A valve amplifier or tube amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that uses vacuum tubes to increase the amplitude or power of a signal. Low to medium power valve amplifiers for frequencies below the microwaves were replaced by solid state amplifiers during the 1960s and 1970s. Valve amplifiers are used for applications such as guitar amplifiers, satellite transponders such as DirecTV and GPS, audiophile stereo amplifiers, military applications and high power radio and UHF television transmitters; until the invention of the transistor in 1947, most practical high-frequency electronic amplifiers were made using thermionic valves. The simplest valve was invented by John Ambrose Fleming while working for the Marconi Company in London in 1904 and named the diode, as it had two electrodes; the diode conducted electricity in one direction only and was used as a radio detector and a rectifier. In 1906 Lee De Forest added a third electrode and invented the first electronic amplifying device, the triode, which he named the Audion.
This additional control grid modulates the current that flows between anode. The relationship between current flow and plate and grid voltage is represented as a series of "characteristic curves" on a diagram. Depending on the other components in the circuit this modulated current flow can be used to provide current or voltage gain; the first application of valve amplification was in the regeneration of long distance telephony signals. Valve amplification was applied to the'wireless' market that began in the early thirties. In due course amplifiers for music and television were built using valves; the overwhelmingly dominant circuit topology during this period was the single-ended triode gain stage, operating in class A, which gave good sound despite simple circuitry with few components: important at a time when components were handmade and expensive. Before World War II all valve amplifiers were of low gain and with linearity dependent on the inherent linearity of the valve itself 5% distortion at full power.
Negative feedback was invented by Harold Stephen Black in 1927, but little used since at that time gain was at a premium. This technique allows amplifiers to trade gain for reduced distortion levels; the introduction of the Williamson amplifier in 1947, advanced in many respects including successful use of NFB, was a turning point in audio power amplifier design, operating a push-pull output circuit in class AB1 to give performance surpassing its contemporaries. World War II stimulated industrial scale production economies. Increasing affluence after the war led to a expanding consumer market; this enabled electronics manufacturers to build and market more advanced valve designs at affordable prices, with the result that the 1960s saw the increasing spread of electronic gramophone players, the beginnings of high fidelity. Hifi was able to drive full frequency range loudspeakers to significant volume levels. This, combined with the spread of TV, produced a'golden age' in valve development and in the development of the design of valve amplifier circuits.
A range of topologies with only minor variations became widespread. This family of designs remains the dominant high power amplifier topology to this day for music application; this period saw continued growth in civilian radio, with valves being used for both transmitters and receivers. From the 1970s the silicon transistor became pervasive. Valve production was decreased, with the notable exception of cathode ray tubes, a reduced range of valves for amplifier applications. Popular low power tubes were dual triodes plus the EF86 pentode, power valves were being beam tetrode and pentodes, in both cases with indirect heating; this reduced set of types remains the core of valve production today. The Soviets retained valves to a much greater extent than the West during the Cold War, for the majority of their communications and military amplification requirements, in part due to valves' ability to withstand instantaneous overloads that would destroy a transistor; the dramatic reduction in size, power consumption, reduced distortion levels and above all cost of electronics products based on transistors has made valves obsolete for mainstream products since the 1970s.
Valves remained in certain applications such as high power RF transmitters and the microwave oven, audio amplification equipment for the electric guitar, recording studios, high-end home stereos. In audio applications, valves continue to be desired by most professional users in recording studios' equipment and guitar amplifiers. Among stereo enthusiasts, there is a subgroup of audio buffs who advocate the use of tube amplifiers for home listening. Companies in Asia and Eastern Europe continue to produce valves to cater to this market. Many professional guitar players use'tube amps' because of their renowned'tone'.'Tone' in this usage is referring to timbre, or pitch color, can be a subjective quality to quantify. Most audio technicians and scientists theorize that the'even harmonic distortion' produced by valve tubes sounds more pleas
Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company
Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company was an American manufacturer of telecommunication equipment. Anticipating the expiration of the earliest, fundamental Bell System patents, Milo G. Kellogg, an electrical engineer, founded the company in 1897 in Chicago to produce telephone exchange switching equipment and telephone apparatus. Along with Western Electric, which supplied the Bell System, Automatic Electric supplying General Telephone, Stromberg-Carlson supplying the independent telephone markets, Kellogg shared in the business of providing the bulk of the nation's telephone equipment until after World War II. Milo G. Kellogg was born into a wealthy New England family, he attended prep school, received two degrees in engineering from the University of Rochester. He married a member of one of Chicago's most prestigious families, relocated to Illinois. In the 1880s, Kellogg was a manager at Western Electric as superintendent of its Chicago manufacturing and research plant, at the Southern Telephone and Telegraph Company.
In 1897, with Alexander Graham Bell's patent for the telephone expiring, Kellogg established a manufacturing firm, the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company. Kellogg himself held more than 150 patents, had invented the divided multiple telephone switchboard, which became the flagship product of the new company; this switchboard offered greater flexibility and efficiency than earlier designs in handling a large telephone subscriber base at urban exchanges. Kellogg supplied local independent telephone companies. In 1901, Kellogg fell ill, his brother-in-law, Wallace DeWolf, proved to be a poor manager. Concerned that the company might fail, DeWolf secretly sold a majority of Kellogg's stock to Western Electric. Manipulated by Western Electric executives and legal advisors, DeWolf helped Western Electric attempt to take over the country's other large telephone equipment manufacturer, Stromberg-Carlson. A bitter stockholder fight ensued, which led to Stromberg-Carlson's reincorporation as a New York state corporation in 1902.
Milo Kellogg recovered his health, discovered what DeWolf had done. Kellogg sued to stop the sale of his stock. In two separate decisions by the Supreme Court of Illinois—Brown v. Cragg, 230 Ill. 299 and Dunbar v. American Telephone and Telegraph, 238 Ill. 456 —Kellogg retained ownership of his company. In 1903, the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company was the target of a bitter strike by the Brass Molder's Union Local 83 and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. Kellogg Switchboard & Supply was supported by the Bell Telephone Trust, the Illinois Manufacturers' Association, the Employers' Association of Chicago. Kellogg Switchboard sued to stop the Teamsters from engaging in their sympathy strike, won an injunction forcing the drivers back to work; the Kellogg company refused to negotiate, fired nearly 90% of its workforce, broke the strike. The company prospered in the early 20th century, it introduced the Relaymatic automatic switching system in 1939 and a crossbar switching system in 1950.
The ITT Corporation purchased a controlling interest in the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company in 1951, rebranding the new division's equipment as ITT Kellogg for a decade. It became ITT Telecommunications, but reverted to ITT Kellogg in 1986. Among ITT Kellogg's acquisitions in the 1950s was telephone manufacturer Federal Radio. In 1958, ITT Kellogg was a contractor to the U. S. Air Force, for which Kellogg build a ground communication system for the ballistic missile base at Cooke Air Force Base. In 1989, ITT sold its telecommunications product lines, including ITT Kellogg, to Alcatel, now Alcatel-Lucent; the company's US operations were sold and privatized. The remaining business of Kellogg is conducted by Cortelco Kellogg, owned by Cortelco and is based in Corinth, Mississippi. On December 12, 2008 eOn Communications announced an agreement to acquire Cortelco Systems Holding Corporation. Adams, Stephen B. and Butler, Orville R. Manufacturing the Future: A History of Western Electric. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
ISBN 0-521-65118-2 Chicago: Pictoral and Biographical. Vol. 2, Deluxe Supplement. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1912. Cohen, Andrew Wender. "Business Myths, Lawyerly Strategies, Social Context: Ernst on Labor Law History." Law & Social Inquiry. 23:1. Cohen, Andrew Wender; the Racketeer's Progress: Chicago and the Struggle for the Modern American Economy, 1900-1940. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-83466-X Ernst, David R. Lawyers Against Labor: From Individual Rights to Corporate Liberalism. Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1995. ISBN 0-252-06512-3 "Facing Defeat Unions Weaken." Chicago Daily Tribune. July 18, 1903. Gable, Richard W. "Birth of an Employers' Association." Business History Review. 33:4. "Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Co." Dictionary of Leading Chicago Businesses. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 2005. Telephone Archive Official corporate history
Sosthenes Behn was an American businessman known for founding ITT. He held the rank of lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Army. Sosthenes Behn was born in the island of St. Thomas part of the Danish West Indies, his ancestry was Danish on his paternal side, French on his maternal side. Behn served in the United States Army and was commissioned a Captain, Signal Corps, on June 19, 1917, he achieved the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, having served with distinction during World War I. Behn served with the American Expeditionary Force in France until February 1919, he was given command of the 232nd Field Signal Battalion, Saint-Mihiel, Argonne. In recognition of his meritorious service during the war he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. After his return from military service, Colonel Behn co-founded the Puerto Rico Telephone Company which spawned ITT Under his direction ITT was granted the monopoly of telephone service in Spain in 1924, purchased the international division of Western Electric. According to Anthony Sampson's book The Sovereign State of ITT, one of the first American businessmen Hitler received after taking power in 1933 was Sosthenes Behn the CEO of ITT, his German representative, Henry Mann.
Antony C. Sutton, in his book Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, makes the claim that ITT subsidiaries made cash payments to SS leader Heinrich Himmler. ITT, through its subsidiary C. Lorenz AG of Berlin, owned 25% of Focke-Wulf, the German aircraft manufacturer, builder of some of the most successful Luftwaffe fighter aircraft. In addition, Sutton’s book uncovers that ITT owned Dr. Erich F. Huth GmbH, which made radio and radar parts that were used in equipment going to the Wehrmacht. Behn, along with his brother, built the Two Brothers Bridge —Puente Dos Hermanos in Spanish— in San Juan; the bridge links the districts of Old San Juan. Colonel Behn and Ludwig Roselius, founder of the company KAFFEE HAG, owned 74% of German aircraft manufacturer Focke-Wulf after the company reconstitution in 1936. Barbara Goette referred to Colonel Behn as a huge global player. Sosthenes Behn met with Hitler on 3/8/1933 and in 1936 there was a high-level meeting in Berlin where it was proposed that Behn through ITT gain 50% of Focke-Wulf and oust Café HAG but after Barbara Goette intervened with Hitler, Ludwig Roselius' life was spared and he became majority shareholder in Focke-Wulf with 46% and a massive capital injection occurred.
During the war, all of ITT's German holdings were put under Nazi control. These included a minority share in airplane manufacturer Focke-Wulf, which ITT had acquired through its contacts with German financier Kurt Baron von Schröder. After the end of the war, the US authorities returned these assets to their rightful US owner. Behn appointed Gerhard Westrick to the board of Focke-Wulf after the reconstitution in 1936, he was ITT's corporation chairman in Germany. After Pearl Harbour, at meetings with Baron Kurt von Schröder and Behn in Switzerland, Westrick nervously admitted he had run into a problem. Wilhelm Ohnesorge, the elderly minister in charge of post offices, one of the first fifty Nazi party members, was opposed to ITT's German companies continuing to function under New York management in time of war. Behn told Westrick to use the protection of the Gestapo against Ohnesorge. In return, Behn guaranteed that ITT would increase its payments to the Gestapo through the Circle of Friends. A special board of trustees was set up by the Nazis to cooperate with Behn and his thirty thousand staff in Occupied Europe.
Ohnesorge savagely tried to obtain the support of Himmler. However, Schröder had Himmler's ear, so, of course did his close friend and associate Walter Schellenberg. Ohnesorge condemned Westrick as an American sympathiser. However, Hitler proved supportive of Behn. In 1943, ITT became majority shareholder of Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau GmbH with 29% due to Ludwig Roselius' Kaffee HAG share falling to 27% after he died on May 15. Behn died on 6 June 1957, he is buried in the Arlington National Cemetery. Telecommunications in Puerto Rico Sosthenes Behn Sosthenes Behn: Brief Biography Sosthenes Behn on Find A Grave
Creed & Company
Creed & Company was a British telecommunications company founded by Frederick George Creed, an important pioneer in the field of teleprinter machines. It was merged into the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation in 1928; the company was founded by Frederick George Creed and Danish telegraph engineer Harald Bille, was first incorporated in 1912 as "Creed, Bille & Company Limited". After Bille's death in a railway accident in 1916, his name was dropped from the company's title and it became Creed & Company; the Company spent most of World War I producing high-quality instruments, manufacturing facilities for which were limited at that time in the UK. Among the items produced were amplifiers, spark-gap transmitters, aircraft compasses, high-voltage generators, bomb release apparatus, fuses for artillery shells and bombs. In 1924 Creed entered the teleprinter field with their Model 1P, soon superseded by the improved Model 2P. In 1925 Creed acquired the patents for Donald Murray's Murray code, a rationalised Baudot code, it was used for their new Model 3 Tape Teleprinter of 1927.
This machine printed received messages directly onto gummed paper tape at a rate of 65 words per minute and was the first combined start-stop transmitter-receiver teleprinter from Creed to enter mass production. Some of the key models were: Creed model 6S Creed model 7 Creed model 7B Creed model 7E Creed model 7/TR Creed model 54 Creed model 75 Creed model 85 Creed model 86 Creed model 444 In July 1928, Creed & Company were merged into ITT. During World War II Creed Company manufactured some of the British Typex machines, cipher devices similar to the German Enigma machine. Creed and Company Limited; the First 50 years History of Nova Scotia Creed and Company Limited
John William Mackay
John William Mackay was an Irish-American industrialist. Mackay was one of the four Bonanza Kings, a partnership which capitalised on the wealth generated by the silver mines at the Comstock Lode. John William Mackay was born in Dublin to a working-class family, they had a dirt floor hovel shared with a pig. In 1840, the family emigrated to the notorious Five Points slum in lower Manhattan; as a boy Mackay hawked newspapers such as the New York Herald, apprenticed at Webb Shipyard to support his mother and sister. In 1851, he sailed by clipper around the Horn to California and worked eight years in placer gold mines in Sierra County without much success. In 1859, he went to Virginia City, site of the discovered Comstock Lode, there began work at US$6 laboring in a mine by day and working his own small claims in his spare time, he used the proceeds of his labor and finds to buy more feet. In 1865 he used his savings to buy into the Kentuck mine and hit big, he was worth US$1.6 million, more than enough to retire for life.
He began investing in other mines, sometimes risking everything he had. He formed a business partnership with fellow Irishmen James Graham Fair, James C. Flood, William S. O'Brien known as the Bonanza Kings; the four dealt in mining stocks and operated silver mines, had a success in the Hale & Norcross mine. In 1871, using proceeds from the Hale & Norcross they bought out a number of smaller mine claims under the name of the Consolidated Virginia Mining Company, added the nearby California mine. In 1873, the Con Virginia made the greatest ore body found in North America, known as the "Big Bonanza"; the strike would pay out US$181 billion in current dollars and Mackay took about half of that. The bonanza was in a location overlooked and outside where other strikes had been found; the four-way partnership was more known as the "Bonanza firm". With the proceeds, together they established the Bank of Nevada of San Francisco to compete with the Bank of California. In 1866, he married a native New Yorker.
Snubbed by New York society, Louise moved to Paris where Mackay purchased a large mansion for her where his wealth enabled her to become a noted society hostess for two decades, entertaining royalty and throwing lavish parties. In 1884, with James Gordon Bennett, Jr. Mackay formed the Commercial Cable Company to fight Jay Gould and the Western Union Telegraph Company, laid two transatlantic cables, forced the toll-rate for transatlantic messages down to twenty-five cents a word. In connection with the Commercial Cable Company, he formed in 1886 the Postal Telegraph Company as a domestic wire telegraph company so that Commercial would not need to rely on Western Union to collect and distribute telegraphic messages; until Mackay and Bennett entered the field, all submarine cable traffic between the United States and Europe went over cables owned by the American financier Jay Gould. A rate war followed that took two years to conclude. Jay Gould quit trying to run John Mackay out of business, he was quoted as saying in reference to Mackay, "If he needs another million he will go into his silver mines and dig it out".
Once Mackay had conquered the Atlantic with the Commercial Cable Company and North America with the Postal Telegraph Company he turned his sights to laying the first cable across the Pacific. He subsequently formed the Commercial Pacific Cable Company in secret partnership with the Great Northern Telegraph Company and the Eastern Telegraph Company. Although he died in 1902 before his vision was completed, his son Clarence H. Mackay, saw the project through to completion between 1904 and 1906. Commercial Pacific operated a cable line from San Francisco to Manila, via Hawaii and Guam, with a subsequent spur that went from Manila to Shanghai, China; the Mackay System expanded under Clarence H. Mackay's leadership, acquiring several other entities including the Federal Telegraph Company, its radio stations and research laboratories, in 1927. In 1928, the entire system was bought out by Telegraph. ITT organized the Postal Telegraph & Cable Corporation as a shell to acquire and control the Mackay System on May 18, 1928.
Though plagued with financial troubles during the Great Depression, the Mackay System continued to be the chief rival of Western Union until 1943. In March of that year, Congress authorized an amendment to the Communications Act of 1934 permitting the merger of the domestic operations of telegraph companies. By May 1943 a merger plan had been put together, which the FCC approved by September, the merger was completed by October 1943; the international communications parts of the Mackay System remained with ITT. The New York and Mexican Railway was chartered in 1880 by Joseph Telfener and his father-in-law Daniel E. Hungerford. A Texas corporation was formed to take advantage of the state's generous land grants and build a railroad from Richmond to Brownsville. Work started in September 1881 and 91 miles of track were constructed between Rosenberg and Victoria by the end of 1882; the railroad became known as the "Macaroni Line" because 1,200 Italian immigrants were brought to the United States to build it.
Texas passed a law in 1882 voiding any land grants to railroads. In January 1885 Telfener sold the railroad to his brother-in-law Mackay, who sold it to the Southern Pacific Railroad in September that year; the railroad continued to operate under its old name until 1905. In addition to the Bank of Nevada and the communications companies
Harold "Hal" Sydney Geneen, was an American businessman most famous for serving as president of the ITT Corporation. Geneen was born on January 22, 1910 in Bournemouth, England, his father was Russian-Jewish, his mother was an Italian Roman Catholic. He migrated to the United States from England as an infant and studied accounting at New York University. Between 1956–1959 he was senior vice president of Raytheon, developing his management structure, allowing a large degree of freedom for divisions while maintaining a high degree of financial and other accountability, surprising as he had been ejected from his prior employer and Laughlin Steel Company, for reckless management of the company books. From 1959–1977 he was the president and CEO of International Telephone and Telegraph Corp.. He grew the company from a medium-sized business with $765 million sales in 1961 into an international conglomerate with $17 billion sales in 1970, he extended its interests from manufacturing of telegraph equipment into insurance, real estate management, other areas.
Under Geneen's management, ITT became the archetypal modern multinational conglomerate. ITT grew through a series of 350 acquisitions and mergers in 80 countries; some of the largest of these were Sheraton Hotels. ITT had many overseas interests. In Europe it had telephone subsidiaries in numerous countries. In Brazil, it owned a telephone company. Geneen was personal friends with Director of Central Intelligence, John McCone; the CIA performed psyops against Goulart, character assassination, pumped money into opposition groups, enlisted the help of the Agency for International Development and the AFL-CIO. The 1964 Brazilian coup d'état exiled Goulart and the military dictatorship of Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco took over. McCone went to work for ITT a few years later; the resultant military dictatorship lasted until 1985. ITT had some $200 million-worth of investments in Chile. Under Geneen's leadership, ITT funneled $350,000 to Jorge Alessandri; when Allende won the presidential election, ITT offered the CIA $1,000,000 to defeat Allende, though the offer was rejected.
Declassified documents released by the CIA in 2000 reveal that ITT financially helped opponents of Salvador Allende's government prepare a military coup. On September 28, 1973, an ITT building in New York City, New York, was bombed by the Weather Underground for involvement in the September 11th overthrow of the Allende government. In 1977 Geneen retired as CEO and president of ITT, was chairman of the board until 1979, stayed on the board for four more years. While chairman, he recruited James H. Frame from IBM as vice-president to head ITT's software division. Cusumano, Michael A.. Japan's Software Factories: A Challenge to U. S. Management. OUP USA. P. 98. ISBN 9780195062168, his successors Rand Araskog sold off parts of the business. In his obituary, the New York Times stated that he remained active in business and on the boards of several educational institutes until his death, had boasted that "his post-retirement deal-making had earned him far more than he made at ITT."Geneen's widow, June Geneen, born in Berlin, New Hampshire, died in Boston in October, 2012.
Harold Geneen co-authored several books: Geneen, Harold. Synergy and Other Lies: Downsizing and Corporate Culture Debunked. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-20080-3. Geneen, Harold; the Synergy Myth and Other Ailments Of Business Today. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-14724-4. Geneen, Harold. Alta Dirección: Las Normas Básicas Para Triunfar en los Negocios. Barcelona: Ediciones Grijalbo. ISBN 84-253-1871-8. Geneen, Harold. Managing. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-17496-9. There have been several books written about Geneen's time at ITT, at least one about Geneen himself. Schoenberg, Robert J. Geneen, W. W. Norton & Company. Harold Geneen Biography Harold Geneen's bio Harold Geneen's detailed profile and pics
ITT: The Management of Opportunity
ITT: The Management of Opportunity is a non-fiction book about ITT Corporation by American business writer and historian Robert Sobel. The book was published by Times Books in 1982. In this book, Sobel concentrates on the history of ITT Corporation, one of the world's largest conglomerates. Back in the 1970s and 80s, the corporation acquired many various businesses—from a financial services companies to the famous Sheraton Hotels and Resorts, sometimes doing 20 deals a month. We all know how it ends, but whew, what a ride! An enterprising man envisions a world-wide telecommunications company and guides it vigilantly through hard times; this account of the ITT story was published in 15 years before the end. The author was given complete access to records and files, employees were instructed to be candid and forthcoming; the result is evenhanded and well written, provides solid historical background for and thoughtful analysis of the various events. —Review by Gail Owens Hoelscher from Turnarounds and Workouts Conglomerate discount Holding company List of conglomerates Media conglomerate Pure play Subsidiary Google books