Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte was a French philosopher and writer who formulated the doctrine of positivism. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences. Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, George Eliot, his concept of sociologie and social evolutionism set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as practical and objective social research. Comte's social theories culminated in his "Religion of Humanity", which presaged the development of non-theistic religious humanist and secular humanist organizations in the 19th century.
Comte may have coined the word altruisme. Auguste Comte was born in Montpellier, Hérault on 19 January 1798. After attending the Lycée Joffre and the University of Montpellier, Comte was admitted to the École Polytechnique in Paris; the École Polytechnique was notable for its adherence to the French ideals of republicanism and progress. The École closed in 1816 for reorganization and Comte continued his studies at the medical school at Montpellier; when the École Polytechnique reopened, he did not request readmission. Following his return to Montpellier, Comte soon came to see unbridgeable differences with his Catholic and monarchist family and set off again for Paris, earning money by small jobs. In August 1817 he found an apartment at 36 rue Bonaparte in Paris' 6ème and that year he became a student and secretary to Henri de Saint-Simon, who brought Comte into contact with intellectual society and influenced his thought therefrom. During that time Comte published his first essays in the various publications headed by Saint-Simon, L'Industrie, Le Politique, L'Organisateur, although he would not publish under his own name until 1819's "La séparation générale entre les opinions et les désirs".
In 1824, Comte left Saint-Simon. Comte published a Plan de travaux scientifiques nécessaires pour réorganiser la société, but he failed to get an academic post. His day-to-day life depended on financial help from friends. Debates rage as to. Comte married Caroline Massin in 1825. In 1826, he was taken to a mental health hospital, but left without being cured – only stabilized by French alienist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol – so that he could work again on his plan. In the time between this and their divorce in 1842, he published the six volumes of his Cours. Comte developed a close friendship with John Stuart Mill. From 1844, he fell in love with the Catholic Clotilde de Vaux, although because she was not divorced from her first husband, their love was never consummated. After her death in 1846 this love became quasi-religious, Comte, working with Mill developed a new "Religion of Humanity". John Kells Ingram, an adherent of Comte, visited him in Paris in 1855, he published four volumes of Système de politique positive.
His final work, the first volume of La Synthèse Subjective, was published in 1856. Comte died in Paris on 5 September 1857 from stomach cancer and was buried in the famous Père Lachaise Cemetery, surrounded by cenotaphs in memory of his mother, Rosalie Boyer, of Clotilde de Vaux, his apartment from 1841–1857 is now conserved as the Maison d'Auguste Comte and is located at 10 rue Monsieur-le-Prince, in Paris' 6th arrondissement. Comte first described the epistemological perspective of positivism in The Course in Positive Philosophy, a series of texts published between 1830 and 1842; these texts were followed by A General View of Positivism. The first three volumes of the Course dealt chiefly with the physical sciences in existence, whereas the latter two emphasised the inevitable coming of social science. Observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, classifying the sciences in this way, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term.
Comte was the first to distinguish natural philosophy from science explicitly. For him, the physical sciences had to arrive first, before humanity could adequately channel its efforts into the most challenging and complex "Queen science" of human society itself, his work View of Positivism would therefore set out to define, in more detail, the empirical goals of sociological method. Comte offered an account of social evolution, proposing that society undergoes three phases in its quest for the truth according to a general'law of three stages'. Comte's stages were the theological stage, the metaphysical stage, the positive stage; the Theological stage was seen from the perspective of 19th century France as preceding the Age of Enlightenment, in which man's place in society and society's restrictions upon man were referenced to God. Man blindly believed, he believed in
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Deodoro da Fonseca
Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca was a Brazilian politician and military officer who served as the first President of Brazil. He took office after heading a military coup that deposed Emperor Pedro II and proclaimed the Republic in 1889, disestablishing the Empire, stepped down little more than two years in 1891, under great political pressure, he is therefore the first Brazilian President to have resigned from office. Fonseca was born the third child of a large military family in Vila Madalena, Alagoas, a town that today bears his name as Marechal Deodoro, in Northeast Brazil, he was the son of Manuel Mendes da Fonseca Galvão and his wife Rosa Maria Paulina de Barros Cavalcanti. In the period of the Brazilian Empire, his older brother Severino Martins da Fonseca was nominated the first Baron of Alagoas. Another notable relative was his remote uncle. Fonseca pursued a military career, notable for his suppression of the Praieira revolt in Pernambuco in 1848, Brazil's response to the European year of failed liberal revolutions.
He saw action during the Paraguayan War, attaining the rank of captain. In 1884 he was promoted to the rank of field-marshal, he achieved the rank of full marshal, his personal courage, military competence and manly personal style made him a national figure. As Governor of Rio Grande do Sul, Fonseca was courted by republican intellectuals such as Benjamin Constant and Rui Barbosa in the café society of São Paulo. In 1886, alerted that the imperial government was ordering the arrest of prominent republicans, Fonseca went to Rio de Janeiro and assumed leadership of the army faction, favorable to the abolition of slavery. Emperor Pedro II had advocated the abolition of slavery for decades, freeing his own slaves in 1840, but he believed slavery should be done away with so as not to damage the Brazilian economy; the government nominally headed by His daughter, Princess Imperial of Brazil, abolished slavery in 1888, during her third regency. Enraged oligarchs played a role in the subsequent coup d'état.
Fonseca's prestige placed him at the head of the military coup that deposed the emperor on 15 November 1889, he was the head of the provisional government that called a Constituent Congress to draft a new constitution for a United States of Brazil. Soon, however, he was in conflict with the civilian republican leaders, his election as president on 25 February 1891, by a narrow plurality, was backed with military pressure on Congress. The Fonseca administration, divided by political and personal animosity between the president and Vice President Floriano Peixoto, encountered strong opposition within the Congress, which chose a policy of obstruction. During the first months of his presidency, he permitted his ministers unrestricted control of their ministries. Arbitrary presidential decrees and the disastrous conduct of economic policy during the bubble of the Encilhamento strengthened the resistance in Congress, which coalesced round Vice-President Peixoto, soured public opinion; this caused republicans of the South to withdraw their support from the marshal and provisional government.
The situation reached a crisis stage when Fonseca dissolved the National Congress and declared a "state of emergency" on 3 November 1891. A group of deputies opposed this decision and found support among the high-ranking officers of the Navy, including Admiral Custódio José de Melo; the marshal found himself on the brink of a civil war. On 23 November 1891 he turned over the presidency to Floriano Peixoto. Deodoro da Fonseca died in Rio de Janeiro on 23 August 1892. Deodoro da Fonseca in art List of presidents of Brazil Media related to Deodoro da Fonseca at Wikimedia Commons Charles Willis Simmons, Marshal Deodoro and the fall of Dom Pedro II, 1966
Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil
Dona Isabel, nicknamed "the Redemptress", was the heiress presumptive to the throne of the Empire of Brazil, bearing the title of Princess Imperial. She served as the Empire's regent on three occasions. Isabel was born in Rio de Janeiro, the eldest daughter of Emperor Pedro II and Empress Teresa Cristina, thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza. After the deaths of her two brothers in infancy, she was recognized as her father's heiress presumptive, she married a French prince, Count of Eu, in an arranged marriage, they had three sons. During her father's absences abroad, Isabel acted as regent. In her third and final regency, she promoted and signed a law, named Lei Áurea or the Golden Law, emancipating all slaves in Brazil. Though the action was broadly popular, there was strong opposition to her succession to the throne, her gender, strong Catholic faith and marriage to a foreigner were seen as impediments against her, the emancipation of the slaves generated dislike among powerful planters.
In 1889, her family was deposed in a military coup, she spent the last 30 years of her life in exile in France. Isabel was born at 6:30 p.m. on 29 July 1846 in Rio de Janeiro's Paço de São Cristóvão. She was his wife Teresa Cristina. On 15 November the infant princess was baptized in an elaborate ceremony in Igreja da Glória, her godparents, both represented by proxy, were her uncle, King Ferdinand II of Portugal, her maternal grandmother María Isabella of Spain. She was christened Isabel Cristina Leopoldina Augusta Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga, her last four names were always bestowed upon the members of her family, Isabel and Cristina honored Isabel's maternal grandmother and mother, respectively. She was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza through her father, from birth was referred to using the honorific Dona, she was the granddaughter of Brazil's Emperor Pedro I, the niece of Queen Maria II of Portugal. Through her mother, she was a granddaughter of Francis I and niece to Ferdinand II, both kings of the Two Sicilies in turn.
At the time of her birth, she had an elder brother named Afonso, heir apparent to the Brazilian throne. Two other siblings followed: Leopoldina in 1847 and Pedro in 1848. Afonso's death in 1847, at the age of 2 1⁄2, propelled Isabel to the position of Pedro II's heir presumptive, she lost the position with the birth of Prince Imperial Pedro. After his death in 1850, Isabel became the definitive heir as Princess Imperial, the title given to the first in the line of succession. Isabel's early years were a time of prosperity in Brazil, her parents provided a healthy upbringing. She and her sister "grew up in a stable, secure environment different from the one her father and aunts had known, light years away from the childhood chaos of Pedro I." The early death of both of his sons had an enormous impact on Pedro II. Aside from his personal grief, the loss of his sons affected his future conduct as monarch and would determine the fate of the Empire. In the Emperor's eyes, the deaths of his children seemed to portend an eventual end of the Imperial system.
The future of the monarchy as an institution no longer concerned him, as he saw his position as being nothing more than that of Head of State for his lifetime. The Emperor's words revealed his inner conviction. After learning of the death of his son Pedro in 1850, he wrote: "This has been the most fatal blow that I could receive, I would not have survived were it not that I still have a wife and two children whom I must educate so that they can assure the happiness of the country in which they were born." Seven years in 1857, when it was more than clear that no more children would be born, the Emperor wrote: "As to their education, I will only say that the character of both the princesses ought to be shaped as suits Ladies who, it may be, will have to direct the constitutional government of an Empire such as Brazil". Although the Emperor still had a legal successor in his beloved daughter Isabel, the male-dominated society of the time left him little hope that a woman could rule Brazil, he was fond and respectful of the women in his life, but he did not consider it feasible that Isabel could survive as monarch, given the political realities and climate.
To historian Roderick J. Barman, the Emperor "could not conceive of women, his daughters included, playing any part in governance. In consequence, although he valued D. Isabel as his daughter, he could not accept or perceive her in cold reality as his successor or regard her as a viable ruler." The main reason for this behavior was his attitude toward the female gender. "Pedro II believed, as did most men of his day", says Barman, "that a single woman could not manage life's problem on her own if she possessed the powers and authority of an empress." Isabel began her education on 1 May 1854, when she was taught how to read and write by a male instructor, republican. As the Portuguese court tradition demanded, the heir of the throne was supposed to have an aio in charge of his education once he achieved the age of seven. After a long search, Pedro II chose the Brazilian-born Luísa Margarida Portugal de Barros, the Countess of Barral, daughter of a Brazilian noble and wife of a French noble. Barral assumed her position on 9 September 1856.
The 40-year-old Countess was a charming and vivacious woman who soon captured
Imperial Brazilian Navy
The Imperial Brazilian Navy was the navy created at the time of the independence of the Empire of Brazil from the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. It existed between 1889 during the vigency of the constitutional monarchy; the Navy was formed entirely by ships, staff and doctrines proceeding from the transference of the Portuguese Royal Family in 1808. Some of its members were native-born Brazilians. Other members were Portuguese who adhered to the cause of separation and German and Irish mercenaries; some establishments created by King João VI were incorporated. Under the reign of Emperor Pedro II the Navy was expanded to become the fifth most powerful navy in the world and the armed force more popular and loyal to the Brazilian monarchy; the republican coup d'état in 1889, led by army men, put an end to the Imperial Navy that fell into decay until the new century. The Imperial Navy came into being with the independence of the country in 1822 to fight and to expel the Portuguese troops dispersed by the territory.
The transfer of the Portuguese monarchy to Brazil in 1808 during the Napoleonic wars resulted in the transfer of a large part of the structure and ships of the Portuguese Navy. These became the core of the created Imperial Navy. A number of establishments created by King John were incorporated into the navy such as the Department of Navy, Headquarters of the Navy, the Intendancy and Accounting Department, the Arsenal of the Navy, the Academy of Navy Guards, the Naval Hospital, the Auditorship, the Supreme Military Council, the powder plant, others. Due to the necessity of the war, its initial contingent was formed by Brazilians, Portuguese who joined the independence and by foreign mercenaries; the Brazilian-born Captain Luís da Cunha Moreira was chosen as the first minister of the Navy on 28 October 1822. Under Articles 102 and 148 of the Constitution, the Brazilian Armed Forces were subordinate to the Emperor as Commander-in-Chief, he was aided by the Ministers of War and Navy in matters concerning the Army and the Navy—although the Prime Minister exercised oversight of both branches in practice.
The ministers of War and Navy were, with few exceptions, civilians. The model chosen was the British parliamentary or Anglo-American system, in which "the country's Armed Forces observed unrestricted obedience to the civilian government while maintaining distance from political decisions and decisions referring to borders' security". Brazil's first line of defense relied upon a large and powerful navy to protect against foreign attack; the military was organized along similar lines to the American armed forces of the time. As a matter of policy, the military was to be obedient to civilian governmental control and to remain at arm's length from involvement in political decisions. Military personnel were allowed to run for and serve in political office while remaining on active duty; however they did not represent the Army or the Navy, but were instead expected to serve the interests of the city or province which had elected them. Britisher Lord Thomas Alexander Cochrane was nominated the commander of the Imperial Navy and received the rank of "First Admiral".
At that time, the fleet was composed of one ship of the line, four frigates, smaller ships for a total of 38 warships. The Secretary of Treasury Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada created a national subscription to generate capital in order to increase the size of the fleet. Contributions were sent from all over Brazil; the Emperor Pedro I acquired a merchant brig at his own expense and donated it to the State. The navy fought in the north and south of Brazil where it had a decisive role in the independence of the country; the navy fought in the north and south of Brazil where it had a decisive role in the independence of the country. After the suppression of the revolt in Pernambuco in 1824 and prior to the Cisplatine War, the navy increased in size and strength. Starting with 38 ships in 1822 the navy had 96 modern warships of various types with over 690 cannons; the Navy blocked the estuary of the Rio de la Plata hindering the contact of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata with the Cisplatine rebels and the outside world.
Several battles had occurred between Brazilian and Argentine ships until the defeat of an Argentine flotilla composed of two corvettes, five brigs and one barquentine near the Island of Santiago in 1827. When Pedro I abdicated in 1831, he left a powerful navy made up of two ships of the line and ten frigates in addition to corvettes and other ships for a total of at least 80 warships in peacetime; the action of the navy was essential during the war of independence to avoid the arrival of new Portuguese troops in Brazilian territory. Both parties saw the Portuguese warships spread across the country as the instrument through which military victory could be achieved. In early 1822, the Portuguese navy controlled a ship of the line, two frigates, four corvettes, two brigs, four warships of other categories in Brazilian waters. Warships available for the new Brazilian navy were numerous, but in disrepair; the hulls of several ships that were brought by the Royal Family and the Court to be abandoned in Brazil were rotten and therefore of little value.
The Brazilian agent in London, Marquis of Batley received orders to acquire warships equipped and manned on credit. No vendor, was willing to take the risks. There w
Slavery in Brazil
Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another. Colonists were dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, natives were captured by expeditions called bandeiras; the importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. During the Atlantic slave trade era, Brazil received more African slaves than any other country. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa were brought to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866. Until the early 1850s, most enslaved Africans who arrived on Brazilian shores were forced to embark at West Central African ports in Luanda. Slave labor was the driving force behind the growth of the sugar economy in Brazil, sugar was the primary export of the colony from 1600 to 1650. Gold and diamond deposits were discovered in Brazil in 1690, which sparked an increase in the importation of African slaves to power this newly profitable mining.
Transportation systems were developed for the mining infrastructure, population boomed from immigrants seeking to take part in gold and diamond mining. Demand for African slaves did not wane after the decline of the mining industry in the second half of the 18th century. Cattle ranching and foodstuff production proliferated after the population growth, both of which relied on slave labor. 1.7 million slaves were imported to Brazil from Africa from 1700 to 1800, the rise of coffee in the 1830s further enticed expansion of the slave trade. Brazil was the last country in the Western world to abolish slavery. By the time it was abolished after years of campaigning by Emperor Pedro II, in 1888, an estimated four million slaves had been imported from Africa to Brazil, 40% of the total number of slaves brought to the Americas; the Portuguese became involved with the African slave trade first during the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula through the mediation of the Alfaqueque: the person tasked with the rescue of Portuguese captives and prisoners of war.
Slaves exported from Africa during this initial period of the Portuguese slave trade came from Mauritania, the Upper Guinea coast. Scholars estimate that as many as 156,000 slaves were exported from 1441 to 1521 to Iberia and the Atlantic islands from the African coast; the trade made the shift from Europe to the Americas as a primary destination for slaves around 1518. Prior to this time, slaves were required to pass through Portugal to be taxed before making their way to the Americas; the Portuguese first traveled to Brazil in 1500 under the expedition of Pedro Álvares Cabral, though the first Portuguese settlement was not established until 1532. Long before Europeans came to Brazil and began colonization, indigenous groups such as the Papanases, the Guaianases, the Tupinambás, the Cadiueus enslaved captured members of other tribes; the captured worked with their new communities as trophies to the tribe's martial prowess. Some enslaved would escape but could never re-attain their previous status in their own tribe because of the strong social stigma against slavery and rival tribes.
During their time in the new tribe, enslaved indigenes would marry as a sign of acceptance and servitude. For the enslaved of cannibalistic tribes, execution for devouring purposes could happen at any moment. While other tribes did not consume human flesh, their enslaved were still put to work, used as hostages, killed mercilessly. After the arrival of the Portuguese in Brazil, the Native Americans started to trade their prisoners, instead of using them as slaves or food, in exchange for goods, but the enslavement of Europeans could occur, as happened with Hans Staden who, after being set free, wrote a book about the customs of the Native Americans. The colonization effort proved to be a difficult undertaking on such a vast continent, indigenous slave labor was turned to for agricultural workforce needs. Aggressive mission networks of the Portuguese Jesuits were the driving force behind this recruitment, they mobilized an indigenous labor force to live in colonial villages to work the land; these indigenous enslaving expeditions were known as bandeiras.
These expeditions were composed of bandeirantes, adventurers who penetrated westward in their search for Indian slaves. These adventurers came from a wide spectrum of backgrounds, including plantation owners and members of the military, as well as people of mixed ancestry and captured Indian slaves. In 1629, Antônio Raposo Tavares led a bandeira, composed of 2,000 allied índios, "Indians", 900 mamelucos, "mestizos" and 69 whites, to find precious metals and stones and to capture Indians for slavery; this expedition alone was responsible for the enslavement of over 60,000 indigenous people. African slavery became more common in Brazil during the mid 16th century, though the enslavement of indigenous people continued into the 17th and the 18th century in the backlands of Brazil. In the first 250 years after the colonization of the land 70% of all immigrants to the colony were enslaved people. Indigenous slaves remained much cheaper during this time than their African counterparts, though they did suffer horrendous death rates from European diseases.
Although the average African slave lived to only be twenty-three years old due to terrible work conditions, this was still about four years longer than Indigenous slaves, which w
South Region, Brazil
The South Region of Brazil is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 square kilometres, being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 6.76% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller in Southeast Brazil, for example, it is a great tourist and cultural pole. It borders Uruguay and Paraguay as well as the Centre-West Region, the Southeast Region and the Atlantic Ocean; the region is considered the safest in Brazil to visit, having a lower crime rate than other regions in the country. Despite the high standard of living and safety the unemployment rate in the region is medium to high. By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer Indian tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting and gathering. European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Spanish Jesuits, they converted them to Catholicism.
Colonists from São Paulo arrived in the same period. For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region. Due to this conflict, the King of Portugal encouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived, they composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century. The first Germans came to Brazil soon after independence from Portugal in 1822. Settlers from Germany were brought to work as small farmers because there were many land holdings without workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised them large tracts where they could settle with their families and colonize the region; the first immigrants arrived in 1824, settling in the city of Sao Leopoldo, over the next four decades, another 27,256 Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as smallholders in the country. By 1904, it is estimated. In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government but by private groups that promoted the immigration of Europeans to the Americas, such as the Hamburg Colonization Society.
These groups created rural communities or colonies for immigrants, many of which developed into large cities, such as Blumenau and Joinville, the largest city in Santa Catarina. Considerable numbers of immigrants from Germany arrived at Paraná during the civil war, most of them coming from Santa Catarina or Volga Germans from Russia; the Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845; this conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the charque, suffered the hard competition of charque from Uruguay and Argentina, which had free access to the Brazilian market while the gaúchos had to pay high taxes inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul.
After many conflicts, in 1845 peace negotiations ended the war. Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875, they were peasants from the Veneto in Northern Italy attracted to Southern Brazil to get their own lands and populate the South. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100,000 Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná. In 1898, there were 300,000 people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul, 50,000 in Santa Catarina and 30,000 in Paraná. Nowadays, their Southern Brazilian descendants number 9.7 million and comprise 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population. The region received large numbers of European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture; the main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are Portuguese, German, Luxembourger, Ukrainian, Spaniard and Russian.
Smaller numbers that follow are French, Swedish, Black, Croat, Lebanese and Latvian, Japanese and Estonian, Slovene, Ashkenazi Jew, British, Slovak and Hungarian Southern Brazil has subtropical or temperate climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12°C and 22°C, it snows in the mountain ranges. The region is urbanized and many cities are famous for their urban planning, like Curitiba and Maringá, both in Paraná State, it has a high standard of living, with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil, 0.859, the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region has a 98.3% literacy rate. Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are spoken; the predominant dialects are Venetian. In Rio Grande do Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are some Japanese speakers. In the region around Ponta Grossa there are some Dutch speakers.
There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well. Rio Grande do Sul has a gre