The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (film)
The Treasure of the Sierra Madre is a 1948 American dramatic adventurous neo-western written and directed by John Huston. It is an adaptation of B. Traven's 1927 novel of the same name, set in the 1920s, in which, driven by their desperate economic plight, two young men, Fred C. Dobbs and Bob Curtin, join old-timer Howard in Mexico to prospect for gold; the Treasure of the Sierra Madre was one of the first Hollywood productions to be shot on location outside the United States, although many scenes were filmed back in the studio and elsewhere in the US. The movie is quite faithful to the source novel. In 1990, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". In 1925, in the Mexican oil-town of Tampico, Fred C. Dobbs and Bob Curtin, two unemployed American drifters, survive by bumming for spare change, they are recruited by an American labor contractor, Pat McCormick, as roughnecks to construct oil rigs for $8 a day.
When the project is completed, McCormick skips out without paying the men. Returning to Tampico, the two vagrants encounter the grizzled prospector Howard in a flophouse; the loquacious and penniless ex-miner holds forth on the virtues of gold prospecting and the perils of striking it rich. The two younger men contemplate its risks. Dobbs and Curtin run into McCormick at a cantina, after a desperate bar fight, they collect their back wages in cash; when Dobbs wins a small jackpot in the lottery, he pools his funds with Curtin and Howard to finance a gold prospecting journey to the Mexican interior. Departing from Tampico by rail, the threesome help to repulse a bandit attack. Dobbs exchanges gunfire with the Mexican outlaw leader Gold Hat. North of Durango the party is outfitted with gear and pack animals and begin their ascent into the remote Sierra Madre mountains. Howard proves to be the hardiest and most knowledgeable, outstripping the younger men in his physical endurance and wisdom. After several days of arduous travel, Howard’s keen eye recognizes that the terrain is laden with gold.
He dances a jig to celebrate their good luck, to the dismay of his two comrades. The men commence the exhausting process of extracting the riches and working in the harshest and primitive conditions. In time, they amass a fortune in placer gold; as the gold piles up, fear and suspicion take hold of each man. Dobbs is susceptible and begins to lose his sanity to paranoia; the men agree to divide the gold dust so as to jealously conceal the whereabouts of their shares. Curtin, while on a resupply trip to Durango, is spotted making purchases by a Texas fortune hunter named Cody; the Texan guesses the significance of Curtin’s aloofness, trails him secretly back to the encampment. When he confronts them, the three claim holders tell the intruder they are hunters. Cody dismisses the lie, boldly proposes to join their outfit to share in any future takings from the unregistered claim. Howard and Dobbs, each more or less in thrall to the gold, hold a private counsel and vote to kill the newcomer; as they announce their verdict, pistols in hand, Gold Hat and his bandits arrive on the scene.
They claim to attempt to barter for firearms. After a tense vocal exchange regarding requested proof that the bandits are indeed Federales, a gunfight with the bandits ensues, in which Cody is killed. A genuine troop of Federales appears and pursues Gold Hat and his gang as they flee the encampment; the three prospectors examine the personal effects of the dead Cody. A letter he carries from a loving wife reveals. Howard is called away to assist local villagers to save the life of a ill little boy; when the boy recovers, the next day, the villagers insist that Howard return to the village to be honored and will not take no for an answer. Howard says he will meet them later. Dobbs, whose paranoia continues, Curtin argue, until one night when Curtin falls asleep, Dobbs holds him at gunpoint, takes him behind the camp, shoots him, grabs all three shares of the gold, leaves him for dead. However, the wounded Curtin manages to crawl away during the night. Nearly dying of thirst, Dobbs is ambushed at a waterhole by his accomplices.
He is out of ammunition -- allowing the bandits to brutally kill him. In their ignorance, they believe Dobbs' bags of gold dust are filled with sand, they scatter the precious metal to the winds, taking only his burros and supplies. Meanwhile, Curtin is taken to Howard's village, where he recovers. Gold Hat's gang try to sell the packing donkeys in town, but a child recognizes the branding mark on the donkeys and reports them to the authorities; the bandits are summarily executed by the Federales. Howard and Curtin, arriving back in Durango in a dust storm, reclaim their pack animals, only to find the severed and empty gold sacks. At first shaken by the loss, Howard Curtin, grasp the immense irony of their circumstances, both share peals of laughter, they part ways, Howard returning to the indio village, where the natives have offered him a permanent home and position of honor, Curtin returning home to the United States, where he will seek out Cody's widow in the peach orchards of Texas. Humphrey Bogart as Fred C.
Dobbs Walter Huston as
José Victoriano Huerta Márquez was a Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico. After a military career under President Porfirio Díaz, Huerta became a high-ranking officer under pro-democracy President Francisco I. Madero during the first phase of the Mexican Revolution. In 1913 Huerta led a conspiracy against Madero, who entrusted him to control a minor revolt in Mexico City and assassinating Madero, his brother and Vice President Pino Suarez; this maneuver is called the Ten Tragic Days. The Huerta regime was opposed by revolutionary forces, plunging the nation into a civil war, he was forced to resign and flee the country in 1914, only 17 months into his presidency, after the federal army collapsed. While attempting to intrigue with German spies in the US during World War I, Huerta was arrested in 1915 and died in U. S. custody. His supporters were known as Huertistas during the Mexican Revolution, he is still vilified by modern-day Mexicans, who refer to him as El Chacal or El Usurpador.
Barbara W. Tuchman described him as "a pure-blooded Indian with a flat nose, a bullet head, a sphinx's eyes behind incongruous spectacles, a brandy bottle never far from hand. Wily, patient and sober." Victoriano Huerta was born in the settlement of Agua Gorda within the municipality of Colotlán, son of Jesús Huerta and María Lázara del Refugio Márquez. He identified himself as indigenous, both his parents are reported to have been ethnically Huichol, although his father is said to have been Mestizo. Huerta learned to read and write at a school run by the local priest, making him one of the few literate people in Colotlán, he had decided upon a military career early on as the only way of escaping the poverty of Colotlán. In 1869 he was employed by visiting Gen. Donato Guerra to serve as his personal secretary. In that role he distinguished himself and, with Gen. Guerra's support, gained admission to the Mexican National Military Academy at Chapultepec in Mexico City in 1872; as a cadet, Huerta excelled at math, leading him to specialize in topography.
President Benito Juárez praised Cadet Huerta when inspecting the Academy, noting that the army needed officers of indigenous origins. Upon graduating from the military academy in 1877, Huerta was commissioned into the Corps of Engineers. After entering the army as a lieutenant in the engineers in 1877, he was put in charge of improving the Loreto and Guadalupe forts in Puebla and the castle of Perote in Veracruz. In January 1879 he was promoted to captain and assigned to the staff of the 4th Division in Guadalajara, in charge of engineering; the commander of the 4th Division was Gen. Manual González, a close associate of President Porfirio Díaz, the dictator of Mexico. In 1880 Díaz stepped back from the limelight, turning over the presidency to González before returning to office in 1884. In the interim, Huerta's career prospered thanks to the patronage of González, he married Emilia Águila Moya, whom he met on 21 November 1880 in Mexico City. They had a total of 11 children; the names of his children surviving him in 1916 were Jorge, María Elisa, Luz, Dagoberto and Celia.
Huerta participated in the "pacification campaigns" in Tepic and Sinaloa, where he distinguished himself in combat. He was known for ensuring that his men always got paid resorting to finding the money in ruthless ways. Following a complaint from the Catholic Church that Huerta had plundered a church to sell off its gold and silver to pay his men, Huerta justified his actions on the grounds that "Mexico can do without her priests, but cannot do without her soldiers". On another occasion, following a complaint from a bank that he emptied out one of its branches at gunpoint to get money to pay his men, Huerta pointed out he left a receipt and would pay back the bank what he had stolen when he received the necessary funds from Mexico City. Huerta spent nine years of his military career undertaking topographic studies in the states of Puebla and Veracruz, he traveled extensively to all parts of Mexico in this position. French cultural influence was strong in 19th-century Mexico, Huerta's hero was Napoleon.
He supported Gen. Díaz as the closest approximation to his Napoleonic ideal, believing that Mexico needed a "strongman" to prosper. By 1890 Huerta had reached the rank of Colonel of Engineers, under the administration of Porfirio Díaz. From 1890-95 Huerta lived in Mexico City, becoming a regular visitor to the Chapultepec Castle, was seen as part of Díaz's "court". Through Huerta was well liked at the Chapultepec Castle, acquiring the persona of a trim, efficient officer, stern to his subordinates while displaying a courtly, polished manner towards his superiors, he began to suffer from severe insomnia and began drinking during this time. In January 1895 he commanded a battalion of infantry against a rebellion in Guerrero led by Gen. Canuto Neri; the rebellion was ended when Díaz brokered a deal with Neri, who surrendered in exchange for a promise to remove the unpopular state governor. Huerta confirmed his reputation for ruthlessness by refusing to take prisoners and continuing to attack the followers of Neri after Díaz had signed a ceasefire.
In December 1900 Huerta commanded a successful military campaign against Yaqui Indians in Sonora. During the near-genocidal campaign against the Yaqui, Huerta was more concerned with mapping out the terrain of Sonora, but at times he commanded forces in the field against the Yaqui. From 12 April-8 September 1901 Huerta put down a rebellion in Guerrero "pacifying" the state. In May 1901 he
Federal Ministerial Police
The Federal Ministerial Police is a Mexican federal agency tasked with fighting corruption and organized crime, through an executive order by President Vicente Fox Quesada. The agency is directed by the Attorney General's Office and may have been modeled on the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. PFM agents in action wear masks to prevent themselves from being identified by gang leaders. PFM agents are uniformed. "Street-level" uniformed federal police patrols and transport terminal security are handled by the Federal Police, directed by the National Commission of Security. It was formed in 2009 as a reform and renaming of the Federal Investigative Agency which had replaced an earlier agency, the Federal Judicial Police; some agents of the Federal Investigations Agency were believed to work as enforcers for the Sinaloa Cartel. The Attorney General's Office reported in December 2005 that 1,500 of 7,000 AFI agents — nearly 25% of the force — were under investigation for suspected criminal activity and 457 were facing charges.
In November 2008, Rodolfo de la Guardia García, the No. 2 official in the AFI from 2003–2005, was placed under arrest as investigators looked into the possibility that he leaked information to the Sinaloa Cartel in return for monthly payments. On 29 May 2009, the Federal Investigations Agency was renamed. Chief of the Federal Ministerial Police General Sheriff Investigator Chief Sheriff Investigator Coordinator Sheriff Investigator General Inspector Investigator Chief Inspector Investigator Officer Inspector Investigator "A" Class Investigator "B" Class Investigator "C" Class Investigator General Directorate of Ministerial and Judicial Mandates General Directorate of Special Security Services and Protection of Persons General Directorate of Police Investigation In Support of Mandates General Directorate of International Police Matters - Interpol General Directorate of Communications Center General Directorate of Technical Support and Logistic IMI Galil Heckler & Koch MP7 AR-15 M4 Carbine Afghan National Police Civil Police Federal Bureau of Investigation Federales Federal police Federal Security Service Guardia di Finanza Iraqi Police National Police People's Armed Police Royal Canadian Mounted Police Scotland Yard Serious Organised Crime Agency Pictures of AFI in action Attorney General's Office Attorney General's Office
Blue Streak (film)
Blue Streak is a 1999 American buddy cop comedy film directed by Les Mayfield and starring Martin Lawrence, Luke Wilson, Dave Chappelle, Peter Greene, Nicole Ari Parker and William Forsythe. It is a remake of the British film The Big Job; the film was shot on location in California. The prime shooting spot was Sony Pictures Studios, located in Culver City, California; the film was opened as the number one movie in North America. It went on to gross nearly US$120 million at the worldwide box office; the soundtrack was certified platinum. It features artists such as So Plush featuring Ja Rule, Keith Sweat, Tyrese featuring Heavy D, Foxy Brown, Kelly Price and others; the lead single from the soundtrack was "Girl's Best Friend" performed by Jay-Z. The single garnered much airplay on both radio. Jewel thief Miles Logan participates in a $17 million diamond heist in Los Angeles. One of his accomplices, turns on Miles and kills Eddie, Miles' best friend and another member of the team, before attempting to take the stone from Miles.
The police arrive and Miles is forced to hide the diamond in the ductwork of a building being constructed. Deacon flees and Miles is arrested, as Miles is being taken away he is horrified to discover that Eddie has been killed. Two years Miles is released from prison and attempts to reconnect with his girlfriend, she dumps him for lying to her about his criminal life, Miles decides to go retrieve the diamond. He is dismayed to find, he goes inside and discovers that the stone is hidden in what is now the Robbery/Homicide detective bureau, which requires a key card to access. Miles returns on disguised as an eccentric pizza deliveryman. While unable to gain access to the ducts, he does manage to steal an access card. Miles visits his forger Uncle Lou, who creates a fake badge and transfer papers that allow Miles to enter the building posing as a newly transferred Detective Malone. While trying to access the ducts, Miles inadvertently foils a prisoner escape and is teamed up with Detective Carlson.
The pair are sent out on a burglary call, where Miles solves it as a fraud perpetrated by the owner. On the ride back, they stumble upon an armed robbery being committed by Miles' good friend and former getaway driver Tulley. Miles intervenes and arrests Tulley before the police can shoot him, but Tulley demands $50,000 to keep quiet about who Miles is. Miles makes another attempt to locate the diamond but is interrupted by Carlson, who has discovered that Miles isn't who he claims to be. Miles convinces Carlson. Miles tries to get back to searching for the diamond but he and Carlson are sent out on another call. While out, they capture a truckload of heroin belonging to a major dealer. Miles locates the diamond in the vent inside the evidence locker and retrieves it, but accidentally drops it into the load of heroin they seized; the FBI demands the heroin be turned over to them for testing. A panicked Miles suggests his police unit use the heroin as bait in a sting, he is soon joined by Tulley and Deacon.
During the drug deal, Deacon tries to expose Miles as a cop to the drug runners. While Miles and Tulley attempt to distract the dealers, the police and FBI raid the deal. Deacon escapes with the diamond in an armored truck and the police and FBI follow as he approaches the border to Mexico; the police and FBI are forced to halt their pursuit at the border, but Miles steals a patrol car and continues after Deacon. Miles forces Deacon to wreck the truck and offers him a deal: Deacon gives Miles the diamond and allows Miles to arrest him and in exchange Miles takes him back to the United States and cuts him back in on the diamond. Deacon agrees, Miles double-crosses him by handcuffing him to the wrecked truck for the Federales to find. Deacon draws a gun to shoot Miles but Miles turns and shoots him first, killing him and avenging Eddie's death. Miles walks back the US side of the border; the police want to know who he's working for as his fake credentials didn't check out. Miles tells them he's an undercover Mexican officer, has to get back to Mexico to explain everything to his fellow Federales.
Miles gets a few inches over the border when Carlson and Hardcastle stop him and reveal that they know who Miles is. However, they don't look at him as a friend, they jokingly state the FBI are strict about integrating people over International borders although Miles is only a few inches over the border. The three men share a bittersweet goodbye. Martin Lawrence as Miles Logan/Detective Malone Luke Wilson as Detective Carlson Dave Chappelle as Tulley Peter Greene as Deacon Nicole Ari Parker as Melissa Green William Forsythe as Detective Hardcastle Graham Beckel as Lieutenant Rizzo Robert Miranda as Detective Glenfiddish Olek Krupa as Jean LaFleur Saverio Guerra as Benny Richard C. Sarafian as Uncle Lou Tamala Jones as Janiece Julio Oscar Mechoso as Detective Diaz Steve Rankin as FBI Agent Gray Carmen Argenziano as Captain Penelli John Hawkes as Eddie The film opened at #1 with a weekend gross of $19,208,806 from 2,735 theaters for a per venue average of $7,023, it ended its run with $68,518,533 in North America, $49,239,967 internationally for a total of $117,758,500 worldwide.
The film received mixed reviews. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 36% based on reviews from 69 critics. Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
The Mexican Army is the combined land and air branch and is the largest of the Mexican Armed Forces. It was the first army to use a self-loading rifle, the Mondragón rifle; the Mexican Army has an active duty force of 183,562 with 76,000 men and women of military service age. Mexico has no major foreign nation-state adversaries, it repudiates the use of force to settle disputes and rejects interference by one nation in the affairs of another. Although it has not suffered a major international terrorist incident in recent decades, the Mexican government considers the country a potential target for international terrorism. In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico; the most advanced and powerful kingdoms were those of Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan, which comprised populations of the same ethnic origin and were politically linked by an alliance known as the Triple Alliance. They had a center for higher education called the Calmecac in Nahuatl, this was where the children of the Aztec priesthood and nobility receive rigorous religious and military training and conveyed the highest knowledge such as: doctrines, divine songs, the science of interpreting codices, calendar skills, memorization of texts, etc.
In Aztec society, it was compulsory for all young males, nobles as well as commoners, to join part of the armed forces at the age of 15. Recruited by regional and clan groups the conscripts were organized in units of about 8,000 men; these were broken down into 400 strong sub-units. Aztec nobility led their own serfs on campaign. Itzcoatl "Obsidian Serpent", fourth king of Tenochtitlán, organized the army that defeated the Tepanec of Atzcapotzalco, freeing his people from their dominion, his reign began with the rise of. Moctezuma Ilhuicamina "The arrow to the sky" came to extend the domain and the influence of the monarchy of Tenochtitlán, he began to organize trade to the outside regions of the Valley of Mexico. This was the Mexica ruler who organized the alliance with the lordships of Texcoco and Tlacopan to form the Triple Alliance; the Aztec established the Flower Wars as a form of worship. Combat orders were given by kings using drums or blowing into a sea snail shell that gave off a sound like a horn.
Giving out signals using coats of arms was common. For combat outside of cities, they would organize several groups, only one of which would be involved in action, while the others remained on the alert; when attacking enemy cities, they divided their forces into three equal-sized wings, which assaulted different parts of the defences – this enabled the leaders to determine which division of warriors had distinguished themselves the most in combat. During the 18th century the Spanish colonial forces in the greater Mexico region consisted of regular "Peninsular" regiments sent from Spain itself, augmented by locally recruited provincial and urban militia units of infantry and artillery. A few regular infantry and dragoon regiments were recruited within Mexico and permanently stationed there. Mounted units of soldados de cuera patrolled frontier and desert regions. In the early morning of 16 September 1810, the Army of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla initiated the independence movement. Hidalgo was followed by his loyal companions, among them Mariano Abasolo, a small army equipped with swords, spears and sticks.
Captain General Ignacio Allende was the military brains of the insurgent army in the first phase of the War of Independence and secured several victories over the Spanish Royal Army. Their troops were about 5,000 strong and were joined by squadrons of the Queen's Regiment where its members in turn contributed infantry battalions and cavalry squadrons to the insurrection cause; the Spaniards saw that it was important to defend the Alhóndiga de Granaditas public granary in Guanajuato, which maintained the flow of water, weapons and ammunition to the Spanish Royal Army. The insurgents proceeded to lay siege to the Alhóndiga; the insurgents suffered heavy casualties until Juan Jose de los Reyes, the Pípila, fitted a slab of rock on his back to protect himself from enemy fire and crawled to the large wooden door of the Alhóndiga with a torch in hand to set it on fire. With this stunt, the insurgents managed to bring down the door and enter the building and overrun it. Hidalgo headed to Valladolid, captured with little opposition.
While the Insurgent Army was, by over 60,000 strong, it was formed of poorly armed men with arrows and tillage tools – it had a few guns, taken from Spanish stocks. In Aculco, the Royal Spanish forces under the command of Felix Maria Calleja, Count of Calderón, Don Manuel de Flon defeated the insurgents, who lost many men as well as the artillery they had obtained at Battle of Monte de las Cruces. On 29 November 1810, Hidalgo entered Guadalajara, the capital of Nueva Galicia, where he organized his government and the Insurgent Army. At Calderon Bridge near the city of Guadalajara Jalisco, insurgents held a hard-fought battle with the roya
Francisco I. Madero
Francisco Ignacio Madero González was a Mexican revolutionary and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. He was an advocate for social democracy. Madero was notable for challenging Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution. Born into an wealthy landowning family in northern Mexico, Madero was an unusual politician, who until he ran for president in the 1910 elections, had never held office. In his 1908 book entitled The Presidential Succession in 1910, Madero called on voters to prevent the sixth reelection of Porfirio Díaz, which Madero considered anti-democratic, his vision would lay the foundation for a democratic, 20th-century Mexico, but without polarizing the social classes. To that effect, he bankrolled the Anti-Reelectionist Party and urged Mexicans to rise up against Díaz, which ignited the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Madero's candidacy against Díaz garnered widespread support in Mexico, since he was possessed of independent financial means, ideological determination, the bravery to oppose Díaz when it was dangerous to do so.
Arrested by the dictatorship shortly after being declared presidential candidate by his party, the opposition leader escaped from prison and launched the Plan of San Luis Potosí from the United States, in this manner beginning the Mexican Revolution. Following the resignation of Díaz from the presidency on 25 May 1911 after the signing of the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Madero became the highest political leader of the country. Known as "Maderistas", Madero's followers referred to him as the "caudillo de la Revolución", he was elected president on 15 October 1911 by 90% of the vote. Sworn into office on 6 November 1911, he became one of Mexico's youngest elected presidents, having just turned 38. Despite his considerable popularity amongst the people, Madero's administration soon encountered opposition both from more radical revolutionaries and from remnants of the former regime. In February 1913, a military coup took place in the Mexican capital led by General Victoriano Huerta, the military commander of the city, supported by the United States ambassador.
Madero was arrested and a short time assassinated along with his Vice-President, José María Pino Suárez, on 22 February 1913, following the series of events known as the Ten Tragic Days. The death of Madero and Pino Suárez led to a national and international outcry which paved the way for the fall of the Huerta Dictatorship, the triumph of the Mexican Revolution and the establishment of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico under Maderista President Venustiano Carranza. Madero was born in the hacienda of El Rosario, in Parras de la Fuente, the first son of Francisco Ignacio Madero Hernández and Mercedes González Treviño, the first grandson of family patriarch, Evaristo Madero, governor of Coahuila, he was sickly as a child, was small in stature as an adult. It is believed that Madero's middle initial, I, stood for Indalecio, but according to his birth certificate it stood for Ygnacio, his family has been described as one of the five wealthiest families in Mexico. His grandfather, Evaristo Madero, started as a founder of a regional carting business, but he took advantage of economic opportunity and transported cotton from Texas during the U.
S. Civil War. Having built a diversified fortune, but before his real success, he first married Rafaela Hernández Lombraña, half-sister of the powerful miner and banker Antonio V. Hernández. Alongside his brother in law, other of his new political family's relations, he founded the Compañía Industrial de Parras involved in vineyards and textiles, also in mining, cotton mills, banking, guayule rubber, foundries in the part of the nineteenth century. For many years, the family prospered during Porfirio Díaz's regime, by 1910 the family was one of richest in Mexico, worth 30 million pesos. After widowing from his first wife, having built his success, he remarried to doña Manuela de Farías Benavides, member of one of northern Mexico's most aristocratic families, daughter of don Juan Francisco de Farías, mayor of Laredo. Evaristo Madero served as governor of Coahuila from 1880 to 1884, during the four-year interregnum of Porfirio Díaz's rule, but was permanently sidelined from political office when Díaz returned to the presidency in 1884 and served until 1911.
From both his wives, Evaristo Madero produced a total of 18 children, 14 of which would survive until adulthood, whose descendants make up some of Mexico's most influential families until this day. Thus, young Francisco was a member of a huge and powerful northern Mexican family with long-standing issues with the Díaz regime. Francisco and his brother Gustavo A. Madero attended the Jesuit college in Saltillo, but his early Catholic education had little lasting impact. Instead, his father's subscription to the magazine Revue Spirite awakened in the young Madero an interest in Spiritism, an offshoot of Spiritualism; as a young man, Madero's father sent him to the École des Hautes Études Commerciales de Paris. During his time in Paris, Madero made a pilgrimage to the tomb of Allan Kardec, the founder of Spiritism, became a passionate advocate of the belief, soon coming to believe he was a medium, he attended high school at Culver Academies. Following business school, Madero traveled to the University of California, Berkeley to stud