Reorganization Act of 1939
The Reorganization Act of 1939, Pub. L. 76–19, 53 Stat. 561, enacted April 3, 1939, codified at 5 U. S. C. § 133, is an American Act of Congress which gave the President of the United States the authority to hire additional confidential staff and reorganize the executive branch for two years subject to legislative veto. It was the first major, planned reorganization of the executive branch of the government of the United States since 1787; the Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the Executive Office of the President. As Governor of New York, Franklin D. Roosevelt had a reputation for reorganizing government in order to achieve efficiency; the Economy Act of 1933, enacted in Roosevelt's Hundred Days to combat the Great Depression, gave the president the authority to engage in limited reorganization of the executive branch in order to achieve economic recovery goals. But the president took no action during the two-year term of authority granted by the Act. By 1935, the keystone of the New Deal had been declared unconstitutional and Roosevelt's views on how to effect recovery had shifted away from economic intervention and toward social justice.
Many influential members of Congress, political scientists, public administration experts had criticized Roosevelt's preference for the proliferation of executive branch agencies, a strategy used by him to experiment with responses to the Great Depression, as inefficient. On March 22, 1936, Roosevelt established the Committee on Administrative Management and charged it with developing proposals for reorganizing the executive branch; the three-person committee consisted of Louis Brownlow, Charles Merriam, Luther Gulick. Gulick's POSDCORB served as the basis and framing idea and not all parts of their team's research was used, their work revealed a profound constitutional understanding and confidence, not only about improving public management, but how to improve democracy within the American administrative state. On January 8, 1937, the Committee released its report. Famously declaring "The President needs help," the Committee's report advocated a strong chief executive, including among its 37 recommendations significant expansion of the presidential staff, integration of managerial agencies into a single presidential office, expansion of the merit system, integration of all independent agencies into existing Cabinet departments, modernization of federal accounting and financial practices.
Roosevelt submitted the Brownlow Committee's report to Congress and on January 12, 1937, sought legislative approval to implement the Committee's recommendations. The bill sparked concern that it delegated far too much power to the president. Additionally, members of Congress were unhappy that the bill would further diminish the patronage system, abolish the position of Comptroller General, disrupt congressional committee oversight of and relationships with executive branch agencies. However, the bill's prospects for passage appeared good. On February 5, Roosevelt submitted the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, to allow Associate Justices to the Supreme Court to be appointed for every sitting member over the age of 70-and-one-half years of age, up to a maximum of six; the "court-packing" scheme led to widespread accusations that Roosevelt was attempting to impose a dictatorship, the reorganization bill was seen in the same light, which led to congressional efforts to weaken the reorganization plan.
In the Senate, Burton K. Wheeler proposed an amendment to the bill for a two-chamber legislative veto of any reorganization plan and a 60-day waiting period before any reorganization plan was effective; the Senate defeated the contentious motion by four votes. Attempts were made in the House to adopt the Wheeler plan; the effort came close to success several times, which led the administration to agree to exempt a large number of independent agencies from the bill in an effort to win members' favor. However, the House upset over the extension of presidential influence and the reduction of its own authority, now saw the legislation as part of a Roosevelt power grab and tabled the bill. Roosevelt reintroduced the bill in the next Congress. Roosevelt was active in the House and Senate primaries, working to "purge" the Democratic Party of Southern conservatives who had opposed the New Deal. Although unsuccessful, Roosevelt's actions had a major, positive impact on Congressional willingness to pass reorganization legislation.
Roosevelt met with Gulick and Senator James F. Byrnes on December 8, 1938, to review plans for the bill. Roosevelt and Byrnes agreed to have the bill originate in the House, to include a two-chamber legislative veto, to grant reorganization authority for only two years. Roosevelt agreed to submit the legislation as a standalone bill rather than part of an omnibus act, to consider reform of the Works Progress Administration as part of the package. Adhering to this strategy, Roosevelt declined to submit a reorganization plan in January. On January 31, Rep. John J. Cochran submitted a resolution requesting the formation of a House Committee on Governmental Reorganization, approved over strong Republican opposition the next day; this committee revived the Roosevelt bill, tabled in 1937. A revised version of the bill was reported by the committee on March 2, which contained the provisions outlined in December as well as a list of exempt agencies and new "fast-track" procedures to limit debate and move any concurrent resolutions opposing reor
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin
John M. Carmody
John Michael Carmody was an American administrator, noted as editor of Factory and Industrial Management, as administrator of the Rural Electrification Administration and the Federal Works Agency in the 1930s. Born in Towanda, Carmody attended Elmira College, the Lewis Institute in Chicago, the Columbia University. In 1900 he started his career in the steel industry, working as inspector for companies in Pennsylvania and Illinois, abroad in Ontario in Canada, in Havana in Cuba. From 1914 to 1922 he worked in the garment industry in Cleveland, Ohio for the H. Black Company, producer of produced WoolTex brand coats for women, for the Printz-Biederman Company, another coat manufacturer. In 1921 he joined the Bituminous Coal Commission under US President Warren G. Harding, his first federal job; the work of the commission would lead to the Guffey Coal Act of 1935. From 1922 to 1926 Carmody worked for the Davis's Davis Coal and Coke Company in Coketon, West Virginia. In 1927 he joined the McGraw-Hill Publishing company to become editor for the magazine Coal Age, from 1928 to 1929 for the Factory and Industrial Management magazine.
Since 1933 held several government positions, starting as appointed chief engineer of the Civil Works Administration in 1933, member of the National Mediation Board in 1934/35, in the National Labor Relations Board in 1935. In 1937 he was appointed by Franklin D. Roosevelt administrator of Rural Electrification Administration, in 1939 head of the Federal Works Agency. Furthermore, he was member in the United States Maritime Commission, the War Assets Administration until 1949, the General Board of the United States Navy until 1951. In the 1950s he continued to worked as labor arbitrator; as administrator of the Federal Works Agency, Carmody appeared for the US Senate Committee July 13, 1939, where he promised that, new public works program will not interfere with private industry. Carmody promised the "Senate Banking and Currency Committee that the new $350,000,000 public works program would not interfere with private industry, he pointed out that President Roosevelt's program made no specific provisions for federal loans to municipalities for acquisition of private utilities."
Dunlap, John R. Arthur Van Vlissingen and John Michael Carmody. Factory and Industrial Management, New York, The Engineering Magazine Co. 1928-1929 John M. Carmody, E. W. Clark. Wage Rate Laws on Public Works.. U. S. Government Printing Office, 1939. Carmody, John Michael; the Reminiscences of John Carmody. Columbia University, Oral History Research Office, 1957. Articles, a selection: John M. Carmody “Unemployment Solutions,” Factory and Industrial Management, LXXIX, 371 Carmody, John M. "Rural Electrification in the United States." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science: 82-88. John M. Carmody - Franklin D. Roosevelt Library & Museum John Michael Carmody - New Deal
Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway Administration is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two programs, the Federal-aid Highway Program and the Federal Lands Highway Program, its role had been performed by the Office of Road Inquiry, Office of Public Roads and the Bureau of Public Roads. The organization has a complicated history; the Office of Road Inquiry was founded in 1893. In 1905 that organization's name was changed to the Office of Public Roads which became a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the name was changed again to the Bureau of Public Roads in 1915 and to the Public Roads Administration in 1939. It was shifted to the Federal Works Agency, abolished in 1949 when its name reverted to Bureau of Public Roads under the Department of Commerce. With the coming of the bicycle in the 1890s, interest grew regarding the improvement of streets and roads in America; the traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was inadequate.
New York State took the lead in 1898, by 1916 the old system had been discarded everywhere area. Demands grew for local and state government to take charge. With the coming of the automobile after 1910, urgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic; the American Association for Highway Improvement was organized in 1910. Funding came from automobile registration, taxes on motor fuels, as well as state aid. In 1916, federal-aid was first made available to improve post-roads, promote general commerce. Congress appropriated $75 million over a five-year period, with the Secretary of Agriculture in charge through the Bureau of Public Roads, in cooperation with the state highway departments. There were 2.4 million miles of rural dirt rural roads in 1914. The increasing speed of automobiles, trucks, made maintenance and repair high-priority item. Concrete was first used in 1893, expanded until it became the dominant surfacing material in the 1930s. Federal aid began in 1917.
From 1917 through 1941, 261,000 miles of highways were built with federal aid, cost $5.31 billion. Federal funds totaled $3.17 billion, state-local funds were $2.14 billion. The FHWA was created on October 15, 1966. In 1967 the functions of the Bureau of Public Roads were transferred to the new organization, it was one of three original bureaus along with the'Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety' and the'National Highway Safety Bureau'. The FHWA’s role in the Federal-aid Highway Program is to oversee federal funds used for constructing and maintaining the National Highway System; this funding comes from the federal gasoline tax and goes to state departments of transportation. FHWA oversees projects using these funds to ensure that federal requirements for project eligibility, contract administration and construction standards are adhered to. Under the Federal Lands Highway Program, the FHWA provides highway design and construction services for various federal land-management agencies, such as the Forest Service and the National Park Service.
In addition to these programs, the FHWA performs and sponsors research in the areas of roadway safety, highway materials and construction methods, provides funding to local technical assistance program centers to disseminate research results to local highway agencies. The FHWA publishes the “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices”, used by most highway agencies in the United States; the MUTCD specifies such things as the size and height of traffic signs, traffic signals and road surface markings. The Federal Highway Administration is overseen by an Administrator appointed by the President of the United States by and with the consent of the United States Senate; the Administrator works under the direction of the Secretary of Transportation and Deputy Secretary of Transportation. The internal organization of the FHWA is as follows: Administrator Executive Director Office of Infrastructure Office of Research and Technology Public Roads magazine Office of Planning and Realty Office of Policy and Government Affairs Office of the Chief Financial Officer Office of Administration Office of Operations Office of Safety Office of Federal Lands Highway Office of Chief Counsel Office of Civil Rights Office of Public Affairs Long-Term Pavement Performance is a program supported by FHWA to collect and analyse road data.
The LTPP program was initiated by the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council in the early 1980s. Federal Highway Administration with the cooperation of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials sponsored the program; as a result of this program, FHWA has collected a huge database of road performance. FHWA and ASCE hold an annual contest known as LTPP International Data Analysis Contest, based on challenging researchers to answer a question based on the LTPP data. Current: Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Deputy Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Executive Director: Thomas Everett Alph Bartelsmeyer August 10, 1970- January 25, 1974 Alinda Burke - January 1, 1980 -? J. Richard Capka August 5, 2002 - May 31, 2006 Gregory G. Nadeau July 8, 2009 – July 30, 2014 Brandye Hendrickson July 24, 2017 - Present Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Hi
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat