The Walking Dead (TV series)
The Walking Dead is an American post-apocalyptic horror television series for AMC based on the comic book series by Robert Kirkman, Tony Moore, Charlie Adlard. The series features a large ensemble cast as survivors of a zombie apocalypse, trying to stay alive under near-constant threat of attacks from the mindless zombies, colloquially known as "walkers". However, with the fall of humanity, these survivors face conflict from other living survivors who have formed groups and communities with their own sets of laws and morals leading to hostile conflict between the human communities. Andrew Lincoln played the series' lead character, Rick Grimes, until his departure during the ninth season. Other long-standing cast members have included Norman Reedus, Steven Yeun, Chandler Riggs, Melissa McBride, Lauren Cohan, Danai Gurira; the series is broadcast on AMC in the United States and internationally on Fox International Channels prior to the 2019 Disney-Fox merger, subsequently on Disney Channels Worldwide.
The series premiered on October 31, 2010, in February 2019, AMC renewed the series for a tenth season, expected to premiere in October 2019, stated their intent to continue further development of the series and related media. A spinoff series Fear the Walking Dead first broadcast on August 23, 2015, is renewed for a fifth season. AMC has announced plans for three films to follow Rick's story after Lincoln's departure; the Walking Dead is produced by AMC Studios within the state of Georgia, with most filming taking place in the large outdoor spaces of Riverwood Studios near Senoia, Georgia. The series was adapted from the comic by Frank Darabont, who served as the showrunner for the first season. However, conflicts between Darabont and AMC forced his departure from the series, and, subject to multiple lawsuits by Darabont and others. Following Darabont, Glen Mazzara, Scott M. Gimple, Angela Kang have all served as showrunners. Beginning with its third season, The Walking Dead has attracted the most 18- to 49-year-old viewers of any cable or broadcast television series, though viewership has declined in latter seasons.
The series has been well received by critics, although reception has become more mixed as the series has progressed. It has been nominated for several awards, including the Writers Guild of America Award for New Series and the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Drama; the Walking Dead takes place after the onset of a worldwide zombie apocalypse. The zombies, colloquially referred to as "walkers", shamble towards living humans and other creatures to eat them. Although it seems that only humans that are bitten or scratched by walkers can turn into other walkers, it is revealed early in the series that all living humans carry the pathogen responsible for the mutation; the mutation is activated after the death of the pathogen's host, the only way to permanently kill a walker is to damage its brain or destroy the body, such as by cremating it. The series centers on sheriff's deputy Rick Grimes, who wakes up from a coma to discover this apocalypse, he becomes the leader of a group of survivors from the Atlanta, region as they attempt to sustain and protect themselves not only against attacks by walkers but by other groups of survivors willing to use any means necessary to stay alive.
Sheriff's deputy Rick Grimes wakes from a coma discovering a world overrun by zombies. After befriending Morgan Jones, Rick travels alone to Atlanta to find his wife Lori, his son and his police partner and best friend, Shane Walsh, encountering other survivors; the group travels to the Centers for Disease Control, but find from the sole remaining CDC member that no cure exists for the epidemic. Traveling from Atlanta, Rick's group takes shelter at Hershel Greene's farm while they search for Carol's missing daughter, Sophia. Tension between Rick's group and Hershel's family worsens after it is discovered that Hershel has kept friends and family turned into zombies, including Sophia, in his barn. Rick learns that Shane and Lori had a romantic relationship at the outset of the apocalypse, Shane and Rick's friendship becomes unhinged when Lori reveals that she is pregnant. Rick is forced to kill Shane in self-defense. Carl shoots Shane in the head after he reanimates; the noise draws zombies, forcing Hershel's surviving family to evacuate the farm.
Eight months after fleeing Hershel's farm, Rick's group finds a prison, which they clear of zombies to make their new home. Lori dies in childbirth, Rick becomes withdrawn. Meanwhile, Andrea is rescued by Michonne and the two discover Woodbury, a fortified town led by a man known as the Governor, he learns of Rick's group at the prison, leading to conflict between them. Rick's group raids and destroys Woodbury, but the Governor has Andrea killed and escapes. Woodbury's citizens live with Rick's group at the prison. Several months after the Governor's attack, a deadly flu kills many of the people at the prison; the Governor finds his former right-hand men and kills them, taking over their group and destroys the prison. Rick's group are forced to separate and flee, but not before Hershel and the Governor are killed; the survivors divide, face their own trials and meet new faces before finding signs pointing to a safe haven called Terminus. One by one, they reunite at Terminus. Rick discovers the residents of Terminus engage in cannibalism, but the group manage to destroy Terminus and reunite.
Some are injured and kidnapped to Grady, a hospital run by corrupt doctors. When the remaining survivors regroup, they
A serial killer is a person who murders three or more people in service of abnormal psychological gratification, with the murders taking place over more than a month and including a significant period of time between them. Different authorities apply different criteria. While most set a threshold of three murders, others lessen it to two; the Federal Bureau of Investigation defines serial killing as "a series of two or more murders, committed as separate events but not always, by one offender acting alone". Although psychological gratification is the usual motive for serial killing, most serial killings involve sexual contact with the victim, the FBI states that the motives of serial killers can include anger, thrill-seeking, financial gain, attention seeking; the murders may be completed in a similar fashion. The victims may have something in common, for example, demographic profile, gender or race. A serial killer is neither a mass murderer, nor a spree killer, although there may be conceptual overlaps between serial killers and spree killers.
The English term and concept of serial killer are attributed to former FBI Special agent Robert Ressler who used the term serial homicide in 1974 in a lecture at Bramshill Police Academy in Britain. Author Ann Rule postulates in her book, Kiss Me, Kill Me, that the English-language credit for coining the term goes to LAPD detective Pierce Brooks, who created the Violent Criminal Apprehension Program system in 1985. There is ample evidence the term was used in the United States earlier; the German term and concept were coined by criminologist Ernst Gennat, who described Peter Kürten as a Serienmörder in his article "Die Düsseldorfer Sexualverbrechen". The earliest usage attested of the specific term serial killer listed in the Oxford English Dictionary was from a 1960s German film article written by Siegfried Kracauer, about the German expressionist film M, portraying a pedophilic Serienmörder. In his book, Serial Killers: The Method and Madness of Monsters, criminal justice historian Peter Vronsky notes that while Ressler might have coined the English term "serial homicide" within law in 1974, the terms serial murder and serial murderer appear in John Brophy's book The Meaning of Murder.
The Washington DC newspaper Evening Star, in a 1967 review of the book: There is the mass murderer, or what he calls the "serial" killer, who may be actuated by greed, such as insurance, or retention or growth of power, like the Medicis of Renaissance Italy, or Landru, the "bluebeard" of the World War I period, who murdered numerous wives after taking their money. This use of "serial" killer to paraphrase Brophy's serial murderer does not appear to have been influential at the time. In his more recent study, Vronsky states that the term serial killing first entered into broader American popular usage when published in The New York Times in the spring of 1981, to describe Atlanta serial killer Wayne Williams. Subsequently, throughout the 1980s, the term was used again in the pages of The New York Times, one of the major national news publication of the United States, on 233 occasions. By the end of the 1990s, the use of the term had escalated to 2,514 instances in the paper; when defining serial killers, researchers use "three or more murders" as the baseline, considering it sufficient to provide a pattern without being overly restrictive.
Independent of the number of murders, they need to have been committed at different times, are committed in different places. The lack of a cooling-off period marks the difference between a serial killer; the category has, been found to be of no real value to law enforcement, because of definitional problems relating to the concept of a "cooling-off period". Cases of extended bouts of sequential killings over periods of weeks or months with no apparent "cooling off period" or "return to normality" have caused some experts to suggest a hybrid category of "spree-serial killer". In 2005, the FBI hosted a multi-disciplinary symposium in San Antonio, which brought together 135 experts on serial murder from a variety of fields and specialties with the goal of identifying the commonalities of knowledge regarding serial murder; the group settled on a definition of serial murder which FBI investigators accept as their standard: "The unlawful killing of two or more victims by the same offender in separate events."
The definition does not consider motivation for define a cooling-off period. Historical criminologists have suggested that there may have been serial murders throughout history, but specific cases were not adequately recorded; some sources suggest that legends such as werewolves and vampires were inspired by medieval serial killers. In Africa, there have been periodic outbreaks of murder by Leopard men. Liu Pengli of China, nephew of the Han Emperor Jing, was made Prince of Jidong in the sixth year of the middle period of Jing's reign. According to the Chinese historian Sima Qian, he would "go out on marauding expeditions with 20 or 30 slaves or with young men who were in hiding from the law, murdering people and seizing their belongings for sheer sport". Although many of his subjects knew about these murders, it was not until the 29th year of his reign that the son of one of his victims sent a report to the Emperor, it was discovered that he had murdered at least 100 people. The officials of the court requested.
In the 15th
The Joint Commission is a United States-based nonprofit tax-exempt 501 organization that accredits more than 21,000 US health care organizations and programs. The international branch accredits medical services from around the world. A majority of US state governments recognize Joint Commission accreditation as a condition of licensure for the receipt of Medicaid and Medicare reimbursements; the Joint Commission is based in the Chicago suburb of Illinois. The Joint Commission was the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations and previous to that the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals; the Joint Commission was renamed The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals in 1951, but it was not until 1965, when the federal government decided that a hospital meeting Joint Commission accreditation met the Medicare Conditions of Participation, that accreditation had any official impact. However, Section 125 of the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008 removed the Joint Commission's statutorily-guaranteed accreditation authority for hospitals, effective July 15, 2010.
At that time, the Joint Commission's hospital accreditation program would be subject to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services requirements for organizations seeking accrediting authority. To avoid a lapse in accrediting authority, the Joint Commission would have to submit an application for hospital accrediting authority consistent with these requirements and within a time frame that would enable CMS to review and evaluate their submission. CMS would make the decision to determine the term; the Joint Commission's predecessor organization grew from the efforts of Ernest Codman to promote hospital reform based on outcomes management in patient care. Codman's efforts led to the founding of the American College of Surgeons Hospital Standardization Program. In 1951 the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals was created by merging the Hospital Standardization Program with similar programs run by the American College of Physicians, the American Hospital Association, the American Medical Association, the Canadian Medical Association.
In 1987 the company was renamed the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. In 2007 the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations underwent a major rebranding and simplified its name to The Joint Commission; the rebranding included the name and tag line change to "Helping Health Care Organizations Help Patients." The change was part of an effort to make the name more memorable and to assist the commission in its continued responsiveness to the needs of organizations seeking fee-based accreditation. The Joint Commission advocates the use of patient safety measures, the spread of information, the measurement of performance, the introduction of public policy recommendations. Joint Commission International was established in 1998 as a division of Joint Commission Resources, Inc. a not-for-profit, private affiliate of the Joint Commission. Through international accreditation, consultation and education programs, JCI extends the Joint Commission's mission worldwide by helping to improve the quality of patient care.
International hospitals may seek accreditation to demonstrate quality, JCI accreditation may be considered a seal of approval by medical travelers from the U. S. All member health care organizations are subject to a three-year accreditation cycle, laboratories are surveyed every two years; the organization does not make its hospital survey findings public. However, it does provide the organization's accreditation decision, the date that accreditation was awarded, any standards that were cited for improvement. Organizations deemed to be in compliance with all or most of the applicable standards are awarded the decision of Accreditation; the unannounced full survey is a key component of The Joint Commission accreditation process. "Unannounced" means. The Joint Commission began conducting unannounced surveys on January 1, 2006. Surveys occur 18 to 39 months after the organization's previous unannounced survey. There has been criticism in the past within the U. S. about how the Joint Commission operates.
The Commission's practice had been to notify hospitals in advance of the timing of inspections. A 2007 article in the Washington Post noted that about 99% of inspected hospitals are accredited, serious problems in the delivery of care are sometimes overlooked or missed. Similar concerns have been expressed by the Boston Globe who stated "The Joint Commission, whose governing board has long been dominated by representatives of the industries it inspects, has been the target of criticism about the validity of its evaluations." The Joint Commission over time has responded to these criticisms. However, when it comes to the international dimension, surveys undertaken by JCI still take place at a time known in advance by the hospitals being surveyed after considerable preparation by those hospitals. Preparing for a Joint Commission survey can be a challenging process for any healthcare provider. At a minimum, a hospital must be familiar with the current standards; the hospital must be in compliance with the standards for at least four months prior to the initial survey.
Federal Correctional Complex, Butner
The Federal Correctional Complex, Butner is a United States federal prison complex for men in Butner, North Carolina. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. FCC Butner is about 25 miles northwest of the state capital, it includes the Bureau's largest medical complex, which operates a drug treatment program and specializes in oncology and behavioral science. Among its inmates is Bernie Madoff, convicted for perpetrating the largest Ponzi scheme in history; the complex consists of four facilities: Federal Correctional Institution, Butner Low: a low-security facility. Federal Correctional Institution, Butner Medium: a medium-security facility. Federal Correctional Institution 2, Butner Medium: a medium-security facility Federal Medical Center, Butner: a facility which houses inmates of all security levels with health issues; the complex lies on the county line between Durham County to the west and Granville County to the east. On March 18, 2010, The Wall Street Journal reported that Bernard Madoff, the New York financier serving a 150-year sentence at FCI Butner for running a Ponzi scheme that cost investors billions of dollars, was assaulted by another inmate in December 2009.
Citing three sources, a current inmate, a former inmate, a prison employee, the Journal reported that the assailant was an inmate serving time for a drug conviction who believed that Madoff owed him money. The inmate reported that Madoff suffered a broken nose, fractured ribs and cuts to his head and face. In response to the report, Federal Bureau of Prisons spokeswoman Denise Simmons said, "We have no knowledge or information to confirm he was assaulted." On November 16, 2011, James Lukinoff, an inmate at FCI Butner, was indicted for planning to assault and kill an FBI agent involved in investigating the crime for which he was sent to prison. The indictment alleged that from February 2009 to April 2011, Lukinoff developed and pursued a plan to purchase a silencer and have a friend or family member store it until his release from prison. Once released, Lukinoff planned to kill the agent. Lukinoff pleaded guilty to retaliating against a federal official by threat on June 20, 2012, he is being held at the Federal Medical Center, Butner and is scheduled for release in 2024.
List of U. S. federal prisons Federal Bureau of Prisons Incarceration in the United States Official profile from the Federal Bureau of Prisons "FCI Butner Medium II." John J. Kirlin, LLC. "Butner Federal Correctional Institution." Moseley Architects
Lynette Alice "Squeaky" Fromme is an American criminal best known as a member of the "Manson family". She attempted to assassinate U. S. President Gerald Ford in 1975, she was sentenced to life imprisonment for the attempt, but was released on parole on August 14, 2009, after serving nearly 34 years. Fromme was born in Santa Monica, the daughter of Helen and William Millar Fromme, an aeronautical engineer; as a child, she performed for a popular dance group called the Westchester Lariats, which began touring the United States and Europe in the late 1950s, appeared on The Lawrence Welk Show and at the White House. In 1963, the family moved to Redondo Beach, Fromme began using alcohol and drugs, her grades dropped at Redondo Union High School, but she graduated in 1966. She moved out of her parents' house for a few months before her father convinced her to consider El Camino College, she lived there for two months. In 1967, Fromme went to Venice Beach. Charles Manson had been released from the federal prison at Terminal Island, he struck up a conversation with her.
Fromme found Manson's philosophies and attitudes appealing, the two became friends and traveled together with other young people, including Mary Brunner and Susan Atkins. She lived with the Manson Family in Southern California at Spahn Ranch where they worked for their keep, at the Barker Ranch in Death Valley, owned by a Family member's grandmother. Ranch owner George Spahn gave her the nickname "Squeaky" because of the sound that she made when he touched her. Manson and some of his followers were arrested for the Sharon Tate and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca murders in 1969, Fromme and the remaining Manson Family camped outside the trial. Manson and fellow defendants Patricia Krenwinkel, Leslie Van Houten, Atkins carved Xs into their foreheads, so did Fromme and her compatriots, they proclaimed Manson's innocence and preached his apocalyptic philosophy to the news media and to anyone else who would listen. Fromme was never charged with involvement in the murders, but she was convicted of attempting to prevent Manson's imprisoned followers from testifying, as well as contempt of court when she refused to testify.
She was given short jail sentences for both offenses. Fromme and Sandra Good moved into a dilapidated attic apartment in downtown Sacramento, as they wanted to be near Manson, moved to Folsom Prison. Around 1973, Fromme started work on an extensive 600-page book about the Manson family, including intricate drawings and photos. Fromme sent it to publishers, but she dropped it after discussing it with Clem Grogan, deciding that the project was too incriminating; the book, was published by Peasenhall Press in 2018. Fromme moved to Stockton with Nancy Pitman, Priscilla Cooper, ex-convict Aryan Brotherhood members Michael Monfort and James Craig, in order to follow through with Manson's deal with the Brotherhood; this group met Lauren Willett at a cabin. In November 1972, Montfort and Craig forced James to dig his own grave and shot him because he was going to tell the authorities about a series of robberies that they had committed after they were released from prison, his body was found with his hand still sticking out of the ground.
The housemates were arrested on suspicion of murder, after which Lauren's body was discovered in the basement. She had been shot to death; the Willetts' eight-month old daughter, was found alive in the house. Fromme was released for lack of evidence; the Sonoma County coroner's office concluded that James Willett was killed sometime in September 1972, although his decapitated body was not found until the beginning of November. He had been buried near Guerneville. On the night of November 11, 1972, the Stockton Police responded to information that a station wagon owned by the Willetts was parked in front of 720 W. Flora St. Police Sgt. Richard Whiteman forced his way into the house. "All the persons subsequently arrested were in the house except for Fromme. She telephoned the house while police were there, asking to be picked up, officers obliged, taking her into custody nearby. Police found a quantity of guns and ammunition in the house along with amounts of marijuana, noticed freshly dug earth beneath the building."Fromme told reporters that she had been traveling in California trying to visit "brothers" in jail and to visit Manson.
She said that she came to Stockton on November 10 to visit William Goucher, in jail on a robbery charge when Lauren Willett died. When she left the jail after visiting Goucher, she called the house on Flora Street to have someone pick her up, the Stockton Police traced the call and arrested her at a phone booth; the Stockton Police exhumed the body of Lauren Willett the following day. Priscilla Cooper told investigators. Cooper contended that Monfort was "demonstrating the dangers of firearms, playing a form of Russian roulette with a.38 caliber pistol" and had first spun the gun cylinder and shot at his own head, pointed it at the victim, when it fired. The police determined. Fromme was never charged; the other four people involved were convicted. After leaving Stockton, Fromme moved into a Sacramento apartment with fellow Manson family member Sandra Good; the two wore robes on occasion and changed their names to symbolize their devotion to Manson's new religion, Fromme becoming "Red" in honor of her red hair and the California Redwoods, Good became "Blue" for her blue eyes and the oce
Ana Belén Montes is a former American senior analyst at the Defense Intelligence Agency in the United States and a convicted spy. On September 21, 2001, she was arrested and subsequently charged with conspiracy to commit espionage for the government of Cuba. Montes pleaded guilty to spying and in October 2002, was sentenced to a 25-year prison term followed by five years' probation. Montes was born in West Germany, where her father, Alberto Montes, was posted as a United States Army doctor, her family was of Asturian origins, her grandparents had emigrated to Puerto Rico. The family lived in Topeka and Towson, where she graduated from Loch Raven High School in 1975. In 1979 she earned a degree in foreign affairs from the University of Virginia, in 1988 she finished a master's degree at Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Montes' brother and sister and Lucy, became Federal Bureau of Investigation officers and her former boyfriend, Roger Corneretto, was an intelligence officer specializing in Cuba for the Pentagon.
Montes joined the Defense Intelligence Agency in September 1985 after working for the United States Department of Justice. Her first assignment was at Bolling Air Force Base in Washington where she worked as an intelligence research specialist. In 1992, Montes was selected for the DIA's Exceptional Analyst Program and traveled to Cuba to study the Cuban military. Prior to her arrest, she lived in a two bedroom co-op in Cleveland Park, Washington, DC. Montes advanced through the ranks at the DIA and became its most senior Cuban analyst, her co-workers regarded her as responsible and dependable, noted her "no-nonsense" attitude. Prosecutors would allege that Montes was working for the Cubans when she joined the DIA in 1985. In their charging documents, federal prosecutors stated: Montes communicated with the Cuban Intelligence Service through encrypted messages and received her instructions through shortwave encrypted transmissions from Cuba. In addition, Montes communicated by coded numeric pager messages with the Cuban Intelligence Service by public telephones located in the District of Columbia and Maryland.
The codes included'I received message' or'danger.' The prosecutors further stated that all of the information was on water-soluble paper that could be destroyed. During the course of the investigation against her, it was determined that Montes had passed a considerable amount of classified information to the Cuban Intelligence Directorate, including the identities of four US spies in Cuba. In 2007, American DIA counterintelligence official Scott W. Carmichael publicly alleged that it was Ana Montes who told Cuban intelligence officers about a clandestine US Army camp in El Salvador. Carmichael alleged that Montes knew about the existence of the Special Forces camp because she visited it only a few weeks before the camp was attacked in 1987 by Cuban-supported guerrillas of the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front. Carmichael, who had led the DIA investigation of Montes, named her as being directly responsible for the death of Green Beret Sergeant Gregory A. Fronius, killed at El Paraíso, El Salvador, on March 31, 1987, during the FMLN attack.
Carmichael characterized the damage Montes caused to the DIA and other US intelligence agencies as "exceptionally grave," and stated that she compromised a "special access program", kept from him, the lead investigator on her case. In a May 6, 2002, interview with CBS News, former Undersecretary of State John Bolton stated that an official 1998 US government report with significant contributions by Montes concluded that Cuba did not represent a significant military threat to the United States or the region. Bolton alleged that it was not possible to exclude the possibility that the administration of President Bill Clinton may have overlooked Cuba as a potential threat because of Montes' influence and the way she shaped reporting at the DIA. Carmichael further alleged that, unlike many in the US intelligence community, he believed that Montes' penetration of the DIA was not the exception, but the rule, that the Cuban intelligence services had multiple spies and moles within US intelligence agencies.
In 2004 a federal indictment alleged that Montes had assistance from another Cuban agent, Marta Rita Velazquez, once a legal officer at the United States Agency for International Development, further alleged to have recruited Montes into espionage. The Federal indictment was unsealed in April 2013. Velazquez has been outside the US since 2002 in Sweden, which does not have an extradition treaty with the US for spy cases. Montes was arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation at her office on 21 September 2001. Prosecutors stated that Montes had been privy to classified information about the US military's impending invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001, that they did not want her revealing this information to potential enemies. In 2002, Montes pleaded guilty to the charge which could have carried the death penalty, but was sentenced to 25 years in prison in October of the same year after accepting a plea agreement with the US government. According to her lawyer, Plato Cacheris, Montes committed the espionage for moral reasons, as "she felt the Cubans were treated unfairly by the U.
S. government." As of October 2018, Montes is incarcerated at FMC Carswell in Texas. FMC Carswell is listed by the Federal Bureau of Prisons as a facility located in the northeast corner of the Naval Air Station, Joint Reserve Base, Fort Worth, which provides specialized medical and mental health services to female offenders. Montes is listed as FMC Register #25037-016, her tentative release date is listed as July 1, 2023. Kendall Myers Burea
The Vampire Diaries
The Vampire Diaries is an American supernatural teen drama television series developed by Kevin Williamson and Julie Plec, based on the popular book series of the same name written by L. J. Smith; the series premiered on The CW on September 10, 2009, concluded on March 10, 2017, airing 171 episodes over eight seasons. The pilot episode attracted the largest audience for The CW of any series premiere since the network began in 2006, it was the most-watched series on the network before being supplanted by Arrow. The show has received numerous award nominations, winning four People's Choice Award and many Teen Choice Awards. On April 26, 2013, The CW announced that the spin-off The Originals, which focuses on the Original family of vampires, had been ordered to series, the show began airing during the 2013–14 American television season. On April 6, 2015, lead actress Nina Dobrev confirmed via Instagram that she and co-star Michael Trevino would be leaving the show after its sixth season. Dobrev returned to record a voiceover for the seventh-season finale.
Trevino appeared as a guest star in season seven and returned for season 8. On March 11, 2016, The CW renewed the series for an eighth season, but on July 23, 2016, announced that the eighth season, which would have 16 episodes, would be the show's last; the final season began airing on October 21, 2016, ended March 10, 2017. The series is set in the fictional town of Mystic Falls, Virginia, a town charged with supernatural history since its settlement of migrants from New England in the late 19th century, it follows the life of Elena Gilbert, a teenage girl who has just lost both parents in a car accident, as she falls in love with a 162-year-old vampire named Stefan Salvatore. Their relationship becomes complicated as Stefan's mysterious older brother Damon Salvatore returns, with a plan to bring back their past love Katherine Pierce, a vampire who looks like Elena. Although Damon is the villain and harbors a grudge against his brother for forcing him to become a vampire, he reconciles with Stefan and falls in love with Elena, creating a love triangle among the three.
Both brothers protect Elena as they face various villains and threats to their town, including Katherine. The brothers' history and the town's mythology are revealed through flashbacks as the series goes on. Additional storylines revolve around the other inhabitants of the town, most notably Elena's younger brother Jeremy Gilbert, her best friends Bonnie Bennett and Caroline Forbes, their mutual friends Tyler Lockwood and Matt Donovan, their history teacher, vampire hunter Alaric Saltzman; the town's politics are orchestrated by descendants of the original founding families, all comprising a "Founders' Council." The founding families of Mystic Falls include the Salvatores, the Gilberts, the Fells, the Forbes, the Lockwoods. They guard the town from vampires, although there are many more supernatural threats such as werewolves, witches and ghosts. Nina Dobrev as Elena Gilbert and Katherine Pierce; the series follows Elena as she falls in love with Stefan Salvatore, his brother, creating a love triangle.
This results in her being drawn into the supernatural world and her struggles in surviving supernatural events in the town. Dobrev portrays Elena's doppelgänger, Katerina Petrova known as Katherine Pierce. Katherine sporadically appeared in subsequent seasons and played a significant role in the fifth season. Dobrev has played the progenitor of the Petrova doppelgängers, Silas's true love known as Amara, during the fifth season, whom he had sought in the afterlife for two thousand years. Dobrev played another doppelgänger Tatia in The Originals season 2 episode "Red Door." In the season 6 finale, Elena's life was tied to Bonnie's in such a way that as long as Bonnie is alive, Elena will remain asleep. Damon put Elena in a coffin and had her hidden in a warehouse in Brooklyn for the next 60 years or so while he waits for her to wake up. In the series finale, Elena's curse is broken, she reunites with Damon and they live a long and happy life together with her becoming a doctor. Paul Wesley as Stefan Salvatore, a good-hearted and affectionate vampire and the complete opposite of his older brother, Damon Salvatore.
In the series, Stefan reverts to his old ways as a Ripper to save Damon from a werewolf bite. His role becomes more antagonistic, after being forced to turn his humanity off, he returns to his good-hearted and caring self and reconciles with Elena, but the relationship doesn't last long. He becomes human again and marries Caroline in Season 8 and is killed afterwards in the series finale as he sacrifices himself to save Mystic Falls. Wesley portrays his revealed doppelgänger, the world's first immortal being. Wesley played another doppelgänger, Tom Avery, during the fifth season. Ian Somerhalder as Damon Salvatore, the malevolent vampire brother who served as the show's villian and anti-hero, he is thought of as selfish and manipulative, but on begins to display a more caring side. Though his love for Elena is one-sided, she begins to develop feelings for him as they work together to save Stefan after he's given in to his Ripper side, they begin dating in season 4, continue to date until Elena is put into her deep sleep at the end of season 6.
Damon becomez close with Stefan, but has a close friendship with Bonnie, despite the fact that they hated each other for the first 5 seasons of the series. Throug