Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
The Republic of Kalmykia is a federal subject of Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 289,481. Kalmykia is the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practiced religion, with Buddhists constituting a plurality of the population. Elista, the capital of the republic, has of late, gained an international reputation for international chess competitions; the republic is located in the southwestern part of European Russia. Being just north of the North Caucasus, it borders, with Volgograd Oblast in the northwest and north, Astrakhan Oblast in the north and east, Dagestan in the south, Stavropol Krai in the southwest, with Rostov Oblast in the west, it is washed by the Caspian Sea in the southeast. A small stretch of the Volga River flows through eastern Kalmykia. Other major rivers include the Yegorlyk, the Kuma, the Manych. Lake Manych-Gudilo is the largest lake. In all, Kalmykia possesses few lakes. Kalmykia's natural resources include coal and natural gas; the republic's wildlife includes the saiga antelope, whose habitat is protected in Chyornye Zemli Nature Reserve.
Kalmykia has a cold semi-desert climate, with cold winters with little snow. The average January temperature is −5 °C and the average July temperature is 24 °C. Average annual precipitation ranges from 170 millimeters in the east of the republic to 400 millimeters in the west; the small town Utta is the hottest place in the whole of Russia. On July 12, 2010, during a significant heatwave affecting all of Russia, an all-time record-high temperature was observed at 45.4 °C. According to the Kurgan hypothesis, the upland regions of modern-day Kalmykia formed part of the cradle of Indo-European culture. Hundreds of Kurgans can be seen in these areas, known as the Indo-European Urheimat; the territory of Kalmykia is unique in that it has been the home in successive periods to many major world religions and ideologies. Prehistoric paganism and shamanism gave way to Judaism with the Khazars; this was succeeded by Islam with the Alans while the Mongol hordes brought Tengriism, the Nogais were Muslim, before their replacement by the present-day Buddhist Oirats/Kalmyks.
With the annexation of the territory by the Russian Empire, Christianity arrived with Slavic settlers, before all religion was suppressed after the Russian Revolution. Shamanism has in all probability remained a constant hidden, substrate of folk-practice, as it is today; the ancestors of the Kalmyks, the Oirats, migrated from the steppes of southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River to the Lower Volga region. Various reasons have been given for the move, but the accepted answer is that the Kalmyks sought abundant pastures for their herds. Another motivation may have been to escape the growing dominance of the neighboring Dzungar Mongol tribe, they reached the lower Volga region in or about 1630. That land, was not uncontested pastures, but rather the homeland of the Nogai Horde, a confederation of Turkic-speaking nomadic tribes; the Kalmyks expelled the Nogais who fled to the Caucasian plains and to the Crimean Khanate, areas under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Some Nogai groups sought the protection of the Russian garrison at Astrakhan.
The remaining nomadic Mongol Oirats tribes became vassals of Kalmyk Khan. The Kalmyks settled in the wide open steppes from Saratov in the north to Astrakhan on the Volga delta in the south and to the Terek River in the southwest, they encamped on both sides of the Volga River, from the Don River in the west to the Ural River in the east. Although these territories had been annexed by Russia, it was in no position to settle the area with Russian colonists; this area under Kalmyk control would be called the Kalmyk Khanate. Within twenty-five years of settling in the lower Volga region, the Kalmyks became subjects of the Tsar. In exchange for protecting Russia's southern border, the Kalmyks were promised an annual allowance and access to the markets of Russian border settlements; the open access to Russian markets was supposed to discourage mutual raiding on the part of the Kalmyks and of the Russians and Bashkirs, a Russian-dominated Turkic people, but this was not the practice. In addition, Kalmyk allegiance was nominal, as the Kalmyk Khans practiced self-government, based on a set of laws they called the Great Code of the Nomads.
The Kalmyk Khanate reached its peak of political power under Ayuka Khan. During his era, the Kalmyk Khanate fulfilled its responsibility to protect the southern borders of Russia and conducted many military expeditions against its Turkic-speaking neighbors. Successful military expeditions were conducted in the Caucasus; the Khanate experienced economic prosperity from free trade with Russian border towns, China and with their Muslim neighbors. During this era, the Kalmyks kept close contacts with their Oirat kinsmen in Dzungaria, as well as the Dalai Lama in Tibet. After the October Revolution in 1917, many Don Kalmyks joined the White Russian army and fought under the command of Generals Denikin and Wrangel during the Russian Civil War. Before the Red Army broke through to the Crimean Peninsula towards the end of 1920, a large group of Kalmyks fled from Russia with the remnants of the defeated White Army to the Black Sea ports of Turkey; the majority of the refugees chose to resettle in Serbia.
Other, much smaller, groups chose Sofia, Prague (Czech
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Republic of Crimea
The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject of Russia, located on the Crimean Peninsula. The capital city and largest city within the republic is Simferopol, the second largest city of Crimea, behind the federal city of Sevastopol. At the last census the republic had a population of 1,891,465. In March 2014, following the takeover of Crimea by pro-Russian separatists and the Russian Armed Forces, an unconstitutional referendum was held on the issue of reunification with Russia, which official results and opinion polls indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans; the official result was. Russia annexed the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia. While Russia and 21 other UN member states either recognize Crimea as part of the Russian Federation or have expressed sympathy for the Russian authorities regarding the matter, Ukraine continues to claim Crimea as an integral part of its territory as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, supported by most foreign governments, various United Nations General Assembly resolutions.
In 1792, under the Russian Empress Catherine the Great, Crimea was ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Jassy, which formally ended the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1792. From 1802, it constituted a southern part of the Taurida Governorate of the Russian Empire until the collapse thereof in 1917. During the Russian Civil War Crimea changed hands multiple times, being inter alia the last territory held by the White Russian government in the European part of Russia in 1920, became an autonomous republic within Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1921. During World War II, in 1944, the central Soviet authorities deported the Crimean Tatars for alleged collaboration with the Nazi occupation regime. In 1954, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet transferred the region from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, another constituent republic of the USSR a centralised state, wherein borders between constituent republics was a technical issue of administration, despite the fact that Ukraine was a separate member of the UN.
The Crimean Tatars were allowed to return to Crimea in the mid-1980s under perestroika. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of the newly independent Ukraine, which led to tensions between Russia and Ukraine. With the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula, worries of armed skirmishes were raised. Crimean Tatars began resettling in Crimea. Ukraine restored Crimea's autonomous status in 1991. Crimea's autonomous status was re-affirmed in 1996 with the ratification of Ukraine's current constitution, which designated Crimea as the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea", but an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine". On 11 March 2014, the Crimean parliament and the Sevastopol City Council jointly issued a letter of intent to unilaterally declare independence from Ukraine in the event of a'Yes' vote in the referendum to join the region to Russia, to be held on 16 March; the document mentioned Kosovo as a precedent in the lead part. The referendum on the status of Crimea allowed citizens to vote on whether Crimea should apply to join Russia as a federal subject of the Russian Federation, or restore the 1992 Crimean constitution and Crimea's status as a part of Ukraine.
The available choices did not include keeping the status quo of Crimea and Sevastopol as they were at the time the referendum was held. On 16 March 2014, according to statements of organizers of Crimean status referendum, a large majority voted in favour of independence of Crimea from Ukraine and joining Russia as a federal subject; the referendum was not recognized by most of the international community and the reported results were disputed by numerous independent observers. The BBC reported. Reports from the UN criticised the circumstances surrounding the referendum the presence of paramilitaries, self-defence groups and unidentifiable soldiers; the European Union, Canada and the United States condemned the vote as illegal. After the referendum, Crimean lawmakers formally voted both to secede from Ukraine and applied for their admission into Russia; the Sevastopol City Council, requested the port's separate admission as a federal city. On 18 March 2014, the self-proclaimed independent Republic of Crimea signed a treaty of accession to the Russian Federation.
The accession was granted but separately for each the former regions that composed it: one accession for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea as the Republic of Crimea— the same name as the short-lived self-proclaimed independent republic - and another accession for Sevastopol as a federal city. The accession was only recognised internationally by a few states with most regarding the action as illegal. Though Ukraine refused to accept the annexation, the Ukrainian military began to withdraw from Crimea on 19 March. A transition period, during which both parties to the accession treaty were to resolve the issues of integration of the new subjects "in the economic, financial and legal system of the Russian Federation", was set to last until 1 January 2015'The integration process started within days: on 24 March the Russian ruble went int
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic or Kabardino-Balkaria, is a federal subject of Russia located in the North Caucasus. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 859,939 on 12,500 square km, its capital is Nalchik. The republic is situated with plains in the northern part. Area: 12,500 square kilometers Borders: internal: Stavropol Krai, North Ossetia–Alania, Karachay–Cherkessia international: Georgia Highest point: Mount Elbrus Maximum N->S distance: 167 kilometers Maximum E->W distance: 123 kilometers Kabardino-Balkaria is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude. Major rivers include: Terek River Malka River Baksan River Urukh River Chegem River Cherek River Argudan River Kurkuzhin River Lesken River There are about 100 lakes in the Republic, none of, large. Just over half are located between the Baksan and Malka Rivers, the largest each of an area of no more than 0.01 square kilometers. Some of the lakes are: Tserikkel Lake Lower Goluboye Lake Kel-Ketchen Lake Upper Tserikkel Lake Sekretnoye Lake Tambukan Lake within Stavropol Krai.
Mount Elbrus, a volcanic mountain and the highest peak in Europe and the CaucasusOther major mountains include: Mount Dykhtau Mount Koshtantau Mount Shkhara Pushkin Peak Mount Mizhergi Kabardino-Balkaria's natural resources include molybdenum and coal. The republic has a continental type climate. Average January temperature: −12 °C to −4 °C Average July temperature: +4 °C to +23 °C Average annual precipitation: 500–2,000 mm. Population: 859,939 . Source: Russian Federal State Statistics ServiceNote: TFR 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 source. Kabardino-Balkaria includes two major ethnic communities, the Kabardins, who speak a North-West Caucasian language, the Balkars who speak a Turkic language. According to the 2010 Census, Kabardins make up 57.2% of the republic's population, followed by Russians and Balkars. Other groups include Ossetians, Ukrainians, Koreans, a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. According to a 2012 survey which interviewed 56,900 people, 60% of the population of Kabardino-Balkaria adheres to Islam, 15.6% to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% to Adyghe folk religion and other indigenous faiths, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians.
In addition, 12% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 5.4% is atheist or follows other religions including Jehovah’s Witnesses. The head of government in Kabardino-Balkaria is the Head; the current Head is Kazbek Kokov. The legislative body of the Republic is the Parliament comprising 72 deputies elected for a five-year term. Caucasian Avars Bulgars List of the Chairmen of the Parliament of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic Minor hydro-electric plants of Kabardino-Balkaria Mount Imeon Совет Республики Парламента Кабардино-Балкарской Республики. Закон №13-РЗ от 4 августа 1994 г. «О государственном гимне Кабардино-Балкарской Республики», в ред. Закона №13-РЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г «О внесении изменений в статьи 2 и 4 Закона Кабардино-Балкарской Республики "О государственном гимне Кабардино-Балкарской Республики"». Вступил в силу 18 августа 1994 г. Опубликован: "Кабардино-Балкарская правда", №148, 12 августа 1994 г.. Парламент Кабардино-Балкарской Республики. №28-РЗ 1 сентября 1997 г.
«Конституция Кабардино-Балкарской Республики», в ред. Закона №40-РЗ от 19 октября 2015 г. «О поправках к Конституции Кабардино-Балкарской Республики». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кабардино-Балкарская правда", №177, 9 сентября 1997 г.. Дударев, В. А.. А.. И. Каманина, ed. СССР. Административно-территориальное деление союзных республик. Moscow. Official website of the Head of the Republic Pictures of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic BBC News. Kabardino-Balkaria Profile
The Karachay-Cherkess Republic or Karachay-Cherkessia is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the North Caucasus region of Southern Russia and is administratively part of the North Caucasian Federal District. Karachay-Cherkessia has a population of 477,859. Cherkessk is the capital of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic. Karachay-Cherkessia is one of Russia's ethnic republics representing the indigenous Karachay people and Cherkess people. Karachays form the largest ethnic group at around 40% of the population, followed by ethnic Russians and Cherkess; the republic has five official languages: Russian, Cherkess, Karachay-Balkar, Nogai. The majority of the republic's territory is within the Caucasus Mountains, except for a small strip at the northern edge of the Don Steppe. Karachay-Cherkessia is bordered by Krasnodar Krai to the west, Stavropol Krai to the north-east, Kabardino-Balkaria to the south-east, an international border with Georgia to the south-west. Mount Elbrus, the highest mountain in Europe, is located on the border with Kabardino-Balkaria.
The republic is located at the slopes of northwestern Caucasus and borders with Krasnodar Krai in the west and northwest, the Kabardino-Balkar Republic in the southeast, Georgia in the south and west, with Stavropol Krai in the northeast. It stretches for 140 kilometers from north to south and for 170 kilometers from east to west. Mountains cover 80% of the republic's territory; the republic is rich in water resources. A total of 172 rivers flow through its territory, with the largest one being the Kuban, Bolshoy Zelenchuk, Maly Zelenchuk and Laba. There are an abundance of mineral springs. Climate is moderate, with short winters and long, humid summers; the average January temperature is −3.2 °C, the average July temperature is +20.6 °C. Average annual precipitation varies from 550 millimeters in the plains to 2,500 millimeters in the mountains. Natural resources include gold, coal and more; the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was founded on January 12, 1922, in the early years of the Soviet Union.
It was split into Karachay Autonomous Oblast and Cherkess National Okrug on 26 April 1926. The Cherkess National District was elevated to an autonomous oblast status on 30 April 1928. In 1943, Karachay Autonomous Oblast was abolished, the Karachay people were accused of collaboration with the Nazis and subsequently deported to the Kazakh and Uzbek republics. Most of the Karchay territory was split between Stavropol Krai and the Georgian SSR; the remaining territory populated by the Cherkessians was known as Cherkess Autonomous Oblast until 9 January 1957 when it was re-established into Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast in its former borders due to the rehabilitation of the Karachay. On July 3, 1991, the autonomous oblast was elevated to the status of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, congresses of deputies of various nationalities proclaimed: Karachay Soviet Socialist Republic on 18 November 1990 Batalpashinsk Cossack Republic and Zelenchuk-Urup Cossack Soviet Socialist Republic on August 19, 1991 Cherkess Republic on October 27, 1991 Abazin Republic in November 1991After demonstrations in December 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Karachay-Cherkessia adopted an appeal for the recognition of the individual republics.
In December 1991, the words "Autonomous Soviet Socialist" were dropped from the official name of Karachay-Cherkessia. In January 1992, Russian President Boris Yeltsin was prepared to accept the division of Karachay-Cherkessia and introduced draft laws to the Supreme Soviet of Russia for the reconstitution of the Karachai Autonomous Oblast and Cherkess Autonomous Oblast within the Russian Federation. A commission on formation of three autonomous regions – Karachai and Batalpashinsk – was established in the Supreme Soviet. On March 28, 1992, a referendum was held in which, according to official results, the majority of the population of Karachay-Cherkessia voted against splitting the republic and, on December 9, 1992, the republic was recognized as the Karachay-Cherkess Republic. Population: 477,859 . Sources: 1970 to 2008. According to the 2010 Census, Karachays make up 41% of the republic's population, followed by Russians, Cherkess and Abazins together make up 20%. According to a 2012 survey which interviewed 56,900 people, 64% of the population of Karachay-Cherkessia adheres to Islam, 13% to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% to the Karachay and Circassian