structures run a large number of Scout huts. Internationally known is the island of Vässarö, owned by the Stockholm Scout district; the Campground at Ransbergs Herrgård near Ransäter in Värmland County was acquired by Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund in 1963. Kopparbo Scout camp near Söderbärke in Dalarna County can accommodate up to 5,000 Scouts, Hörrs Nygård Scout camp near Sjöbo in Skåne County up to 3,000 and Kragenäs Scout camp near Tanumshede in Västra Götaland County up to 1,000.
The national sailing vessel of Scouterna, Biscaya av Vindalsö, was scheduled to be sold in 2016. Scouterna official website Scouterna in English
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille