The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is the United States federal agency that regulates the transmission and wholesale sale of electricity and natural gas in interstate commerce and regulates the transportation of oil by pipeline in interstate commerce. FERC reviews proposals to build interstate natural gas pipelines, natural gas storage projects, liquefied natural gas terminals, in addition to licensing non-federal hydropower projects. FERC is composed of five commissioners who are nominated by the U. S. President and confirmed by the U. S. Senate. There may be no more than three commissioners of one political party serving on the commission at any given time; the Federal Power Commission, which preceded FERC, was established by Congress in 1920 to allow cabinet members to coordinate federal hydropower development. In 1935, the FPC was transformed into an independent regulatory agency with five members nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate; the FPC was authorized to regulate interstate electricity.
In 1938, the Natural Gas Act gave FPC jurisdiction over interstate natural gas pipelines and wholesale sales. In 1942, this jurisdiction was expanded to cover the licensing of more natural gas facilities. In 1954, the Supreme Court decision in Phillips Petroleum Co. v. Wisconsin extended FPC jurisdiction over all wellhead sales of natural gas in interstate commerce. In response to the 1973 oil crisis, Congress passed the Department of Energy Organization Act in 1977, to consolidate various energy-related agencies into a Department of Energy. Congress insisted that a separate independent regulatory body be retained, the FPC was renamed the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, preserving its independent status within the Department, its most basic mandate was to “determine whether wholesale electricity prices were unjust and unreasonable and, if so, to regulate pricing and order refunds for overcharges to ratepayers.” FERC was given added responsibility to hear appeals of DOE oil price control determinations and to conduct all "on the record" hearings for DOE.
As a result, DOE does not have any administrative law judges. As a further protection, when the Department of Energy proposes a rule, it must refer the proposal to FERC, FERC can take over the proceeding if FERC determines that the rulemaking "may affect" matters in its jurisdiction; the DOE Act transferred the regulation of interstate oil pipelines from the Interstate Commerce Commission to FERC. However, the FERC lost some jurisdiction over the exports of gas and electricity. In 1978, FERC was given additional responsibilities for harmonizing the regulation of wellhead gas sales in both the intrastate and interstate markets. FERC administered a program to foster new cogeneration and small power production under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act of 1978, passed as part of the National Energy Act of 1978; the National Energy Act included the Natural Gas Policy Act, which reduced the scope of federal price regulation, to bring greater competition to both the natural gas and electric industry.
In 1989, Congress ended federal regulation of wellhead natural gas prices, with the passage of the Natural Gas Wellhead Decontrol Act of 1989. In 1996, FERC issued Order 888, which spurred the creation of regional transmission organizations in the United States; this would impact existing electric power pools by rebranding themselves as independent transmission operators. Electric utilities in some regions began to spin off their generation units as separate companies that would compete in a wholesale electric market administered by the RTOs. In 2001, the G. W. Bush administration sought to give the authority of eminent domain to FERC to circumvent state and local bureaucratic processed which slowed the siting of new transmission projects; this expansion of power was most fiercely opposed by Bush’s own Republican party as being an expansion of federal power. Legal battles over the issue ended with the 2005 Energy Bill, passed with approval of Democrats and Republicans; the Energy Policy Act of 2005 expanded FERC's authority to protect the reliability and cybersecurity of the bulk power system through the establishment and enforcement of mandatory standards, as well as expanding FERC authority to impose civil penalties on entities that manipulate the electricity and natural gas markets.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 gave FERC additional responsibilities and authority. Among the many provisions of the law, FERC was given what is known as “backstop” siting authority which allows FERC to overrule any denial of transmission projects by a state within established corridors of transmission congestion "to expand transmission in limited regions of the country facing transmission constraints." In 2010, FERC issued Order 1000, which required RTOs to create regional transmission plans and identify transmission needs based on public policy. Cost allocation reforms were included to reduce barriers faced by nonincumbent transmission developers. In 2018, FERC issued Order 841, which required wholesale markets to open up to individual storage installations, regardless of interconnection point; the responsibilities of FERC include the following: Regulating the transmission and sale of natural gas for resale in interstate commerce.
Pseudodaphnella crasselirata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Raphitomidae. The elongate-fusiform shell shows somewhat rotund whorls; the ribs are intersected by thick lirae. The white shell is dotted with scattered yellowish-brown dots; this marine species occurs off the Gulf of Carpentaria to Australia. Bouge, L. J. & Dautzenberg, P. L. 1914. Les Pleurotomides de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et de ses dependances. Journal de Conchyliologie 61: 123–214 Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae, an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with list of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum. Auckland, New Zealand 5: 1–184, pls 1–23 Tucker, J. K.. "Catalog of recent and fossil turrids". Zootaxa. 682: 1–1295. Li B.-Q. & Li X.-Z. Report on the Raphitomidae Bellardi, 1875 from the China Seas. Journal of Natural History 48: 999-1025.]
Daria "Dasha" Joura is a retired Australian gymnast. She is a triple Australian senior all-around champion and competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics and the World Artistic Gymnastics Championships in 2006 and 2007. Daria Joura was born in Leninsk-Kuznetsky, the daughter of Vladimir and Irina Joura, both gymnastics coaches; the family moved to Australia in 1997 when Vladimir Joura accepted an offer to coach at the Western Australian Institute of Sport. Joura began gymnastics at the age of 6 at the Olympic Academy in Russia, because she was "always at the gym" with her parents. After the family emigrated, she trained at WAIS with coaches Martine Nikolai Lapchine. Joura competed in her first Australian National Championships in 2001, winning the all-around title, two silver medals on the floor exercise and vault, a bronze on the balance beam in the junior national division. In 2003, she moved up to the junior international division, winning the national all-around title and placing second on vault and floor.
She competed internationally for the first time in 2003, when she placed 6th in the all-around at the Canberra Cup. In 2005, Joura missed Nationals with an injury, but competed in several other events, including the Australian Youth Olympic Festival where she won a silver in the team competition and floor gold and the Japan Junior International meet. At the trials for the 2006 Commonwealth Games shortly after she fell several times and was not placed on the team, her first international meet as a senior was the Pacific Alliance Championships, where she was on the silver-medal-winning Australian team. At the 2006 Australian National Championships she finished in first place in the all-around and every apparatus but the uneven bars, she won a bronze medal on the floor at a World Cup competition in Shanghai. Joura's first major international competition was the 2006 World Championships in Aarhus, she helped the Australian team to a sixth-place finish, competed on every apparatus in the team finals.
Her fifth-place finish in the all-around was the second best by an Australian gymnast, after Monette Russo's bronze all-around medal in 2005. Joura competed in the uneven bars event final, where she came in sixth. Following the World Championships, Joura competed in two World Cup meets, the DTB Cup in Stuttgart and the Glasgow Grand Prix in Scotland, she won a silver on a bronze medal on the uneven bars in Glasgow. She began 2007 at the American Cup in Florida. During this competition Joura debuted a number of new skills, including a Comaneci Salto on bars. In May, Joura went on to win her second consecutive Australian all-around title at the National Championships in Melbourne, as well as golds on vault, uneven bars, floor and in the team event with her Western Australian team, she finished 5th in the beam event final. The 2007 Nationals were held in conjunction with a dual meet against World champion Chinese team. Australia beat China in the team event, Joura went on to place 6th on uneven bars, 8th on balance beam and 2nd on floor behind Cheng Fei.
In preparation for the upcoming 2007 World Championships, Joura competed in a similar dual competition against Japan, where she won gold medals in the team, all-around and floor events, plus a bronze on beam. She went into the 2007 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships as a medal contender in the team and the all-around. Joura did not have the best of competitions at the 2007 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships in Stuttgart, Germany. In the preliminary competition, Joura fell on the uneven bars and balance beam, but stuck her Yurchenko-double vault and performed a floor routine that qualified her for the all-around final, she did not qualify for the vault event final. The Australian team finished in 11th place, missing the teams final but qualifying through to the 2008 Olympic Games. Joura was the only Australian woman to qualify for the all-around final, where she finished 10th after errors on bars and beam. In October, Joura headed back to Stuttgart for the DTB World Cup event with teammate Lauren Mitchell.
After qualifying for all four apparatus event finals, Joura won a bronze on vault, a silver on uneven bars and a gold on floor – her first at a World Cup competition and the most medals she's won in one international competition. She was the most decorated gymnast of the. At the Good Luck Beijing Tournament, the test event for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Joura qualified first to the all-around final with four hit routines out of four, she repeated this showing in the final, won the silver medal. She won the bronze on uneven bars, placed fourth on floor, fifth on beam. Joura began her Beijing preparations in 2008 by agreeing to write weekly columns for PerthNow, a division of Perth's Sunday Times Newspaper, about her progress, she has written about her perspective on gymnastics, with details on her motivational techniques and her thoughts on travelling long distances for meets to her expectations for Beijing. In March 2008, again alongside Lauren Mitchell, she travelled to the US for a training camp with the Olympic Squad and competed in two competitions while there: The 10th annual Friendship Classic and the Pacific Rim Championships in San Jose.
Ashleigh Brennan was the third member of the Australian team at the Pacific Rim Championships. At the Friendship Classic, Joura won the AA, vault and uneven bars titles and placed second on the balance beam and floor. At the Pacific Rim Championships, Joura won a bronze in the a silver on floor. Joura was a lock for the Olympic team after winning her third consecutive national all-around title in May, a feat matched by former WA competitor and Olympian Allana Slater. She
Chettu Kinda Pleader is a 1989 Telugu comedy thriller film, produced by Nandigam Surya Ravindra under the Siri Cine Chitra banner and directed by Vamsy.. It stars Rajendra Prasad, Urvashi in the lead roles and music composed by Ilaiyaraaja; the film is a remake of the Malayalam film Thanthram and it recorded as a Super Hit at the box office. Gopala Krishna a self-made businessman leads a happy family life with his wife Sujatha & son Nani, he has conflicts with his father Sarabhayya. Gopala Krishna dies in a car accident. After his death, Sarabhayya files a case in the court that Sujatha is not Gopala Krishna's wife and she should hand over the property. No reputable lawyer accepts the case, but Sarabhayya destroys all the proofs which show that Sujatha is Gopala Krishna's wife and his henchmen twice strike Balaraju badly. In the beginning, frightened Balaraju decides to leave the case but after some time, seeing the situation of Sujatha he gets back. Now comedy crime thriller begins, Balaraju segregates all the proofs against Sarabhayya with help of his cousin Krishna Kumari.
In that process, Balaraju faces many obstacles but he succeeds in unfolding the mystery behind the Gopala Krishna's death that he was murdered by Sarabhayya, his step-father. Meanwhile, Sarabhayya kidnaps Sujatha & Nani, Balaraju sees the end of Sarabhayya; the movie ends on a happy note with the marriage of Balaraju & Krishna Kumari. Art: Peketi Choreography: Siva Shankar Fights: PM Mustaffa Dialogues: Tanikella Bharani Lyrics: Sirivennela Sitarama Sastry, Jonnavithhula Ramalingeswara Rao, Vennelakanti Playback: SP Balu, Chitra Music: Ilaiyaraaja Editing: Anil Malnad Cinematography: Hari Anumolu Producer: Nandigam Surya Ravindra Screenplay - Director: Vamsy Banner: Siri Cine Chitra Release Date: 16 February 1989 Music composed by Ilaiyaraaja. All songs are blockbusters. Music released on ECHO Audio Company; the song Chalthika Naam Gaadi reused Chinnamani Kuyile from Amman Kovil Kizhakale. VCDs and DVDs on - VOLGA Videos, Hyderabad
Kvant 1L222 Avtobaza is an ELINT system designed to detect Side looking airborne radars, air-to-ground fire-control radars and low-altitude flight control radars, as well as to provide intelligence data for the 1L125M APUR. equipment vehicle based on the Ural-43203 chassis with the K1.4320 van ED2x16-T230P-1VAS electric power generator in the K1.4320 van on the Ural 4310 chasisThe ELINT system displays on the TV screen acquired targets with data on their direction finding, angular coordinates, radiation signal parameters and radar type classification. The APUR automated jamming control system is fed with target data via cable at a range of up to 100 meters. There are unconfirmed reports of the system being used in the capture of an RQ-170 UAV by the Iranian forces on 4 December 2011. There are unconfirmed reports of it being used by the Russian forces during the Crimean Crisis in March 2014 to overtake controls of an American drone. Max ELINT range in kilometers: up to 150 Radar detection frequency range in MHz: 8000-17544 Operational envelope in degrees: 360, 18/30 Target detection/data transmition-to-APUR delay in microseconds: 500 Number of emitting target bearings: up to 60 Probability of radar type classification: 0.8 Into/out-of-action time in minutes: not more than 25 Power consumption in kilowatts: not more than 12 Crew: 4 Kopp, Carlo.
"Warsaw Pact / Russian Emitter Locating Systems". ELINT Systems. Technical Report APA-TR-2008-0503
The linguistic situation of the Bailiwick of Guernsey is quite similar to that of Jersey, the other Bailiwick in the Channel Islands. English is the official language, French is used for administration, there are several varieties of Norman language used by a minority of the population, Portuguese is spoken by immigrants in the workforce. English is the only dominant language in the Islands, its status is a product of the last century, some 200 years ago few people in the Channel Islands spoke that language. Most papers and other such official materials are printed and distributed in English. There is a dialect of Channel Island English that contains some Guernésiais; until 1948, French was the official language of Guernsey. Today, it is still the language used in administration, it is still spoken as a second language by many, however, it is little-spoken as a common language. It differs from the actual indigenous Norman dialects of the islands; because of their location, the islands' main source of non-UK tourism tends to be French speaking.
Within historical times, Norman dialects could be found throughout the islands, were spoken by the majority. Many of the names and terms have been gallicised into Law Norman. Guernésiais is the traditional language of Guernsey, it is a variety of Norman, similar to the dialects of Norman spoken in mainland Normandy and to the Anglo-Norman used, after the 1066 invasion, in England. There is some mutual intelligibility with the Norman dialect spoken in Jersey, it is spoken by older people living in rural parts of the island. Some 1,327 citizens of Guernsey speak 2 % of the population, it is not used as in Guernsey as Jèrriais in Jersey: only five minutes a week of news are delivered in the language on BBC Radio Guernsey. Fourteen percent of the population claim some understanding, it is believed by some to be a dialect of French. Sercquiais is the dialect of Jèrriais spoken by a minority of people in Sark, the original inhabitants of which were settlers from Jersey, it is now all but extinct. The Norman language of Alderney, Auregnais, is now extinct.
It is today preserved in local toponyms. The Alderney Society are attempting to revive it; the island of Herm appears to have spoken Norman in the recent past, but there are no records of when it died out. Other islands such as Brecqhou, les Casquets and Burhou were too small to support real communities. Although there are fewer Portuguese people in Guernsey than in Jersey, they still form a small part of the population 2% of the population speak Portuguese; this article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition". Https://web.archive.org/web/20040414131314/http://user.itl.net/~panther/dguern.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/multilingual/guernesiais.shtml Guernsey Language Commission