Federal Government of Somalia

The Federal Government of Somalia is the internationally recognised government of Somalia, the first attempt to create a central government in Somalia since the collapse of the Somali Democratic Republic. It replaced the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on 20 August 2012 with the adoption of the Constitution of Somalia, it comprises the executive branch of government, with the parliament serving as the legislative branch. It is headed by the President of Somalia, to whom the Council of Ministers reports through the Prime Minister; the national constitution lays out the basic way. It was passed on June 23, 2012, after several days of deliberation between Somali federal and regional politicians. To come into effect, the constitution must be ratified by the new parliament. Under the new constitution, now known as the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a federation; the President is elected by the Parliament. He or she serves as the head of state and chooses the Prime Minister, who serves as the head of government and leads the Council of Ministers.

According to Article 97 of the constitution, most executive powers of the Somali government are vested in the Council of Ministers. The incumbent President of Somalia is Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed. Hassan Ali Khayre is the national Prime Minister; the Council is formally known as the Council of Ministers of the Federal Government of Somalia but sometimes referred to as the Cabinet. Its members are appointed by the Prime Minister; the Federal Parliament of Somalia elects the President and Prime Minister, has the authority to pass and veto laws. It is bicameral, consists of a 275-seat lower house as well as an upper house capped at 54 representatives. By law, at least 30% of all MPs must be women; the current Members of parliament were selected by a Technical Selection Committee, tasked with vetting potential legislators that were in turn nominated by a National Constituent Assembly consisting of elders. The current Speaker of the Federal Parliament is Mohamed Osman Jawari; the national court structure is organized into three tiers: the Constitutional Court, Federal Government level courts and Federal Member State level courts.

A nine-member Judicial Service Commission appoints any Federal tier member of the judiciary. It selects and presents potential Constitutional Court judges to the House of the People of the Federal Parliament for approval. If endorsed, the President appoints the candidate as a judge of the Constitutional Court; the five-member Constitutional Court adjudicates issues pertaining to the constitution, in addition to various Federal and sub-national matters. Local state governments recognized as Federal Member States, have a degree of autonomy over regional affairs and maintain their own police and security forces. However, they are constitutionally subject to the authority of the Government of the Federal Republic of Somalia; the national parliament is tasked with selecting the ultimate number and boundaries of the Federal Member States within the Federal Republic of Somalia. The Ministry of Education is responsible for education in Somalia; as of January 2015, the institution is led by Khadra Bashir Ali.

The Ministry of Health heads the country's healthcare system. As of January 2015, the institution is led by Hawo Hassan Mohamed; the federal government has two main media outlets: the state-run radio station. The central government's Ministry of Defence is responsible for the Somali Armed Forces and its various subdivisions; as of January 2015, the Ministry is led by Abdulkadir Sheikh Dini. The constitution recognizes Mogadishu as the capital of Somalia; the Parliament of Somalia meets in the city, the seat of the nation's Supreme Court. In addition, Mogadishu is the location of the presidential palace, Villa Somalia, where the President resides; the Prime Minister lives in the city. The Federal Government of Somalia is internationally recognized as Somalia's official central government, it occupies the country's seat in the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. The Somali federal government has a Permanent Representative and Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations.

It has embassies in various countries. Additionally, there are various foreign diplomatic missions in Somalia. Ethiopia maintains an embassy in Mogadishu, consulates in Hargeisa in Somaliland and in Garowe in Puntland. Djibouti re-opened its embassy in Mogadishu in December 2010; the following year, India re-opened its embassy in the capital after a twenty-year absence, as did Turkey. Iran and the United Kingdom followed suit in 2013, as well as Qatar and China in 2014. Italy maintains a special diplomatic delegation and a Technical Mission to Mogadishu, is scheduled to re-open its embassy in the city. In 2013, Egypt announced plans to re-open its embassy in Mogadishu. In January 2013, the United States announced that it was set to exchange diplomatic notes with the new central government of Somalia, re-establishing official ties with the country for the first time in 20 years. For travel, Somali citizens can obtain a Somali passport from government-designated locations or from Somali embassies abroad.

Federal Government of Somalia


Chakeri is a census town in Kanpur metropolitan area, situated about 16 kilometres east of Kanpur city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is an industrial town with textiles and food products as its major productions. Chakeri Airforce Station, North India's second largest Airforce base is situated here. Chakeri has reputed educational institutions and colleges. Central Leather Research Institute, the only government leather research institute in North India is situated here. Grand Trunk Road made by the great emperor Sher Shah Suri passes from Chakeri; the town is enlisted as a Town Area of Kanpur metropolitan area. Chakeri has population of 7,526 of which 3,803 are males while 3,723 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 1116, 14.83% of total population of Chakeri. In Chakeri Census Town, Female Sex Ratio is of 979 against state average of 912. Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Chakeri is around 996 compared to Uttar Pradesh state average of 902.

Literacy rate of Chakeri city is 89.63% higher than state average of 67.68%. In Chakeri, Male literacy is around 93.74% while female literacy rate is 85.41%. Chakeri Census Town has total administration over 2,109 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage, it is authorized to build roads within Census Town limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction. Chakeri is a suburb to Jajmau on the banks of river Ganges. Founder of this place was Gangadeen Yadav, he built wells and restroom for passengers in the memory of his mother Ramadevi. Now it is one of the famous landmark in Kanpur. An artificial pond made by emperor Sher Shah Suri is present here which attracts large numbers of tourists. Siddhnath Temple and Ghat on the banks of Ganges are major tourist destinations in Chakeri. Chakeri Air Force Station, established in the 1970s is the second largest Air Force Base in India. Chakeri is an educational hub in East Kanpur. Many private and government colleges and institutes are present here.

Kanpur Institute of Technology, Vision Group of Colleges, Allenhouse Group of Colleges, Apollo Institutes, Axis college, Central Leather Research Institute and Ratan Industrial Training Institute are major educational institutions in Chakeri. The important highways which pass through Chakeri are:- National Highway 2 The NHAI proposes to upgrade a road project in Uttar Pradesh; the Authority intends to take up six-laning of the Etawah-Ramadevi chowk section of NH-2 from Km 323.475 to Km 483.687 under NHDP Phase V. The project is expected to cost Rs 1,698.50 crore. RFQs have been invited from prospective entities, with last date of submission being 10 December 2010. National Highway 25 Kanpur Airport is situated in Chakeri which has flights to Delhi and Ahmedabad; the airport is expected to be connected with other major cities of India, Middle East and the Orient by 2020. Chakeri Railway Station is on the Delhi-Howrah line. Kanpur Central Railway Station is 12 km away from Chakeri. Public transport is available throughout 24 hrs from Chakeri Railway Station Bus Stop situated 750 metres from the station on NH 2.

Chakeri has KMBS terminal and City Buses of Kanpur have routes from different bus stops of Chakeri to different localities and suburban towns of Kanpur metropolitan area. One can catch interstate buses from Ramadevi at a regular frequency. Multinational cab companies like Ola and Uber have their services in the town; some famous personalities from Chakeri are:- Sriprakash Jaiswal Satish Mahana Ghazala Lari Kritika Kamra Poonam Dhillon Kuldeep Yadav

NASA Deep Space Network

The NASA Deep Space Network is a worldwide network of U. S. spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States and Australia, that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions. It performs radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the Solar System and the universe, supports selected Earth-orbiting missions. DSN is part of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Similar networks are run by Russia, India and the European Space Agency. DSN consists of three deep-space communications facilities placed 120 degrees apart around the Earth, they are: the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex outside California. For details of Goldstone's contribution to the early days of space probe tracking, see Project Space Track; each facility is situated in semi-mountainous, bowl-shaped terrain to help shield against radio frequency interference. The strategic placement with nearly 120-degree separation permits constant observation of spacecraft as the Earth rotates, which helps to make the DSN the largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications system in the world.

The DSN supports NASA's contribution to the scientific investigation of the Solar System: It provides a two-way communications link that guides and controls various NASA unmanned interplanetary space probes, brings back the images and new scientific information these probes collect. All DSN antennas are steerable, parabolic reflector antennas; the antennas and data delivery systems make it possible to: acquire telemetry data from spacecraft. Transmit commands to spacecraft. Upload software modifications to spacecraft. Track spacecraft velocity. Perform Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations. Measure variations in radio waves for radio science experiments. Gather science data. Monitor and control the performance of the network; the antennas at all three DSN Complexes communicate directly with the Deep Space Operations Center located at the JPL facilities in Pasadena, California. In the early years, the operations control center did not have a permanent facility, it was a provisional setup with numerous desks and phones installed in a large room near the computers used to calculate orbits.

In July 1961, NASA started the construction of the permanent facility, Space Flight Operations Facility. The facility was completed in October 1963 and dedicated on May 14, 1964. In the initial setup of the SFOF, there were 31 consoles, 100 closed-circuit television cameras, more than 200 television displays to support Ranger 6 to Ranger 9 and Mariner 4; the operations center personnel at SFOF monitor and direct operations, oversee the quality of spacecraft telemetry and navigation data delivered to network users. In addition to the DSN complexes and the operations center, a ground communications facility provides communications that link the three complexes to the operations center at JPL, to space flight control centers in the United States and overseas, to scientists around the world. Tracking vehicles in deep space is quite different from tracking missions in low Earth orbit. Deep space missions are visible for long periods of time from a large portion of the Earth's surface, so require few stations.

These few stations, require huge antennas, ultra-sensitive receivers, powerful transmitters in order to transmit and receive over the vast distances involved. Deep space is defined in several different ways. According to a 1975 NASA report, the DSN was designed to communicate with "spacecraft traveling 16,000 km from Earth to the farthest planets of the solar system." JPL diagrams state that at an altitude of 30,000 km, a spacecraft is always in the field of view of one of the tracking stations. The International Telecommunications Union, which sets aside various frequency bands for deep space and near Earth use, defines "deep space" to start at a distance of 2 million km from the Earth's surface; this definition means that missions to the Moon, the Earth–Sun Lagrangian points L1 and L2, are considered near space and cannot use the ITU's deep space bands. Other Lagrangian points may not be subject to this rule due to distance; the forerunner of the DSN was established in January 1958, when JPL under contract to the U.

S. Army, deployed portable radio tracking stations in Nigeria and California to receive telemetry and plot the orbit of the Army-launched Explorer 1, the first successful U. S. satellite. NASA was established on October 1, 1958, to consolidate the separately developing space-exploration programs of the US Army, US Navy, US Air Force into one civilian organization. On December 3, 1958, JPL was transferred from the US Army to NASA and given responsibility for the design and execution of lunar and planetary exploration programs using remotely controlled spacecraft. Shortly after the transfer, NASA established the concept of the Deep Space Network as a separately managed and operated communications system that would accommodate all deep space missions, thereby avoiding the need for each flight project to acquire and operate its own specialized space communications network; the DSN was given responsibility for its own research and operation in support of all of its users. Under this concep