Agricultural Research Service
The Agricultural Research Service is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture. ARS is one of four agencies in USDA's Research and Economics mission area. ARS is charged with extending the nation's scientific knowledge and solving agricultural problems through its four national program areas: nutrition, food safety and quality. ARS research focuses on solving problems affecting Americans every day; the ARS Headquarters is located in the Jamie L. Whitten Building on Independence Avenue in Washington, D. C. and the headquarters staff is located at the George Washington Carver Center in Beltsville, Maryland. For 2018, its budget was $1.2 billion. ARS conducts scientific research for the American public, their main focus is on research to develop solutions to agricultural problems and provide information access and dissemination to: ensure high quality, safe food and other agricultural products, assess the nutritional needs of Americans, sustain a competitive agricultural economy, enhance the natural resource base and the environment, provide economic opportunities to rural citizens and society as a whole.
ARS research complements the work of state colleges and universities, agricultural experiment stations, other federal and state agencies, the private sector. ARS research may focus on regional issues that have national implications, where there is a clear federal role. ARS provides information on its research results to USDA action and regulatory agencies and to several other federal regulatory agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. ARS disseminates much of its research results through scientific journals, technical publications, Agricultural Research magazine, other forums. Information is distributed through ARS's National Agricultural Library. ARS has more than 150 librarians and other information specialists who work at two NAL locations—the Abraham Lincoln Building in Beltsville, Maryland. C. NAL provides reference and information services, document delivery, interlibrary loan and interlibrary borrowing services to a variety of audiences.
ARS supports more than 2,000 scientists and post docs working on 690 research projects within 15 National Programs at more than 90 research locations. The ARS is divided into 5 geographic areas: Midwest Area, Northeast Area, Pacific West Area, Plains Area, Southeast Area. ARS has five major regional research centers: the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California; the research centers focus on innovation in agricultural practices, pest control and nutrition among other things. Work at these facilities has given life to numerous products and technologies; the ARS offers the Culture Collection, the largest public collection of microorganisms in the world, containing 93,000 strains of bacteria and fungi. The ARS Culture Collection is housed at Northern Regional Research Laboratory ARS' Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland, is the world's largest agricultural research complex. ARS operates the U. S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort Pierce and the U.
S. National Poultry Research Center in Athens, Georgia. ARS has six major human nutrition research centers that focus on solving a wide spectrum of human nutrition questions by providing authoritative, peer-reviewed, science-based evidence; the centers are located in Arkansas, Texas, North Dakota and California. ARS scientists at these centers study the role of food and dietary components in human health from conception to advanced age. Technology to produce lactose-free milk, ice cream and yogurt was developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in 1985; the grape breeding program, which dates back to 1923, developed seedless grapes. The ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory in Winter Haven, Florida, is active in work to improve the taste of orange juice concentrate. ARS had a Toxoplasma gondii research program, which experimented on cats infected with the parasite, from 1982 until 2019. Cats were bred for the program and intentionally infected, kittens in the program were euthanized after research was completed.
Cats were fed raw cat and dog meat for the study, called "kitten cannibalism" by the White Coat Waste Project. A bipartisan bill to eliminate the practice was introduced into the House by Representatives Jimmy Panetta, Brian Mast, Elissa Slotkin, Will Hurd, with a companion bill introduced into the Senate by Jeff Merkley; the bills called the "Kittens In Traumatic Testing Ends Now Act of 2019", amend the Animal Welfare Act to limit USDA experimentation on cats. The bill has been referred to the Subcommittee on Livestock and Foreign Agriculture of the House Committee on Agriculture. While the bills have not passed, the USDA stated. Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations Agricultural Resource Management Survey Germplasm Resources Information Network Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging National Clonal Germplasm Repository National Agricultural Center and Hall of Fame U. S. Horticultural Research Laboratory National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research "Agricultural Research Service".
Archived from the original on October
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
Major themes in
The Federal Register is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, public notices. It is published daily, except on federal holidays; the final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. The Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no copyright restrictions on the Federal Register. S. government, it is in the public domain. The Federal Register provides a means for the government to announce to the public changes to government requirements and guidance. Proposed new rules and regulations Final rules Changes to existing rules Notices of meetings and adjudicatory proceedings Presidential documents including Executive orders and administrative orders. Both proposed and final government rules are published in the Federal Register.
A Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requests public comment on a proposed rule and provides notice of any public meetings where a proposed rule will be discussed. The public comments are considered by the issuing government agency, the text of a final rule along with a discussion of the comments is published in the Federal Register. Any agency proposing a rule in the Federal Register must provide contact information for people and organizations interested in making comments to the agencies and the agencies are required to address these concerns when it publishes its final rule on the subject; the notice and comment process, as outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act, gives the people a chance to participate in agency rulemaking. Publication of documents in the Federal Register constitutes constructive notice, its contents are judicially noticed; the United States Government Manual is published as a special edition of the Federal Register. Its focus is on activities; each daily issue of the printed Federal Register is organized into four categories: Presidential Documents Rules and Regulations Proposed Rules Notices Citations from the Federal Register are FR, e.g. 71 FR 24924.
The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and re-published in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. Copies of the Federal Register may be obtained from the U. S. Government Publishing Office. Most law libraries associated with an American Bar Association–accredited law school will have a set, as will federal depository libraries; the Federal Register has been available online since 1994. Federal depository libraries within the U. S. receive copies of the text, either in paper or microfiche format. Outside the U. S. some major libraries may carry the Federal Register. As part of the Federal E-Government eRulemaking Initiative, the web site Regulations.gov was established in 2003 to enable easy public access to agency dockets on rulemaking projects including the published Federal Register document. The public can use Regulations.gov to access entire rulemaking dockets from participating Federal agencies to include providing on-line comments directly to those responsible for drafting the rulemakings.
To help federal agencies manage their dockets, the Federal Docket Management System was launched in 2005 and is the agency side of regulations.gov. In April 2009, Citation Technologies created a free, searchable website for Federal Register articles dating from 1996 to the present. GovPulse.us, a finalist in the Sunlight Foundation's Apps for America 2, provides a web 2.0 interface to the Federal Register, including sparklines of agency activity and maps of current rules. On July 25, 2010, the Federal Register 2.0 website went live. The new website is a collaboration between the developers who created GovPulse.us, the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives and Records Administration. On August 1, 2011, the Federal Register announced a new application programming interface to facilitate programmatic access to the Federal Register content; the API is RESTful, utilizing the HATEOAS architecture with results delivered in the JSON format. Details are available at the developers page and Ruby and Python client libraries are available.
In addition to purchasing printed copies or subscriptions, the contents of the Federal Register can be acquired via several commercial databases: Citation Technologies offers the complete Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations through subscription-based web portals such as CyberRegs. HeinOnline: Full coverage available dating back to 1936 in an image-based searchable PDF format. LexisNexis: Searchable text format since 45 FR 44251. Westlaw: Searchable text format since 46 FR 1; the Unified Agenda and the official English text of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which became effective January 1, 1988, are included. Sunshine Act Meeting Notices are not available prior to 1991. Unified Agenda documents are not available prior to October 1989; the Federal Register system of publication was created on July 26, 1935, under the Federal Register Act. The first issue of the Federal Regis
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms, it is one of the most widespread and recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features; the most apparent is the presence of scales that cover the bodies, a proboscis. The scales are modified, flattened "hairs", give butterflies and moths their wide variety of colors and patterns. All species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults near or on host plants for the larvae.
Like most other insects and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis. The larvae are called caterpillars, are different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs; as they grow, these larvae change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once matured, the larva develops into a pupa. A few butterflies and many moth species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not, instead going underground. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin with no cocoon. Once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges; the Lepidoptera have, over millions of years, evolved a wide range of wing patterns and coloration ranging from drab moths akin to the related order Trichoptera, to the brightly colored and complex-patterned butterflies. Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many people involved in the observation, collection, rearing of, commerce in these insects.
A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist. Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain. In many species, the female may produce from 200 to 600 eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30,000 eggs in one day; the caterpillars hatching from these eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. Many moth and butterfly species are of economic interest by virtue of their role as pollinators, the silk they produce, or as pest species; the term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Greek λεπίς, gen. λεπίδος and πτερόν. Sometimes, the term Rhopalocera is used for the clade of all butterfly species, derived from the Ancient Greek ῥόπαλον and κέρας meaning "club" and "horn" coming from the shape of the antennae of butterflies; the origins of the common names "butterfly" and "moth" are varied and obscure. The English word butterfly is with many variations in spelling. Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the pale yellow color of many species' wings suggesting the color of butter.
The species of Heterocera are called moths. The origins of the English word moth are more clear, deriving from the Old English moððe" from Common Germanic, its origins are related to Old English maða meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge", which until the 16th century was used to indicate the larva in reference to devouring clothes. The etymological origins of the word "caterpillar", the larval form of butterflies and moths, are from the early 16th century, from Middle English catirpel, catirpeller an alteration of Old North French catepelose: cate, cat + pelose, hairy; the Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects. They are found on all continents, except Antarctica, inhabit all terrestrial habitats ranging from desert to rainforest, from lowland grasslands to mountain plateaus, but always associated with higher plants angiosperms. Among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
In the Himalayas, various Apollo species such as Parnassius epaphus have been recorded to occur up to an altitude of 6,000 m above sea level. Some lepidopteran species exhibit symbiotic, phoretic, or parasitic lifestyles, inhabiting the bodies of organisms rather than the environment. Coprophagous pyralid moth species, called sloth moths, such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are found inhabiting the fur of sloths, mammals found in Central and South America. Two species of Tinea moths have been recorded as feeding on horny tissue and have been bred from the horns of cattle; the larva of Zenodochium coccivorella is an internal parasite of the coccid Kermes species. Many species have been recorded as breeding in natural materials or refuse such as owl pellets, bat caves, honeycombs or diseased fruit; as of 2007, there was 174,250 lepi
The Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s. The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, 1939–1940, but some regions of the high plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years. With insufficient understanding of the ecology of the plains, farmers had conducted extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains during the previous decade; the rapid mechanization of farm equipment small gasoline tractors, widespread use of the combine harvester contributed to farmers' decisions to convert arid grassland to cultivated cropland. During the drought of the 1930s, the unanchored soil turned to dust, which the prevailing winds blew away in huge clouds that sometimes blackened the sky; these choking billows of dust – named "black blizzards" or "black rollers" – traveled cross country, reaching as far as the East Coast and striking such cities as New York City and Washington, D.
C. On the plains, they reduced visibility to 3 feet or less. Associated Press reporter Robert E. Geiger happened to be in Boise City, Oklahoma, to witness the "Black Sunday" black blizzards of April 14, 1935. While the term "the Dust Bowl" was a reference to the geographical area affected by the dust, today it refers to the event itself; the drought and erosion of the Dust Bowl affected 100,000,000 acres that centered on the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma and touched adjacent sections of New Mexico and Kansas. The Dust Bowl forced tens of thousands of poverty-stricken families to abandon their farms, unable to pay mortgages or grow crops, losses reached $25 million per day by 1936. Many of these families, who were known as "Okies" because so many of them came from Oklahoma, migrated to California and other states to find that the Great Depression had rendered economic conditions there little better than those they had left; the Dust Bowl has been the subject of many cultural works, notably the novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, the folk music of Woody Guthrie, photographs depicting the conditions of migrants by Dorothea Lange.
The Dust Bowl area lies principally west of the 100th meridian on the High Plains, characterized by plains which vary from rolling in the north to flat in the Llano Estacado. Elevation ranges from 2,500 feet in the east to 6,000 feet at the base of the Rocky Mountains; the area is semiarid. The region is prone to extended drought, alternating with unusual wetness of equivalent duration. During wet years, the rich soil provides bountiful agricultural output, but crops fail during dry years; the region is subject to high winds. During early European and American exploration of the Great Plains, this region was thought unsuitable for European-style agriculture; the lack of surface water and timber made the region less attractive than other areas for pioneer settlement and agriculture. The federal government encouraged settlement and development of the Plains for agriculture via the Homestead Act of 1862, offering settlers 160-acre plots. With the end of the Civil War in 1865 and the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, waves of new migrants and immigrants reached the Great Plains, they increased the acreage under cultivation.
An unusually wet period in the Great Plains mistakenly led settlers and the federal government to believe that "rain follows the plow" and that the climate of the region had changed permanently. While initial agricultural endeavors were cattle ranching, the adverse effect of harsh winters on the cattle, beginning in 1886, a short drought in 1890, general overgrazing, led many landowners to increase the amount of land under cultivation. Recognizing the challenge of cultivating marginal arid land, the United States government expanded on the 160 acres offered under the Homestead Act – granting 640 acres to homesteaders in western Nebraska under the Kinkaid Act and 320 acres elsewhere in the Great Plains under the Enlarged Homestead Act. Waves of European settlers arrived in the plains at the beginning of the 20th century. A return of unusually wet weather confirmed a held opinion that the "formerly" semiarid area could support large-scale agriculture. At the same time, technological improvements such as mechanized plowing and mechanized harvesting made it possible to operate larger properties without increasing labor costs.
The combined effects of the disruption of the Russian Revolution, which decreased the supply of wheat and other commodity crops, World War I increased agricultural prices. For example, in the Llano Estacado of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas, the area of farmland was doubled between 1900 and 1920 tripled again between 1925 and 1930; the agricultural methods favored by farmers during this per
The Codex Alexandrinus is a fifth-century manuscript of the Greek Bible, containing the majority of the Septuagint and the New Testament. It is one of the four Great uncial codices. Along with the Codex Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus, it is one of the earliest and most complete manuscripts of the Bible. Brian Walton assigned Alexandrinus the capital Latin letter A in the Polyglot Bible of 1657; this designation was maintained when the system was standardized by Wettstein in 1751. Thus, Alexandrinus held the first position in the manuscript list, it derives its name from Alexandria where it resided for a number of years before it was brought by the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch Cyril Lucaris from Alexandria to Constantinople. It was given to Charles I of England in the 17th century; until the purchase of Codex Sinaiticus, it was the best manuscript of the Greek Bible deposited in Britain. Today, it rests along with Codex Sinaiticus in one of the showcases in the Ritblat Gallery of the British Library.
A full photographic reproduction of the New Testament volume is available on the British Library's website. As the text came from several different traditions, different parts of the codex are not of equal textual value; the text has been edited several times since the 18th century. The codex is in quarto, now consists of 773 vellum folios, bound in four volumes. Three volumes contain the Septuagint, Greek version of the Old Testament, with the complete loss of only ten leaves; the fourth volume contains the New Testament with 31 NT leaves lost. In the fourth volume 1 and 2 Clement are missing leaves 3; the codex contains a nearly complete copy of the LXX, including the deuterocanonical books 3 and 4 Maccabees, Psalm 151 and the 14 Odes. The "Epistle to Marcellinus" attributed to Saint Athanasius and the Eusebian summary of the Psalms are inserted before the Book of Psalms, it contains all of the books of the New Testament. In addition, the codex contains the homily known as 2 Clement; the books of the Old Testament are thus distributed: Genesis — 2 Chronicles, Hosea — 4 Maccabees, Psalms — Sirach.
The New Testament books follow in order: Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, General epistles, Pauline epistles, Book of Revelation. There is an appendix marked in the index, which lists the Psalms of Solomon and contained more apocryphal/pseudepigraphical books, but it has been torn off and the pages containing these books have been lost. Due to damage and lost folios, various passages are missing or have defects: Lacking: 1 Sam 12:17-14:9; the ornamented colophon of the Epistle to Philemon has been cut out. The manuscript measures 12.6 × 10.4 inches and most of the folios were gathered into quires of eight leaves each. In modern times it was rebound into sets of six leaves each; the material is thin and beautiful vellum discoloured at the edges, which have been damaged by age and more so through the ignorance or carelessness of the modern binder, who has not always spared the text at the upper inner margin. Scrivener noted that "The vellum has fallen into holes in many places, since the ink peels off for age whensoever a leaf is touched a little no one is allowed to handle the manuscript except for good reasons."
The text in the codex is written in two columns in uncial script, with between 49 and 51 lines per column and 20 to 25 letters per line. The beginning lines of each book are written in red ink and sections within the book are marked by a larger letter set into the margin. Words are written continuously in a large and well-formed uncial hand. There are no accents and breathing marks, except a few added by a hand; the punctuation was written by the first hand. The letters are larger than those of the Codex Vaticanus. There is no division of words, but some pauses are observed in places in which should be a dot between two words; the poetical books of the Old Testament are written stichometrically. The Old Testament quotations in the text of New Testament are marked on the margin by the sign 〉; the only decorations in the manuscript are decorative tail-pieces at the end of each book and it shows a tendency to increase the size of the first letter of each sentence. The capitals at the beginning of the sections stand out in the margin as in codices Ephraemi and Basilensis.
Codex Alexandrinus is the oldest manuscript. The interchange of vowels of similar sounds is frequent in this manuscript; the letters Ν and Μ are confused, the cluster ΓΓ is substituted with ΝΓ. This may be an argument which points to Egypt. A lot of iotacistic errors occur in the text, it has not more iotacisms than other manuscripts of the same date. The handwriting of the text from the beginning of Luke to 1 Corinthians 10:8, differs from that of the rest parts of the manuscript; some letter
Diabrotica is a widespread genus of beetles, sometimes referred to as cucumber beetles or corn rootworms, in the family Chrysomelidae. Members of this genus include several destructive agricultural pest species. Corn rootworms are one of the most economically significant consumers of maize in the United States; the western corn rootworm, D. virgifera virgifera, the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi, are the most significant rootworm species in Iowa, a major corn-growing area. A third species, the southern corn rootworm, D. undecimpunctata howardi, causes much economic damage in other regions. The range of this genus extends farth south into South America, Diabrotica speciosa causes damage in Argentina. Corn rootworm larvae can destroy significant acreage of corn. In the United States, current estimates show 30 million acres of corn, out of 80 million total are infested with corn rootworm. Estimates of economic damage to corn growers from the pest are about $1 billion. Diabrotica was unknown in Europe until the late 1990s and was forbidden in laboratories because of the difficulty in eliminating it with insecticides.
It appears to have entered Europe from the US in large numbers during the Yugoslav wars and is widespread around US military airports, whose planes were to have transported the pest. It has since spread in Italy and Germany. Several species of Diabrotica are significant insects of North America, including: D. balteata - banded cucumber beetle D. barberi - northern corn rootworm D. undecimpunctata D. u. howardi - spotted cucumber beetle D. u. tenella - western cucumber beetle D. u. undecimpunctata - western spotted cucumber beetle D. virgifera D. v. virgifera - western corn rootworm D. v. zeae - Mexican corn rootworm Adults of D. undecimpunctata are greenish-yellow with six large black spots on each elytron. They are about.2 inches long. The larvae are wormlike. Adult rootworms are about.25 inches long. Western corn rootworm adults are yellowish with a black stripe on each wing cover. Northern corn rootworm beetles vary from light tan to pale green; the eggs are deposited in the soil during the summer, are football-shaped and less than 0.004 inches long.
Larvae hatch in late May or early June and begin to feed on corn roots. Newly hatched larvae are small, less than.125 inches long, white worms. They go through three larval instars, pupate in the soil and emerge as adults in July and August, with one generation per year. Larvae have brown heads and a brown marking on the top of the last abdominal segment, giving them a double-headed appearance. Larvae have three pairs of legs, but these are not visible without magnification. After feeding for several weeks, the larvae molt into the pupal stage; the pupal stage has the basic shape of the adult. Diabrotica balteata on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures website