The Reuss is a river in Switzerland. With a length of 164 kilometres and a basin of 3,426 square kilometres. The upper Reuss forms the valley of the canton of Uri. The course of the lower Reuss runs from Lake Lucerne to the confluence with the Aare at Brugg, the Gotthardreuss rises in the Gotthard massif, emerging from Lago di Lucendro in the canton of Ticino and passing into the canton of Uri at Brüggboden. The Furkareuss rises east of Furka Pass and forms the Urserental and Furkareuss join at Hospental. Downstream of Andermatt the Reuss passes through Schöllenen Gorge and under the legendary Devils Bridge, at Göschenen it is joined by the Göschenerreuss. The Reuss leaves Lake Lucerne some 20 km to the north-west, notable bridges in Lucerne are the Kapellbrücke, first built 1333, rebuilt 1993 and Spreuerbrücke, built 1408. A needle dam just upstream from the Spreuerbrücke) maintains the water level and it receives the Kleine Emme from Entlebuch at Emmen. It receives the Lorze from Lake Zug downstream of Maschwanden, downstream of this confluence, the Reuss forms the border between Aargau and Zürich, passing Merenschwand and Ottenbach, and enters Aargau downstream of Ottenbach.
Within Aargau, the Reuss flows past Aristau, Rottenschwil, Hermetschwil-Staffeln, here forming Flachsee, the Reussbrücke at Bremgarten was first built c. After the confluence the river continues as the Aare, which flows into the Rhine at Koblenz, the catchment area of 3,426 km2 approximately covers Central Switzerland. The catchment area of the upper Reuss includes almost the entire canton of Uri (with the exception of Urnerboden, the highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Dammastock, at elevation 3,630 m. Downstream of Lucerne, further tributaries add other parts of Zug as well as parts of Zürich, the Germanic name is attested as Rusa, Rusia from the 9th century, from an early Germanic *Rūsi, oblique *Rūsjō-. Greule interprets the name as an Old European hydronym, directly cognate with Riß, until the 13th century, the Schöllenen Gorge was impassable, separating Urseren from Uri. Urseren was accessible via Furka and Oberalp, and was under the influence of the bishopric of Chur, the main settlement area of Uri was the plain of the Reuss estuary Altdorf.
Settlements tended to form on either side of the river, while the river itself was taken as communal or parish boundary. The Schöllenen Gorge was made passable the 1230s, opening access to the Gotthard Pass, the Reuss was canalised between Attinghausen and Altdorf in 1850–1863, and to the river mouth in 1900–1912, significantly increasing the arable land in the Reuss plain. A small river delta was reconstructed in 1985, after flooding in 1987, improved flood control measures were constructed during 1995–1999
The Limmat is a river in Switzerland. The river commences at the outfall of Lake Zurich, in the part of the city of Zurich. From Zurich it flows in a direction, after 35 km reaching the river Aare. The confluence is located north of the town of Brugg. The main towns along the Limmat Valley downstream of Zurich are Dietikon and its main tributaries are the Linth, via Lake Zurich, the Sihl, in Zurich, and the Reppisch, in Dietikon. The hydronym is first attested in the 8th century, as Lindimacus and it is of Gaulish origin, from *lindo- lake and *magos plain, and was thus presumably in origin the name of the plain formed by the Linth. Like many Swiss rivers, the Limmat is intensively used for production of power, along its course of 35 km. These include, the Limmat was an important navigation route, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, voyages from Zurich to Koblenz are recorded. In 1447, the Emperor Frederick III granted the privilege of free navigation on the Limmat, because of the current, navigation was typically downstream only, with the barges being sold on arrival.
Today, the Limmat is navigable for much of its length by small craft only, the traditional boat type used on the river is the weidling, a flat-bottomed vessel that is usually 10 metres long. The uppermost stretch of the river through the centre of Zurich is navigable by larger vessels. On this stretch of the river the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft operates its Limmat boat service, from the Landesmuseum to Lake Zurich, zürich–Enge Alpenquai is located on Zürichsee lakeshore in Enge, a locality of the municipality of Zürich. Media related to Limmat at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Limmat in Zürich at Wikimedia Commons Limmat in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Canton of Solothurn
The Canton of Solothurn is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the northwest of Switzerland, the territory of the canton comprises land acquired by the city. Between 1798 and 1803 the canton was part of the Helvetic Republic, in 1803 Solothurn was one of the 19 Swiss cantons that were reconstituted by Napoleon. Even though the population was strictly Roman Catholic, Solothurn did not join the Catholic separatist movement in 1845, the federal constitutions of 1848 and 1874 were approved. The current constitution of the dates from 1987. The canton is located in the north-west of Switzerland, to the west and south lies the cantons of Jura and Bern, to the east is Aargau. To the north the canton is bounded by the canton of Basel-Landschaft, parts of two of the districts are exclaves and are located along the French border. The lands are drained by the Aare river and its tributaries, the landscape is mostly flat, but it includes the foothills of the Jura massif. Part of this, the massif of the Weissenstein, overlooks Solothurn, the flat lands are a plain created by the Aare river.
The total area of the canton is 791 km², from 2005, Solothurns ten districts are merged pairwise into five electoral districts, termed Amtei. From 2005, the districts have only a statistical significance, the population is mostly German speaking. About 44% of the population are Roman Catholic, with most of the remainder being Protestants, the population of the canton is 266,418. As of 2007, the population included 46,898 foreigners, up to the 19th century agriculture was the main economic activity in the canton. Agriculture is still of importance, but manufacturing and the industry are now more significant. The industries of the canton are specialized in watches, textiles, cement, until recently the manufacturing of shoes was an important economic activity, but global competition thought that the Swiss canton was not competitive enough. The canton is home to the Gösgen Nuclear Power Plant near Däniken which started operation in 1979, ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^b * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton.
The canton has good connections with other parts of Switzerland, both by rail and by road, there is a railway junction at Olten with direct trains to Geneva, Zurich and the Ticino via Lucerne
The Aare or Aar is a tributary of the High Rhine and the longest river that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. There are more than 40 hydroelectric plants along the course of the Aare River, the rivers name dates to at least the La Tène period, and it is attested as Nantaror Aare valley in the Berne zinc tablet. The name was Latinized as Arula/Arola/Araris, the Aare rises in the great Aargletschers of the Bernese Alps, in the canton of Bern and west of the Grimsel Pass. The Finsteraargletscher and Lauteraargletscher come together to form the Unteraargletscher, which is the source of water for the Grimselsee. The Oberaargletscher feeds the Oberaarsee, which flows into the Grimselsee. Right after Innertkirchen it is joined by its first major tributary, less than 1 kilometre the river carves through a limestone ridge in the Aare Gorge. It is here that the Aare proves itself to be more than just a river, a little past Meiringen, near Brienz, the river expands into Lake Brienz. Near the west end of the lake it receives its first important tributary.
It runs across the plain of the Bödeli between Interlaken and Unterseen before flowing into Lake Thun. Near the west end of Lake Thun, the river receives the waters of the Kander. Lake Thun marks the head of navigation, on flowing out of the lake it passes through Thun, and flows through the city of Bern, passing beneath eighteen bridges and around the steeply-flanked peninsula on which the Old City is located. The river soon changes its flow for a due westerly direction. From the upper end of the lake, at Nidau, the river issues through the Nidau-Büren Channel, called the Aare Canal, and runs east to Büren. A short distance further, below Brugg it receives first the Reuss, its major tributary, and shortly afterwards the Limmat, its second strongest tributary. It now turns to north, and soon becomes itself a tributary of the Rhine, the Rhine, in turn, empties into the North Sea after crossing into the Netherlands. New York, NY, Columbia University Press, the Columbia Gazetteer of the World. New York, NY, Columbia University Press, Germany, Veriag von Gustav Mayer.
Gresswell, R. Kay, Anthony, standard Encyclopedia of the Worlds Rivers and Lakes
Canton of Geneva
The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France. As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation, the canton of Geneva is located in the southwestern corner of Switzerland, and is considered one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a influence on the canton. The Republic of Geneva was proclaimed in 1541, under John Calvin, the Republic of Geneva reinforced its alliance to the Protestant cantons of the Swiss Confederacy, becoming an everlasting ally in 1584. The French Revolution reached Geneva in 1792, and in February 1794, after the death of Robespierre in July of the same year, there was a counter-revolution, which gained the upper hand by 1796. This prompted the French invasion of 1798, and the annexation of Geneva as part of the French département du Léman, Geneva finally joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nd canton, having been enlarged by French and Savoyard territories at the Vienna Congress.
The area of the canton of Geneva is 282 square kilometers, the canton is surrounded on almost all sides by France and bordered by the Swiss canton of Vaud on northeast. The adjoining French départements are Ain and Haute-Savoie, the current boundaries of the canton were established in 1815. There are 45 municipalities in the canton, Geneva does not have any administrative districts. There are 10 cities with a population of over 10,000 as of 2007, Genève, Lancy, Carouge, Onex, Thônex, Grand-Saconnex, Chêne-Bougeries. The constitution of the canton was established in 1847, and has, the cantonal government has seven members who are elected for four years. The legislature, the Grand Council, has 100 seats, with deputies elected for four years at a time, the last elecation was held on 7 October 2013. In a similar way to what happens at the Federal level, in addition, any law can be subject to a referendum if it is demanded by 7,000 persons entitled to vote, and 10,000 persons may propose a new law.
The republique and canton of Geneva has 11 seats in the National Council, on 18 October 2015, in the federal election the most popular party was the The Liberals which received three seats with 20. 5% of the votes. In the federal election, a total of 106,852 votes were cast, and she is part of the Council of States since 2007. Councilor Robert Cramer, member of the Green Party, was re-elected in the round with a majority of 42,075 votes. He is part of the Council of States since 2007, ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^b * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton. ^c Part of the FDP for this election ^d Part of the SD for this election The population of the canton is 484,736, as of 2013, the population included 194,623 foreigners from 187 different nations, or about 40. 1% of the total population
Canton of Schaffhausen
The Canton of Schaffhausen is a canton of Switzerland. The principal city and capital of the canton is Schaffhausen, Schaffhausen was a city-state in the Middle Ages, it is documented that it struck its own coins starting in 1045. It was documented as Villa Scafhusun, around 1049 Count Eberhard von Nellenburg founded a Benedictine monastery which led to the development of a community. This community achieved independence in 1190, in 1330 the town lost not only all its lands but its independence to the Habsburgs. In 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, as a result of the ban and Fredericks need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454, Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederation in 1501. The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857, in 1944 Schaffhausen suffered from a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces planes that accidentally strayed from Germany into neutral Switzerland.
The cantonal constitution was written in 1876 and revised in 1895, the distinctive coat of arms bears the Schaffhauser Bock. Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland and lies almost entirely on the bank of the Rhine. It lies west of Lake Constance and has an area of 298 km2, much of the canton is productive agricultural land, with 134.4 km2 of the canton used for agriculture while an additional 128.7 km2 is wooded. Most of the rest of the canton,31.8 km2, is developed, the cantons territory is divided into three non-contiguous segments where German territory reaches the Rhine. The large central part, which includes the capital Schaffhausen, in turn separates the German exclave of Büsingen am Hochrhein from the rest of Germany, the small exclave of Rüdlingen-Buchberg lies to the southwest, and the third part contains Ramsen and Stein am Rhein to the east. With the exception of Vor der Brugg, part of Stein am Rhein, the canton of Schaffhausen is bordered by the Swiss cantons of Zurich and Thurgau, as well as the German districts of Waldshut, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis and Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg.
Most of the lies on a plateau dominated by the Hoher Randen. The summit of mountain is at 912 m. The slopes of the mountain are gentle towards the south where it reaches the Rhine valley and narrow valleys intersect these gentle slopes. The Klettgau is one such valley, the Rhine Falls are the largest waterfalls in Europe and lie on the border of the cantons of Schaffhausen and Zürich. There are 27 municipalities in the canton as of January 2009, the population of the canton is 79,836
The Lavaux is a region in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, in the district of Lavaux-Oron. The Lavaux consist of 830 hectares of terraced vineyards that stretch for about 30 km along the northern shores of Lake Geneva. It benefits from a climate, but the southern aspect of the terraces with the reflection of the sun in the lake. The main wine grape variety here is the Chasselas. Under cantonal law, the vineyards of the Lavaux are protected from development, since July 2007, the Lavaux is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Since 2016, the vineyards of Lavaux are not treated with synthetic pesticides any more, there are many hikes possibles through the Lavaux vineyards. There is a trail, going from Saint-Saphorin to Lutry. In 1977, the voters of the Canton of Vaud accepted the popular initiative Save Lavaux. Consequently, in 1979, a law was made to protect Lavaux, in 2003, the new constitution of the Canton of Vaud came into force but did not contain the article about the protection of Lavaux.
So a second popular initiative Save Lavaux was launched to re-introduce it, it was accepted in 2005 by 81% of voters. In 2009, Franz Weber launched a third initiative Save Lavaux to reduce the possibilities to new buildings in Lavaux. The counter-initiative of the government was accepted by 68% of voters. Lavaux is the name of a song by Prince, on his album 20Ten, in 2011, the Swiss Post edited three special stamps dedicated to the region of Lavaux. Lavaux travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Lavaux Vineyard Terraces hiking trail Lavaux Vinorama
Creux du Van
The Creux du Van is a natural rocky cirque approximately 1,400 metres wide and 150 metres deep, on the north side of Le Soliat. It is located in the Val de Travers district, in the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel, a very well known, amphitheatre-shaped natural attraction of the area, it is located at the heart of a nature reservation area of 15.5 km². It was created by water erosion from a local glacier that was linked to the Rhone glacier. Ibex were introduced in the area in 1965, as of 2009, there are 17. The summit area can be reached on foot or by car, a paved road from Saint-Aubin-Sauges or Couvet climbs to la ferme du Soliat, which is located a few minutes walk away from the summit of the rocky cirque. Some hiking paths are indicated, via les petites Fauconnières, notable trails in the areas include, Le sentier des quatorze contours is a reputed itinerary that starts in Noiraigue. Le sentier du Single leads to the summit directly from the area called La ferme Robert, other paths, however unmarked, allow the access to the summit via la crête du Dos dAne or from la Fontaine Froide via le Pertuis de Bise