Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland
The Evangelical Peoples Party of Switzerland is a Protestant Christian-democratic political party in Switzerland, active mainly in the Cantons of Bern, Basel-Land, Basel-Stadt, Aargau and Zürich. Evangelical translates as evangelisch, the German term for Protestant, as opposed to evangelical as used in Anglo-Saxon Christianity, the EVP is a member of the European Christian Political Movement and was previously an observer member of the European Peoples Party until 2008. In the Federal Assembly of Switzerland the EVP forms a joint group along with the Christian Democratic Peoples Party, official website English version of introductory page
Head of government
The term head of government is often differentiated from the term head of state, as they may be separate positions, and/or roles depending on the country. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto leader of the government. For example, in the United Kingdom, the prime minister advises the Queen on the appointment of the cabinet, advice she is required to accept. On the other hand, the Queens long service as the head of state enables her to provide the prime minister with information and insight into many matters to better run the government. However, because the United Kingdom is a monarchy, the Prime Minister uses his or her own discretion regarding whether or not to follow the Queens advice. The Queen is entitled to appoint a new Prime Minister, in presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary greatly, ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, in semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each countrys constitution.
A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958, in France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, who is the head of government. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party, in this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the presidents influence is largely restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people, a prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister, various constitutions use different titles, and even the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, some of these titles relate to governments below the national level.
Have been used by various Empires and Princely States of India as a title for the Prime Minister, maltese, In Malta, the head of government is Prim Ministru. In this case, the prime minister serves at the pleasure of the monarch, some such titles are diwan, pradhan, wasir or vizier. However, just because the head of state is the de jure dominant position does not mean that he/she will not always be the de facto political leader, in some cases, the head of state is a figurehead whilst the head of the government leads the ruling party. In some cases a head of government may even pass on the title in hereditary fashion, the ability to vote down legislative proposals of the government. Control over or ability to vote down fiscal measures and the budget, all of these requirements directly impact the Head of governments role. Many parliamentary systems require ministers to serve in parliament, while others ban ministers from sitting in parliament, heads of government are typically removed from power in a parliamentary system by Resignation, Defeat in a general election
Green Party of Switzerland
The Green Party of Switzerland is the fifth-largest party in the National Council of Switzerland, and the largest party that is not represented on the Federal Council. The first Green party in Switzerland was founded as a party in 1971 in the town of Neuchâtel. In 1979, Daniel Brélaz was elected to the National Council as the first Green MP on the national level and regional Green parties and organisations were founded in many different towns and cantons in the following years. In 1990, an attempt to combine these organisations failed, some of the member groups from the Green Alternative Party joined the Federation of Green Parties which has become the de facto national Green party. In 1993, the Federation of Green Parties changed its name to the Green Party of Switzerland, in 1986, the first two Green members of a cantonal government become members of the Regierungsrat of Bern. In 1987, the Green Party of Switzerland joined the European Federation of Green Parties, in the 1990s, members of the Green Party became town mayors, members of the high court and even president of a cantonal government.
The traditional emphases of the partys policies lie in environmentalism and green means of transportation, in terms of foreign policy, the greens set out on the course of openness and pacifism. In economic policy, the greens are center-left, the majority of greens support an accession of Switzerland to the European Union. In immigration policy, the greens support further integration initiatives for immigrants, the greens support measures to increase energy efficiency, oppose nuclear power, and support raising energy and fuel prices. According to their policy, the revenues should be allocated to social security spending. On the national level, in 2003 the Green Party was not represented in the Council of States or Federal Council, in 2007, two Green Party members were elected to the Council of States. By 2005, the party held 3.8 percent of the seats in the Swiss cantonal executive governments and 6.9 percent in the Swiss cantonal parliaments. In 2007, the Green Party was represented in the governments of the cantons Bern, Basel-City, Neuchâtel, Vaud and Zurich.
Percentage of the vote for the Green Party in Federal Elections 1971-20151. ^a * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton. 2. ^b Part of the Canton of Bern until 1979
Federal courts of Switzerland
The federal judiciary of Switzerland consists of the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Criminal Court, the Federal Patent Court and the Federal Administrative Court. These courts are charged with the application of Swiss federal law through the judicial process, the Federal Supreme Court in Lausanne is established in the Swiss Federal Constitution as the supreme judicial authority of Switzerland. It is the court of appeal for all decisions of the courts of last instance. The Federal Criminal Court in Bellinzona tries the criminal cases subject to criminal jurisdiction, such as cases involving organised crime, terrorism. It decides disputes between cantonal prosecuting authorities, the Federal Administrative Court in Berne reviews decisions made in application of federal administrative law that have been issued by federal and in some cases by cantonal authorities. The Federal Patent Court of Switzerland is a court, which started hearing patent cases in 2012. Web portal of the Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation
Federal Palace of Switzerland
The Federal Palace refers to the building in Bern housing the Swiss Federal Assembly and the Federal Council. It consists of an assembly building and two wings housing government departments and a library. The two chambers where the National Council and the Council of States meet are separated by the Hall of the Dome, the dome itself has an external height of 64 m, and an internal height of 33 m. The mosaic in the center represents the Federal coat of arms along with the Latin motto Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno, the coat of arms of the Canton of Jura, created in 1979, was placed outside of the mosaic. The name in German and Romansh both mean federal house, whereas the French and Italian names both translate to Federal Palace, the building was designed by the architect Hans Auer and its inauguration took place on 1 April 1902. The total cost, at the time, was 7,198,000 Swiss Francs, as reported in a study by the Federal parliamentary services, the noise caused by human activities in the chamber of the National Council is clearly too loud.
Bundesplatz Hotel Bellevue Palace Official website Federal Palace in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Green Liberal Party of Switzerland
The Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, abbreviated to glp, is a centrist Green liberal political party in Switzerland. Founded in 2007, the party seven seats in the Federal Assembly as of 2017. The party was formed on 19 July 2007 by four branches of the Green Party. Contesting the election in October 2007 in St. Gallen and Zurich, a month later, the party won a seat in the Council of States, with Verena Diener representing Zurich. The party has since expanded across Switzerland, and holds seats in thirteen cantonal legislatures in German-speaking Switzerland, the Green Liberals are a party of the political centre, as opposed to the left Green Party. They seek to combine liberalism on civil liberties and moderate economic liberalism with environmental sustainability, the party has an autonomous parliamentary group in the Federal Assembly of Switzerland after the last federal election. The party was founded on 19 July 2007 by four parties of the same name that had seceded from the Green Party.
These branches were in Basel-Landschaft, Bern, St. Gallen, in the 2007 election to the National Council on 22 October 2007, the party ran in Zurich and St. Gallen. Despite being limited to only two cantons, the party won 1. 4% of the vote nationwide and 3 out of 200 seats. In Zurich, they won 7% of the vote, one of these three had been a National Councillor for the Green Party in the previous Parliament. A month later, it won a seat in the Council of States, along with the first appearance of the Green Party, this was the first time a minor party had won representation in the Council of States since 1995. When the Federal Assembly convened, the glp joined the Christian Democrats/EPP/glp Group, making it the second-largest group, in 2010 the party got an additional seat in the Council of States with Markus Stadler from Uri
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members.
Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a seat, as, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7
Federal Assembly (Switzerland)
The Federal Assembly, is Switzerlands federal legislature. It meets in Bern in the Federal Palace, the Federal Assembly is bicameral, being composed of the 200-seat National Council and the 46-seat Council of States. Both are elected in full every four years, with the last election being held in 2015. The Federal Assembly possesses the federal legislative power, along with the separate constitutional right of citizens initiative. For a law to pass, it must be passed by both houses, the Federal Assembly may come together as a United Federal Assembly in certain circumstances such as to elect the Federal Council, the Federal Chancellor, the federal judges or a General. The Federal Assembly is made up of two chambers, the National Council, with 200 seats the Council of States, with 46 councillors, seats in the National Council are allocated to the cantons proportionally, based on population. In the Council of States, every canton has two seats, on occasions the two houses sit jointly as the United Federal Assembly.
The Federal Assembly confirms the appointment of the Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner, Parties can cooperate in groups, allowing smaller parties access to rights as part of a caucus. These groups must have at least five members and must be maintained across both chambers, being a member of a formal group gives members the right to sit on committees, and those that arent members cant speak in most debates. Each group receives an allowance of CHF112,000, whilst each member of a group receives an additional CHF20,800 a year each. Since March 2009, there have been six groups in the Federal Assembly, the latest group to form was the Conservative Democratic Party which split off the Swiss Peoples Party in 2008. The Christian Democrats/EPP/glp Group was formed after the 2007 elections, out of the former Christian Democratic and EPP groups. The current FTP/Liberal group was formed in 2003 out of the former FDP and Liberal groups, since the 2009 fusion of the Free Democrati and Liberal Parties, RL is once again a single-party group.
In 2011, the CEg was disbanded, the Green Liberals formed their own faction and the three Christian parties formed the Christian-Evangelical Group
In political science, an initiative is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote. The initiative may take the form of an initiative or an indirect initiative. In a direct initiative, a measure is put directly to a vote after being submitted by a petition, in an indirect initiative, a measure is first referred to the legislature, and put to a popular vote only if not enacted by the legislature. It is a form of direct democracy, the Canadian province of British Columbia has a citizen initiative law known as the Recall and Initiative Act. The original proposal was put to voters in a referendum held in October 1991 and was supported by over 83% of voters and it was subsequently put into force by the incoming NDP government. The first referendum was held under this legislation on September 2011 on the subject of repealing the Harmonized Sales Tax, details of its use in BC are available on the Elections BC website. The rejected Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe included an indirect initiative right.
The precise mechanism had not been agreed upon, critics underlined the weakness of this right of initiative, which did not ultimately entail any vote or referendum. A similar scheme under the name, European Citizens Initiative, has been put forward in the now ratified European Lisbon Treaty. It follows very similar rules to the ones outlined in the European Constitution and these citizens would thereby obtain the same right to request the Commission to submit a legislative proposal as the Council has had since the establishment of the European Communities in 1957. This, does require that the signatures come from a significant number of Member States and it is suggested that this significant number will need to be around a quarter of member states, with at least 1/500 of the citizens in those member states supporting the initiative. With the variety of languages within the European Union, this creates a significant hurdle for people to navigate. In 2013 the subjects of ongoing open initiatives of the European Citizens Initiative are e. g.
about water and sanitation as a human right, unconditional Basic Income, or to End Ecocide in Europe. It remains to be if the ECI evolves into a full initiative or remains in its present state of a de facto petition. Since March 1,2012, groups of at least 50,000 Finnish citizens with suffrage have had the right to send a citizens initiative to the Parliament of Finland. A limited, indirect form of initiative was added to the French Constitution on 28 March 2003 as part of decentralization reforms. However, the only power these local referendum initiatives confer on citizens is the ability to add propositions to their local assemblys meeting agenda, the decision as to whether to submit citizen propositions to a popular vote rests with the local assembly. All German states have the right to initiative, there is no constitutional citizens initiative in Germany at a federal level
Swiss Party of Labour
The Swiss Party of Labour is a communist party in Switzerland. The party was founded in 1944 by the illegal Communist Party of Switzerland, on May 21 the constituent conference of the Basel Federation of the party was held. On October 14–15 the same year the first Party Congress of the party was held in Zürich, Léon Nicole was elected President and Karl Hofmaier General Secretary. On October 6–7,1945 the Second Congress was held in Geneva, by this time the party has 20000 members. On November 30-December 1 the 3rd Congress in Zürich, on July 27 a Swiss Party Conference was held in Bern. Karl Hofmaier was removed from his position due to a financial scandal, in the national elections of 1947 the party received 5. 1% of the vote. On July 4–6,1949, the 4th Congress was held, steps to strengthen the organization as a Cadre Party are taken. In 1950, the party works intensively for the Stockholm Appeal,260000 signatures are collected in Switzerland. On May 31-June 2,1952, the 5th Congress is held in Geneva, on December 7 the Central Committee expels Léon Nicole from the party.
On May 28–30, 6th Congress in Geneva, on May 16–18,1959, 7th Congress in Geneva. A new party programme approved with the concept of antimonopolistic unity, on May 16–18,1964, 8th Congress in Geneva. It is associated with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group in the European Parliament, in 2015, the party has no seats in the Swiss cantonal councils, and was not represented in any of the 26 cantonal governments. This resulted in conflict with the party headed by Norberto Crivelli. While the share of the vote in 2007 was similar to the partys 2003 results, the party lost its last seat in the 2011 federal elections but gained a new one in 2015 thanks to the election of Denis de la Reussille in Canton of Neuchâtel