United States Secretary of the Interior
The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The Department of the Interior in the United States is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources; the Secretary serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet; the U. S. Department of the Interior should not be confused with the Ministries of the Interior as used in many other countries. Ministries of the Interior in these other countries correspond to the Department of Homeland Security in the U. S. Cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice; because the policies and activities of the Department of the Interior and many of its agencies have a substantial impact in the Western United States, the Secretary of the Interior has come from a western state. The current Interior Secretary is David Bernhardt, who held the office in an acting capacity until April 2019.
He succeeded Ryan Zinke who resigned on January 2, 2019. The line of succession for the Secretary of Interior is as follows: Deputy Secretary of the Interior Solicitor of the Interior Assistant Secretary for Policy and Budget Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management Assistant Secretary for Water and Science Assistant Secretary for Fish and Parks Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs Director, Security and Law Enforcement, Bureau of Reclamation Central Region Director, US Geological Survey Intermountain Regional Director, National Park Service Region 6 Director, US Fish and Wildlife Service Colorado State Director, Bureau of Land Management Regional Solicitor, Rocky Mountain Region As of April 2019, eight former Secretaries of the Interior are alive, the oldest being Manuel Lujan Jr.. The most recent to die was Cecil D. Andrus, on August 23, 2017; the most serving Secretary to die was William P. Clark Jr. on August 10, 2013. Official website List of Secretaries of the Interior The Department of Everything Else: Highlights of Interior History
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Librarian of Congress
The Librarian of Congress is the head of the Library of Congress, appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, for a term of ten years. The Librarian of Congress appoints the U. S. Poet Laureate and awards the Gershwin Prize for Popular Song; the Librarian of Congress has broad responsibilities around copyright, extending to electronic resources and fair use provisions outlined in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The Librarian determines whether particular works are subject to DMCA prohibitions regarding technological access protection. On July 13, 2016, the US Senate confirmed Carla Hayden as the librarian by a vote of 74–18 and she was sworn in on September 14, 2016. On April 24, 1800, the 6th United States Congress passed an appropriations bill signed by President John Adams which created the Library of Congress; this law was to serve a "further provision for the removal and accommodation of the Government of the United States."
The fifth section of the act created the Library of Congress and designated some of its early capabilities. The act provided for "the acquisition of books for congressional use, a suitable place in the Capitol in which to house them, a joint committee to make rules for their selection and circulation," as well as an appropriation of $5,000 for the new library. In 1802, two years after the creation of the Library, President Thomas Jefferson approved a Congressional Act that created the Office of the Librarian and granted the President power of appointment over the new office. Shortly thereafter, Jefferson appointed his former campaign manager John J. Beckley to serve as the first Librarian of Congress, it was not until 1897. This same law gave the Librarian the sole power for making the institution's rules and appointing the Library's staff. From its creation until 2015, the post of the Librarian was not subject to term limits and allowed incumbents to maintain a lifetime appointment once confirmed.
Most Librarians of Congress have served until retirement. There were only 13 Librarians of Congress in the more than two centuries from 1802 to 2015, the Library "enjoyed a continuity of atmosphere and of policy, rare in national institutions." In 2015, Congress passed and President Barack Obama signed into law the "Librarian of Congress Succession Modernization Act of 2015" which put a 10-year term limit on the position with an option for reappointment. The legislation was seen as a critique of Librarian James H. Billington's unwillingness to hire a permanent Chief Information Officer to manage and update the Library's Information Technology. There are no regulations delineating qualifications for the office holder; the position of Librarian of Congress has been held by candidates of different backgrounds and talents, throughout its history. Politicians, authors, poets and one professional librarian have served as the Librarian of Congress. However, at various times there have been proposals for requirements for the position.
In 1945, Carl Vitz president of the American Library Association, wrote a letter to the President of the United States regarding the position of Librarian of Congress, which had become vacant. Vitz felt it necessary to recommend potential librarians. Vitz stated the position "requires a top-flight administrator, a statesman-like leader in the world of knowledge, an expert in bringing together the materials of scholarship and organizing them for use—in short, a distinguished librarian." In 1989, Congressman Major Owens introduced a bill to set stricter requirements for who may be appointed. He argued. List of librarians Parliamentary Librarian of Canada "Hiring: The First Librarian of Congress for the Internet Age", The Atlantic, June 2015 "Many Choices for Obama in Replacing Billington at Library of Congress", New York Times, June 2015 Alan S. Inouye, "Who Should Be the Next Librarian of Congress? Wrong Question!", Roll Call Jessamyn West, "The Next Librarian of Congress", The Message – via Medium Andrew Albanese, "Could the Nomination of the Next Librarian of Congress Spark a Political Battle?", Publishers Weekly
The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress, published by the United States Government Publishing Office and issued when Congress is in session. Indexes are issued every two weeks. At the end of a session of Congress, the daily editions are compiled in bound volumes constituting the permanent edition. Chapter 9 of Title 44 of the United States Code authorizes publication of the Congressional Record; the Congressional Record consists of four sections: the House section, the Senate section, the Extensions of Remarks, since the 1940s, the Daily Digest. At the back of each daily issue is the Daily Digest, which summarizes the day's floor and committee activities and serves as a table of contents for each issue; the House and Senate sections contain proceedings for the separate chambers of Congress. A section of the Congressional Record titled Extensions of Remarks contains speeches and other extraneous words that were not uttered during open proceedings of the full Senate or of the full House of Representatives.
Witnesses in committee hearings are asked to submit their complete testimony "for the record" and only deliver a summary of it in person. The full statement will appear in a printed volume of the hearing identified as "Statements for the Record". In years past, this particular section of the Congressional Record was called the "Appendix". While members of either body may insert material into Extensions of Remarks, Senators do so; the overwhelming majority of what is found there is entered at the request of Members of the House of Representatives. From a legal standpoint, most materials in the Congressional Record are classified as secondary authority, as part of a statute's legislative history. By custom and rules of each house, members frequently "revise and extend" their remarks made on the floor before the debates are published in the Congressional Record. Therefore, for many years, speeches that were not delivered in Congress appeared in the Congressional Record, including in the sections purporting to be verbatim reports of debates.
In recent years, these revised remarks have been preceded by a "bullet" symbol or, more and printed in a typeface discernibly different from that used to report words spoken by members. The Congressional Record is publicly available for records before 1875 via the Library of Congress' American Memory Century of Lawmaking website, since 1989 via Congress.gov. Thanks to a partnership between GPO and the Library of Congress, digital versions of the bound editions are available on govinfo.gov for 1873 to 2001 and 2005 to 2015. Govinfo.gov provides access to digital versions of the daily edition from 1994 to the present. The Constitution, in Article I, Section 5, requires Congress to keep a journal of its proceedings, although the House and Senate Journals are separate publications from the Congressional Record, include only a bare record of actions and votes, rather than verbatim texts of the debates; the Congressional Record was first published in 1873. Prior to this, roll calls and other records were recorded in The Annals of Congress, the Register of Debates in Congress, or the Congressional Globe.
A digital collection of these historical volumes is now available online via the Library of Congress. Hansard, British parliamentary record Congressional Record Bound Edition via GPO's govinfo from 1873-2001, 2005-2015. Congressional Record Daily Edition via GPO's govinfo from 1994 to present. Congressional Record Index via GPO's govinfo from 1983. Search Congressional Record from 1995 to present Overview of the Congressional Record and Its Predecessor Publications: A Research Guide Sessions of Congress and Corresponding Debate Record Volume Numbers Find Congressional Record in a Depository Library Sources for the Congressional Record: Free and Commercial for people with access to libraries U. S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875, containing the Annals of Congress, Register of Debates, Congressional Globe, Congressional Record, hosted by the Library of Congress
Mayor of the District of Columbia
The Mayor of the District of Columbia is the head of the executive branch of the government of the District of Columbia, in the United States. The mayor has the duty to enforce district laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Council of the District of Columbia, in the United States. In addition, the mayor oversees all district services, public property and fire protection, most public agencies, the public school system within the District of Columbia; the mayor's office oversees an annual district budget of $8.8 billion. The mayor's Executive Office is located in the John A. Wilson Building in downtown Washington, D. C; the mayor appoints several officers, including the Deputy Mayors for Education and Planning & Economic Development, the District Administrator, the chancellor of the district's public schools, the Office of Latino Affairs, the department heads of the district agencies. The District of Columbia has always had an African-American mayor a reflection of the fact that 50.1% of the District of Columbia residents are black, with white population in the mid-forties.
At its official formation in 1801 by Act of Congress, the District consisted of five political sub-divisions: three cities with their own municipal governments, two rural counties. The City of Washington was one of those three cities. Newly chartered shortly after the District, in 1802, the City of Washington had its own list of mayors from 1802 through 1871. From 1802 to 1812, the mayor was appointed by the President of the United States. Between 1812 and 1820, the city's mayors were selected by executive council. From 1820 to 1871 the mayor was popularly elected; the District as a whole had any other executive position in that period. In 1871, with the District of Columbia Organic Act, the three remaining subdivisions within the District were unified into a single government, whose chief executive was a territorial Governor; the District was overseen by governors by a three-member Board of Commissioners, until 1967. In 1967 President Lyndon B. Johnson created a more modern government headed by a single commissioner, popularly known as "mayor-commissioner," and a nine-member district council, all appointed by the president.
Walter E. Washington was named to the post, was retained by Johnson's successor, Richard Nixon. Washington was the only occupant of that position. In 1973, Congress enacted the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, providing for an elected mayor and 13-member district council, with the first elections to take place the following year. Incumbent mayor-commissioner Walter Washington was elected the first home-rule Mayor of the District of Columbia on November 5, 1974, he took office on January 2, 1975, heading the district's first popularly-elected government in over a century. The local government during the mayoralty of Washington's successor, Marion Barry, was criticized for mismanagement and waste. Barry defeated Mayor Washington in the 1978 Democratic Party primary. Barry was elected mayor, serving three successive four-year terms. During his administration in 1989, The Washington Monthly magazine claimed that the District had "the worst city government in America". After being imprisoned for six months on misdemeanor drug charges in 1990, Barry did not run for reelection.
In 1991, Sharon Pratt Kelly became the first black woman to lead the District. Barry was elected again in 1994 and by the next year the district had become nearly insolvent. In 1995, Congress created the District of Columbia Financial Control Board to oversee all municipal spending and rehabilitate the district government. Mayor Anthony Williams won election in 1998, his administration oversaw a period of greater prosperity, urban renewal, budget surpluses. The District regained control over its finances in 2001 and the oversight board's operations were suspended. Williams did not seek reelection in 2006. Councilmember Adrian Fenty defeated Council Chairwoman Linda Cropp in that year's Democratic primary race to succeed Williams as mayor and started his term in 2007. Shortly upon taking office, Fenty won approval from the district council to directly manage and overhaul the district's under-performing public school system. However, Fenty lost a Democratic Party primary to former Council Chair Vincent Gray in August 2010.
Mayor Gray won the general election and assumed office in January 2011 with a pledge to bring economic opportunities to more of the district's residents and under-served areas. Gray in turn lost the subsequent Democratic Party primary in 2014 to Councilmember Muriel Bowser, who went on to win the general election and was reelected in 2018; the Mayor of the District of Columbia is popularly elected to a four-year term with no term limits. Though District of Columbia is not a state, the district government has certain state-level responsibilities, making some of the mayor's duties analogous to those of United States governors; the mayor of the District of Columbia has no official residence, although the establishment of one has been proposed several times in the years since the office was established in 1974. In 2000, Mayor Anthony A. Williams appointed, with the District of Columbia Council's approval, a commission to study the possibilities of acquiring property and a building to be used as the official residence of the District of Columbia's mayor.
The commission examined several possibilities, including the Old Naval Hospital on Capitol Hill, the warden's house at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, several former embassies and chanceries before issuing a final report recommending a plan proposed by the Eugene B. Casey Foundation to finance the construct
United States National Agricultural Library
The United States National Agricultural Library is one of the world's largest agricultural research libraries, serves as a national library of the United States and as the library of the United States Department of Agriculture. Located in Beltsville, Maryland, it is one of five national libraries of the United States, it is the coordinator for the Agriculture Network Information Center, a national network of state land-grant institutions and coordinator for the U. S. Department of Agriculture field libraries. NAL was established on May 1862, by the signing of the Organic Act by Abraham Lincoln, it served as a departmental library until 1962, when the Secretary of Agriculture designated it as the National Agricultural Library. The first librarian, appointed in 1867, was Aaron B. Grosh, one of the founders of the National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. NAL was established as the U. S. Department of Agriculture Library on May 15, 1862, by the signing of the Organic Act by Abraham Lincoln.
In 1863, the library's collection comprised 1,000 volumes, transferred from the U. S. Patent Office's Agricultural Division. By 1889, the library's collection had increased to 20,000 volumes, a librarian from Amherst College was hired to create a classification system for the library's collection. At this time, the library was located on the second floor of the Department of Agriculture's main building. In 1893, William Cutter was hired as Librarian of the Department, he began a reorganization effort to modernize the library and improve its effectiveness, his primary achievement was consolidating the library's collection of 38,000 volumes into one central library. By 1900, the library's collection contained 68,000 volumes, in 1915, the library was moved to a larger facility in the Bieber Office Building at 1358 B Street SW, Washington, DC; the library moved again in 1932 to facilities in the USDA's South Building on Independence Avenue. In 1934, the collection reached 250,000 volumes in size, the library began participating in the Bibliofilm Service, along with the American Documentation Institute and the Science Service, supplied microfilm copies of articles to scientists.
This was the first large-scale attempt by a library to provide copies of library materials to patrons rather than the original documents, during its first year, over 300,000 copies were distributed. During World War II, the Department of Agriculture underwent reorganization to address wartime needs; the library, decentralized since 1920, was consolidated into a central facility under the direction of Department Librarian Ralph R. Shaw. On May 23, 1962, the 100th anniversary of the library's establishment, Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman designated the library as the National Agricultural Library, making it the third national library in the United States. In 1964, funds were appropriated by Congress to begin planning for a new library facility in Beltsville, Maryland, on the grounds of the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Construction on the new facility began in 1965, it first opened in 1969. In 2000, Secretary of Agriculture Dan Glickman designated the building as the Abraham Lincoln Building.
Aaron B. Grosh Stuart Eldridge John B. Russell Ernestine H. Stevens William P. Cutter Josephine Clark Claribel Barnett Ralph R. Shaw Foster E. Mohrhardt John Sherrod Richard Farley Joseph Howard Pamela Q. J. Andre Peter Young Simon Y. Liu Paul M. Wester Jr; the main library is housed in the Abraham Lincoln Building, a seventeen-story facility on the grounds of the Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland. NAL operates a Washington, D. C. branch known as the DC Reference Center, located in the USDA's South Building. PubAg is search engine that gives the public enhanced access to research published by U. S. Department of Agriculture scientists, to agriculturally relevant citations from the scientific literature. At its launch on January 13, 2015, PubAg made over 40,000 publications by USDA scientists available, provided access to an additional 300,000 citations. Ag Data Commons is a repository and catalog for scientific datasets that are associated with publications by the USDA's agricultural research service and other institutions.
The repository is in beta release. Hosted by the National Agricultural Library, the U. S. Life Cycle Assessment Commons is a collaboration among federal agencies, private industry, academic researchers; the intention of LCA Commons is to aggregate and archive life cycle inventory data that represent US economic activities, making it available for re-use. The i5k Workspace@NAL provides genome projects resulting from the i5k initiative with a space to display and share genome assemblies and gene models. In particular, the Workspace is geared towards research groups that do not have the resources to display the genome assembly and its features. NAL maintains the largest bibliographic database of agricultural literature in the world, it contains more than 4.1 million records for publications dating as far back as the 15th century. 78 percent of the records are for journal articles and book chapters, while 22 percent cover full-length books, maps, electronic resources, audiovisual material
The Federal Register is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, public notices. It is published daily, except on federal holidays; the final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. The Federal Register is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register and is printed by the Government Publishing Office. There are no copyright restrictions on the Federal Register. S. government, it is in the public domain. The Federal Register provides a means for the government to announce to the public changes to government requirements and guidance. Proposed new rules and regulations Final rules Changes to existing rules Notices of meetings and adjudicatory proceedings Presidential documents including Executive orders and administrative orders. Both proposed and final government rules are published in the Federal Register.
A Notice of Proposed Rulemaking requests public comment on a proposed rule and provides notice of any public meetings where a proposed rule will be discussed. The public comments are considered by the issuing government agency, the text of a final rule along with a discussion of the comments is published in the Federal Register. Any agency proposing a rule in the Federal Register must provide contact information for people and organizations interested in making comments to the agencies and the agencies are required to address these concerns when it publishes its final rule on the subject; the notice and comment process, as outlined in the Administrative Procedure Act, gives the people a chance to participate in agency rulemaking. Publication of documents in the Federal Register constitutes constructive notice, its contents are judicially noticed; the United States Government Manual is published as a special edition of the Federal Register. Its focus is on activities; each daily issue of the printed Federal Register is organized into four categories: Presidential Documents Rules and Regulations Proposed Rules Notices Citations from the Federal Register are FR, e.g. 71 FR 24924.
The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are reorganized by topic or subject matter and re-published in the Code of Federal Regulations, updated annually. Copies of the Federal Register may be obtained from the U. S. Government Publishing Office. Most law libraries associated with an American Bar Association–accredited law school will have a set, as will federal depository libraries; the Federal Register has been available online since 1994. Federal depository libraries within the U. S. receive copies of the text, either in paper or microfiche format. Outside the U. S. some major libraries may carry the Federal Register. As part of the Federal E-Government eRulemaking Initiative, the web site Regulations.gov was established in 2003 to enable easy public access to agency dockets on rulemaking projects including the published Federal Register document. The public can use Regulations.gov to access entire rulemaking dockets from participating Federal agencies to include providing on-line comments directly to those responsible for drafting the rulemakings.
To help federal agencies manage their dockets, the Federal Docket Management System was launched in 2005 and is the agency side of regulations.gov. In April 2009, Citation Technologies created a free, searchable website for Federal Register articles dating from 1996 to the present. GovPulse.us, a finalist in the Sunlight Foundation's Apps for America 2, provides a web 2.0 interface to the Federal Register, including sparklines of agency activity and maps of current rules. On July 25, 2010, the Federal Register 2.0 website went live. The new website is a collaboration between the developers who created GovPulse.us, the Government Publishing Office and the National Archives and Records Administration. On August 1, 2011, the Federal Register announced a new application programming interface to facilitate programmatic access to the Federal Register content; the API is RESTful, utilizing the HATEOAS architecture with results delivered in the JSON format. Details are available at the developers page and Ruby and Python client libraries are available.
In addition to purchasing printed copies or subscriptions, the contents of the Federal Register can be acquired via several commercial databases: Citation Technologies offers the complete Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations through subscription-based web portals such as CyberRegs. HeinOnline: Full coverage available dating back to 1936 in an image-based searchable PDF format. LexisNexis: Searchable text format since 45 FR 44251. Westlaw: Searchable text format since 46 FR 1; the Unified Agenda and the official English text of the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which became effective January 1, 1988, are included. Sunshine Act Meeting Notices are not available prior to 1991. Unified Agenda documents are not available prior to October 1989; the Federal Register system of publication was created on July 26, 1935, under the Federal Register Act. The first issue of the Federal Regis