Revenue Act of 1913
The Revenue Act of 1913 known as the Underwood Tariff or the Underwood-Simmons Act, re-established a federal income tax in the United States and lowered tariff rates. The act was sponsored by Representative Oscar Underwood, passed by the 63rd United States Congress, signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. Wilson and other members of the Democratic Party had long seen high tariffs as equivalent to unfair taxes on consumers, tariff reduction was President Wilson's first priority upon taking office. Following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment in 1913, Democratic leaders agreed to seek passage of a major bill that would lower tariffs and implement an income tax. Underwood shepherded the revenue bill through the House of Representatives, but the bill won approval in the United States Senate only after extensive lobbying by the Wilson administration. Wilson signed the bill into law on October 3, 1913; the Revenue Act of 1913 lowered average tariff rates from 40 percent to 26 percent.
It established a one percent tax on income above $3,000 per year. A separate provision established a corporate tax of one percent, superseding a previous tax that had only applied to corporations with net incomes greater than $5,000 per year. Though a Republican-controlled Congress would raise tariff rates, the Revenue Act of 1913 marked an important shift in federal revenue policy, as government revenue would rely on income taxes rather than tariff duties. Democrats had long seen high tariff rates as equivalent to unfair taxes on consumers, tariff reduction was President Wilson's first priority upon taking office, he argued that the system of high tariffs "cuts us off from our proper part in the commerce of the world, violates the just principles of taxation, makes the government a facile instrument in the hands of private interests." While most Democrats were united behind a decrease in tariff rates, most Republicans held that high tariff rates were useful for protecting domestic manufacturing and factory workers against foreign competition.
Shortly before Wilson took office, the Sixteenth Amendment, proposed by Congress in 1909 during a debate over tariff legislation, was ratified by the requisite number of states. Following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment, Democratic leaders agreed to attach an income tax provision to their tariff reduction bill to make up for lost revenue, to shift the burden of funding the government towards the high earners that would be subject to the income tax. By late May 1913, House Majority Leader Oscar Underwood had passed a bill in the House that cut the average tariff rate by 10 percent. Underwood's bill, which represented the largest downward revision of the tariff since the Civil War, aggressively cut rates for raw materials, goods deemed to be "necessities," and products produced domestically by trusts, but it retained higher tariff rates for luxury goods; the bill instituted a tax on personal income above $4,000. Passage of Underwood's tariff bill in the Senate would prove more difficult than in the House because some Southern and Western Democrats favored the continued protection of the wool and sugar industries, because Democrats had a narrower majority in that chamber.
Seeking to marshal support for the tariff bill, Wilson met extensively with Democratic senators and appealed directly to the people through the press. After weeks of hearings and debate and Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan managed to unite Senate Democrats behind the bill; the Senate voted 44 to 37 in favor of the bill, with only one Democrat voting against it and only one Republican, progressive leader Robert M. La Follette Sr. voting for it. Wilson signed the Revenue Act of 1913 into law on October 3, 1913; the Revenue Act of 1913 reduced the average import tariff rates from 40 percent to 26 percent. The Act established the lowest rates since the Walker Tariff of 1857. Most schedules were a percentage of the value of the item; the duty on woolens went from 56% to 18.5%. Steel rails, raw wool, iron ore, agricultural implements now had zero rates; the reciprocity program wanted by the Republicans was eliminated. Congress rejected proposals for a tariff board to fix rates scientifically, but it set up a study commission.
The Underwood-Simmons measure vastly increased the free list, adding woolens, steel, farm machinery, many raw materials and foodstuffs. The average rate was 26%; the Revenue Act of 1913 restored a federal income tax for the first time since 1872. The federal government had adopted an income tax in the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act, but that tax had been struck down by the Supreme Court in the case of Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co; the Revenue Act of 1913 imposed a one percent tax on incomes above $3,000, with a top tax rate of six percent on those earning more than $500,000 per year. Three percent of the population was subject to the income tax; the bill included a one percent tax on the net income of all corporations, superseding a previous federal tax that had only applied to corporate net incomes above $5,000. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the income tax in the cases of Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad Co. and Stanton v. Baltic Mining Co. A normal income tax and an additional tax were levied against the net income of individuals, as shown in the following table: There was an exemption of $3,000 for single filers and $4,000 for married couples.
Therefore, the 1% bottom marginal rate applied only to the first $17,000 of income for single filers or the first $16,000 ($352,300 in
Home front during World War I
The home front during World War I covers the domestic, economic and political histories of countries involved in that conflict. It covers the mobilization of armed forces and war supplies, but does not include the military history. For nonmilitary interactions among the major players see Diplomatic history of World War I. About 10 million combatants and seven million civilians died during the entire war, including many weakened by years of malnutrition; the Allies had much more potential wealth. One estimate, is that the Allies spent $147 billion on the war and the Central Powers only $61 billion. Among the Allies and its Empire spent $47 billion and the US$27 billion. Total war demanded total mobilization of all the nation's resources for a common goal. Manpower had to be channeled into the front lines. Behind the lines labor power had to be redirected away from less necessary activities that were luxuries during a total war. In particular, vast munitions industries had to be built up to provide shells, warships, airplanes, a hundred other weapons, both old and new.
Agriculture had to be mobilized as well, to provide food for both civilians and for soldiers and for horses to move supplies. Transportation in general was a challenge when Britain and Germany each tried to intercept merchant ships headed for the enemy. Finance was a special challenge. Germany financed the Central Powers. Britain financed the Allies until 1916, when it ran out of money and had to borrow from the United States; the US took over the financing of the Allies in 1917 with loans that it insisted be repaid after the war. The victorious Allies looked to defeated Germany in 1919 to pay "reparations" that would cover some of their costs. Above all, it was essential to conduct the mobilization in such a way that the short term confidence of the people was maintained, the long-term power of the political establishment was upheld, the long-term economic health of the nation was preserved. For more details on economics see Economic history of World War I. World War I had a profound impact on woman suffrage across the belligerents.
Women played a major role on the homefronts and many countries recognized their sacrifices with the vote during or shortly after the war, including the United States, Canada, Austria, the Netherlands, Russia and Ireland. France did so but stopped short; the total direct cost of war, for all participants including those not listed here, was about $80 billion Since $1 billion in 1913 = about $25 billion in 2017 US dollars the total cost comes to about $2 trillion in 2017 dollars. Direct cost is figured as actual expenditures during war minus normal prewar spending, it excludes postwar costs such as pensions and veteran hospitals. Loans to/from allies are not included in "direct cost". Repayment of loans after 1918 is not included; the total direct cost of the war as a percent of wartime national income: Allies: Britain, 37%. Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, 24%; the amounts listed below are presented in terms of 1913 US dollars, where $1 billion equals about $25 billion in 2017. Britain had a direct war cost about $21.2 billion.
France had a direct war cost about $10.1 billion. Italy had a direct war cost about $4.5 billion. The United States had a direct war cost about $12.3 billion. Russia had a direct war cost about $7.7 billion. The two governments agreed that financially Britain would support the weaker Allies and that France would take care of itself. In August 1914, Henry Pomeroy Davison, a Morgan partner, traveled to London and made a deal with the Bank of England to make J. P. Morgan & Co. the sole underwriter of war bonds for Great Britain and France. The Bank of England became a fiscal agent of J. P. Morgan & Co. and vice versa. Over the course of the war, J. P. Morgan loaned about $1.5 billion to the Allies to fight against the Germans. Morgan invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France, thus profiting from the financing and purchasing activities of the two European governments. Britain made heavy loans to Tsarist Russia. At the outbreak of war, patriotic feelings spread throughout the country, many of the class barriers of Edwardian era faded during the years of combat.
However, the Catholics in southern Ireland moved overnight to demands for complete immediate independence after the failed Easter Rebellion of 1916. Northern Ireland remained loyal to the crown. In 1914 Britain had by far the largest and most efficient financial system in the world. Roger Lloyd-Jones and M. J. Lewis argue: To prosecute industrial war required the mobilisation of economic resources for the mass production of weapons and munitions, which entitled fundamental changes in the relationshi
Governor of New Jersey
The Governor of the State of New Jersey is head of the executive branch of New Jersey's state government. The office of governor is an elected position. Governors cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the total number of terms they may serve; the official residence for the governor is a mansion located in Princeton, New Jersey. The first Governor of New Jersey was William Livingston, who served from August 31, 1776, to July 25, 1790; the current governor is Phil Murphy, who assumed office on January 16, 2018. The governor is directly elected by the voters to become the political and ceremonial head of the state; the governor performs the executive functions of the state, is not directly subordinate to the federal authorities. The governor assumes additional roles, such as being the Commander-in-Chief of the New Jersey National Guard forces. Unlike many other states that have elections for some cabinet-level positions, under the New Jersey Constitution the governor and lieutenant governor are the only officials elected on a statewide basis.
Much like the President of the United States, the governor appoints the entire cabinet, subject to confirmation by the New Jersey Senate. More under the New Jersey constitution, the governor appoints all superior court judges and county prosecutors, although this is done with strong consideration of the preferences of the individual state senators who represent the district where vacancies arise; the governor is responsible for appointing two constitutionally created officers, the New Jersey Attorney General and the Secretary of State of New Jersey, with the approval of the senate. As amended in January 2002, state law allows for a maximum salary of $175,000. Phil Murphy has stated. Jon Corzine accepted a token salary of $1 per year as governor. Previous governor Jim McGreevey received an annual salary of $157,000, a reduction of 10% of the maximum allowed, while Chris Christie, Murphy's immediate predecessor, accepted the full gubernatorial salary; the governor has a full-time protective security detail from the Executive Protection Unit of the New Jersey State Police while in office.
A former governor is entitled to a 1-person security detail from the New Jersey State Police, for up to 6 months after leaving office. On Tuesday, November 8, 2005, the voters passed an amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution that created the position of Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey, effective with the 2009 elections. Before this amendment was passed, the president of the New Jersey Senate would have become governor or acting governor in the event that office of governor became vacant; this dual position was more powerful than that of an elected governor, as the individual would have had a major role in legislative and executive processes. As a result of the constitutional amendment passed in 2005, Governor Richard Codey, serving from November 2004 to January 2006 as governor, was the final person to wield such power. Kim Guadagno, a former prosecutor, was sworn in as New Jersey's first lieutenant governor on January 19, 2010 under Governor Christie. Succeeding Guadagno, former assemblywoman Sheila Oliver was sworn in on January 16, 2018 under Governor Murphy.
The Center on the American Governor, at Rutgers' Eagleton Institute of Politics, was established in 2006 to study the governors of New Jersey and, to a lesser degree, the governors of other states. The program features extensive archives of documents and pictures from the Byrne and Kean administrations, video interviews with many members of the respective administrations, some information on other American governors, news updates on current governors; the project is in the process of creating new archives, similar to the Byrne and Kean archives, for administrations. "I, A. B. elected governor of the State of New Jersey, do solemnly promise and swear, that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of New Jersey, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, to the governments established in the United States and in this state under the authority of the people, that I will diligently, impartially, to the best of my knowledge and ability, execute the said office in conformity with the powers delegated to me, that I will to the utmost of my skill and ability, promote the peace and prosperity and maintain the lawful rights of the said state, so help me God."
Governorship of Phil Murphy List of colonial governors of New Jersey List of Governors of New Jersey Official website Executive Orders issued by the New Jersey Governor
Woman suffrage parade of 1913
The woman suffrage parade of 1913 the Woman Suffrage Procession, was the first suffragist parade in Washington, D. C, it was the first large, organized march on Washington for political purposes. The procession was organized by the suffragists Alice Paul and Lucy Burns for the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Thousands of suffragists marched down Pennsylvania Avenue on Monday, March 3, 1913, the day before President Woodrow Wilson's inauguration; the parade's purpose, stated in its official program, was to "march in a spirit of protest against the present political organization of society, from which women are excluded". The event kicked off Paul's campaign to refocus the suffrage movement on obtaining a national constitutional amendment for woman's suffrage; the demonstration consisted of a parade with floats, a various groups representing women at home, in school, in the workplace. At the Treasury Building, a pageant of allegorical tableaux was acted out during the procession. District police failed to keep the enormous crowd out of the street, impeding the marchers' progress.
Many participants were subjected to heckling from spectators, though there were many supporters present. The final act was a rally at the Memorial Continental Hall with prominent speakers, including Anna Howard Shaw and Helen Keller; some negative publicity prior to the march resulted from the announcement that blacks from Howard University would be marching in the parade and some people incorrectly suggested that Paul had tried to keep them from participating. Black women and men did participate in the procession and were not treated differently by the spectators; the march and the attention that it attracted were monumental in advancing women's suffrage in the United States. American suffragists Alice Paul and Lucy Burns spearheaded a drive to adopt a national strategy for women's suffrage in the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Paul and Burns had seen first-hand the effectiveness of militant activism while working for Emmeline Pankhurst in the Women's Social and Political Union in Britain.
Their education included rallies and demonstrations, knowledge of which the two would put to work back in America. They had first-hand experience with imprisonment as a backlash against suffrage activism, they had suffered force-feeding. They were not afraid to be provocative knowing the potential consequences; the procession would be their first foray into moving into militant mode on a national stage. Paul and Burns found that there were many suffragists who supported the WSPU's militant tactics, including Harriot Stanton Blatch, Alva Belmont, Elizabeth Robins, Rhetta Child Dorr. Burns and Paul recognized that the women from the six states that had full suffrage at the time comprised a powerful voting bloc, they submitted a proposal to Anna Howard Shaw and the NAWSA leadership at their annual convention in 1912. The leadership was not interested in changing the state-by-state strategy and rejected the idea of holding a campaign that would hold the Democratic Party responsible. Paul and Burns appealed to prominent reformer Jane Addams, who interceded on their behalf, resulting in Paul being appointed chair of the Congressional Committee.
Up until this time, the woman's suffrage movement had relied on oratory and written arguments to keep the issue before the public. Paul believed. While her tactics were non-violent, Paul exploited elements of danger in her events, her plan for using visual rhetoric was intended to have lasting impact. She felt it was time for women to stop begging for suffrage and demand it with political coercion instead. Though the suffragists had staged marches in many cities, this would be the first time for Washington, it would be the first large political demonstration in the nation's capital. The only previous similar demonstration was made by a group of 500 men known as Coxey's Army protesting unemployment in 1894. At the time Paul and Burns were assigned to lead the Congressional Committee of the NAWSA, it was a shadow committee headed by Elizabeth Kent, wife of a California congressman, with an annual budget of ten dollars that went unspent. With Paul and Burns at the helm, the committee revived the push for a national suffrage amendment.
At the end of 1913, Paul reported to the NAWSA that the committee had raised and expended over $25,000 on the suffrage cause for the year. Paul and Burns persuaded NAWSA to endorse an immense suffrage parade in Washington, D. C. to coincide with newly-elected President Woodrow Wilson's inauguration the following March. The NAWSA leadership turned over the entire operation to the committee, they organized volunteers and raised funds in preparation for the parade with little help from the NAWSA. Affiliates of NAWSA from various states organized groups to march and activities leading up to the march, such as the Suffrage Hikes. Once the board approved the parade in December 1912, they appointed Dora Lewis, Mary Ritter Beard, Crystal Eastman to the committee, though they all worked outside of Washington. All money Paul collected had to be directed through the NAWSA. Paul arrived in D. C. in December 1912 to begin organizing the event. By the time the Congressional Committee had its first meeting on January 2, 1913 in its new Washington, D. C. headquarters, more than 130 women showed up to start work.
Using the list of former committee members, Paul found few still alive or in the city, but she did find assistance. Among local suffragists, she was aided by attorney Florence Etheridge and teacher Elsie Hill, daughter of a congressman. Kent, the former committe
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames and credit card details by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, it directs users to enter personal information at a fake website, the look and feel of which are identical to the legitimate site. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques being used to deceive users. Users are lured by communications purporting to be from trusted parties such as social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators. Attempts to deal with phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, technical security measures — because phishing attacks often exploit weaknesses in current web security; the word itself is a neologism created as a homophone of fishing, due to the similarity of using a bait in an attempt to catch a victim. Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing.
In contrast to bulk phishing, spear phishing attackers gather and use personal information about their target to increase their probability of success. Threat Group-4127 used spear phishing tactics to target email accounts linked to Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign, they attacked more than 1,800 Google accounts and implemented the accounts-google.com domain to threaten targeted users. Clone phishing is a type of phishing attack whereby a legitimate, delivered, email containing an attachment or link has had its content and recipient address taken and used to create an identical or cloned email; the attachment or link within the email is replaced with a malicious version and sent from an email address spoofed to appear to come from the original sender. It may claim to be a resend of an updated version to the original; this technique could be used to pivot from a infected machine and gain a foothold on another machine, by exploiting the social trust associated with the inferred connection due to both parties receiving the original email.
The term whaling has been coined for spear phishing attacks directed at senior executives and other high-profile targets. In these cases, the content will be crafted to target an upper manager and the person's role in the company; the content of a whaling attack email may be an executive issue such as a subpoena or customer complaint. Most methods of phishing use some form of technical deception designed to make a link in an email appear to belong to the spoofed organization. Misspelled URLs or the use of subdomains are common tricks used by phishers. In the following example URL, http://www.yourbank.example.com/, it appears as though the URL will take you to the example section of the yourbank website. Another common trick is to make the displayed text for a link suggest a reliable destination, when the link goes to the phishers' site. Many desktop email clients and web browsers will show a link's target URL in the status bar while hovering the mouse over it; this behavior, may in some circumstances be overridden by the phisher.
An attacker can potentially use flaws in a trusted website's own scripts against the victim. These types of attacks are problematic, because they direct the user to sign in at their bank or service's own web page, where everything from the web address to the security certificates appears correct. In reality, the link to the website is crafted to carry out the attack, making it difficult to spot without specialist knowledge; such a flaw was used in 2006 against PayPal. To avoid anti-phishing techniques that scan websites for phishing-related text, phishers sometimes use Flash-based websites; these hide the text in a multimedia object. Covert redirect is a subtle method to perform phishing attacks that makes links appear legitimate, but redirect a victim to an attacker's website; the flaw is masqueraded under a log-in popup based on an affected site's domain. It can affect OAuth OpenID based on well-known exploit parameters as well; this makes use of open redirect and XSS vulnerabilities in the third-party application websites.
Users may be redirected to phishing websites covertly through malicious browser extensions. Norma
First inauguration of Woodrow Wilson
The first inauguration of Woodrow Wilson as the 28th President of the United States was held on Tuesday, March 4, 1913, at the east portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of Woodrow Wilson as President and of Thomas R. Marshall as Vice President. Chief Justice Edward D. White administered the presidential oath of office to Wilson. In his inaugural address, Wilson made clear his vision of the United States and its people as an exemplary moral force: "Nowhere else in the world have noble men and women exhibited in more striking forms the beauty and the energy of sympathy and helpfulness and counsel in their efforts to rectify wrong, alleviate suffering, set the weak in the way of strength and hope". No inaugural balls were held to celebrate the occasion, as Wilson found them inappropriate for the occasion. Presidency of Woodrow Wilson Second inauguration of Woodrow Wilson United States presidential election, 1912 Text of Wilson's First Inaugural Address