North Sumatra is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the northwest of the island of Sumatra, its capital is Medan. North Sumatra is the fourth most populous province in Indonesia after West Java, East Java and Central Java and the most populous Indonesian province outside Java, with over 13.5 million inhabitants in 2014. The last seafarers that made it to Sumatra were the Dutch. A government of North Sumatra named Gouvernement van Sumatera with the area covering the whole of the island of Sumatra, headed by a governor, based in the city of Medan. After independence, the first session of the National Committee of Regions, Sumatra was divided into three sub-provinces namely North Sumatra, Central Sumatra and South Sumatra. North Sumatra province itself is an amalgamation of three administrative regions called residency namely: Residency of Aceh, East Sumatra Residency, residency of Tapanuli. With the publication of the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 10 Year 1948 on April 15, 1948, it was determined that Sumatra is divided into three provinces, each of which has the right to organize and manage their own household, namely: North Sumatra, Central Sumatra Province, South Sumatra Province.
Date 15 April 1948 subsequently determined as the anniversary of North Sumatra Province. In early 1949, the reorganization of government back in Sumatra. With the decision of the Government Emergency R. I. No. 22 / Govt / Emergency Government on May 17, 1949, abolished the post of Governor of North Sumatra. Furthermore, the Government Emergency Decree R. I. on December 17, 1949, established the province of Tapanuli Province / East Sumatra. With a Government Regulation in lieu of Law No. 5 Year 1950 on August 14, 1950, such provisions shall be lifted and reshaped North Sumatra Province. Act R. I. No. 24 of 1956, promulgated on December 7, 1956, established an autonomous region of Aceh province, independent of the province of North Sumatra. The province of North Sumatra stretches across the island of Sumatra between the Indian Ocean and the Strait Malacca, it borders Aceh province on the Riau and West Sumatra provinces in the southeast. It has an area of 72,981 km²; the province contains a broad, low plain along the Strait of Malacca on which the provincial capital, Medan, is located.
In the south and west, the land rises to the mountain range. Several large islands in the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Sumatra are part of North Sumatra, most notably Nias Island and the Batu Islands. There are 419 islands in North Sumatra province; the outer islands is the island Simuk, the island Berhala in the Strait of Sumatra. Nias archipelago consists of the island as the main island and other smaller islands in the vicinity. Nias Islands located off the coast of western Indian Ocean. Administration center located in Gunung Sitoli. Batu Islands consist of 51 islands with four major islands: Sibuasi, Tanahbala, Tanahmasa. Pulautelo administrative center on the island Sibuasi. Batu Islands located in the southeast of the island of Nias. Other islands in the North Sumatra: Imanna, Bawa, Batumakalele, Masa, Simaleh, Makole and Sigata, Wunga. In North Sumatra, there are two national parks, the Gunung Leuser National Park and Batang Gadis National Park. According to the Ministerial Decree, No. 44 of 2005, the forest area in North Sumatra today 3.74212 million hectares.
Which consists of a Natural Reserve Area / Natural Conservation Area covering an area of 477 070 ha, 1.29733 million ha of protected forest, limited production forest 879 270 ha, Permanent production forest 1,035,690 ha and production forest that can be converted covering 52 760 ha. But this figure character is de jure alone; because as a de facto, the existing forests is not covering it anymore. Happens a lot of damage due to encroachment and illegal logging. So far, over 206,000 ha of forest in Sumatra has experienced changes in function. Has been turned into transmigration, and of the total, as many as 163,000 ha of plantations and 42,900 ha for transmigration area. The administrative center of North Sumatra is located in the city Medan, governed by a governor. Earlier, North Sumatra, including Sumatra province in Indonesia shortly became independent in 1945. In 1950, North Sumatra Province was formed that includes former residency of East Sumatra and Aceh. In 1956, Aceh split off into Aceh. North Sumatra is subdivided into 25 regencies and 8 autonomous cities, listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest estimates.
With proposals under consideration to create three additional provinces from parts of the present North Sumatra, these are grouped below according to the putative new province in which they are situated: # South Nias Regency includes the Batu Islands. * the area of Tanjungbalai city is included in the figure for Asahan Regency, from which it was carved out in 2007. # the areas of North Labuhan Batu Regency and South Labuhan Batu Regency are included in the figure for Labuhan Batu Regency, from which they were carved out in 2007. North Sumatra is sub-divided into 8 cities. North Sumatra recorded a population of 12,985,075 in the 2010 national census, making the 4th most populous province in Indonesia, with a sex ratio of 99.59 men per 100 women. The latest estimate is 13,527,937. North Sumatra is a multi-ethnic province; the Malay peoples are regarded as the native peopl
New Order (Indonesia)
The New Order is the term coined by the second Indonesian President Suharto to characterise his regime as he came to power in 1966. Suharto used this term to contrast his rule with that of Sukarno; the term "New Order" in more recent times has become synonymous with the Suharto years. Following the attempted coup in 1965, the political situation was uncertain, but the Suharto's New Order found much popular support from groups wanting a separation from Indonesia's problems since its independence. The'generation of 66' epitomised talk of a new group of young leaders and new intellectual thought. Following Indonesia's communal and political conflicts, its economic collapse and social breakdown of the late 1950s through to the mid-1960s, the "New Order" was committed to achieving and maintaining political order, economic development, the removal of mass participation in the political process; the features of the "New Order" established from the late 1960s were thus a strong political role for the military, the bureaucratisation and corporatisation of political and societal organisations, selective but effective repression of opponents.
Strident anti-communism remained a hallmark of the regime for its subsequent 32 years. Within a few years, many of its original allies had become indifferent or averse to the New Order, which comprised a military faction supported by a narrow civilian group. Among much of the pro-democracy movement which forced Suharto to resign in the 1998 Indonesian Revolution and gained power, the term "New Order" has come to be used pejoratively, it is employed to describe figures who were either tied to the Suharto period, or who upheld the practises of his authoritarian regime, such as corruption and nepotism. Sukarno was Indonesia's founding president, a position he had held since the Republic's formation in 1945. In 1955, the first general parliamentary elections delivered an unstable parliament and from the late 1950s, Sukarno's rule became autocratic under his "Guided Democracy". Described as the great ‘’Dalang’’, or puppet master, Sukarno’s position depended on his concept of NASAKOM whereby he sought to balance the competing Indonesian Military, Islamic groups, the powerful Indonesian Communist Party.
To the resentment of the Military and Muslim groups, this arrangement became reliant on the PKI which had become the country’s strongest political party. Sukarno’s anti-imperial ideology saw Indonesia dependent on the Soviet Union and China, met with indignation from Western countries; the cash-strapped government had to scrap public sector subsidies, annual inflation rose to as high as 1,000%, export revenues were shrinking, infrastructure crumbling, factories were operating at minimal capacity with negligible investment. Sukarno’s administration became ineffective in providing a viable economic system to lift its citizens out of poverty and hunger. Meanwhile, Sukarno led Indonesia into Konfrontasi, a military confrontation with Malaysia, removed Indonesia from the United Nations, stepped up revolutionary and anti-Western rhetoric. By 1965 at the height of the Cold War, the PKI penetrated all levels of government. With the support of Sukarno and the Air Force, the party gained increasing influence at the expense of the Army, thus ensuring the Army's enmity.
Muslim clerics, many of whom were landowners, felt threatened by the PKI's rural land confiscation actions. The army was alarmed at Sukarno’s support for the PKI’s wish to establish a "fifth force" of armed peasants and labourers. Adding to this desperate and fractious nature of Indonesia in the 1960s, a split within the military was fostered by Western countries backing a right-wing faction against a left-wing faction backed by the PKI. On 30 September 1965, six generals were killed by a group calling themselves the 30 September Movement who alleged a right-wing plot to kill the President. General Suharto led the army in suppressing the abortive coup attempt; the Communist Party of Indonesia were blamed and the army led an anti-communist purge which killed an estimated 500,000 to a million people. Public opinion shifted against Sukarno in part due to his apparent knowledge of, sympathy for, the events of 30 September, for his tolerance of leftist and communist elements whom the army blamed for the coup attempt.
Student groups, such as KAMI, were encouraged by, sided with, the Army against Sukarno. In March 1966, Suharto secured a presidential decree, which gave him authority to take any action necessary to maintain security. Using the decree, the PKI was banned in March 1966 and the parliament and military were purged of pro-Sukarno elements many of whom were accused of being communist sympathisers, who were replaced with Suharto supporters. A June session of the now-purged parliament banned Marxism-Leninism, ratified the Supersemar, stripped Sukarno of his title of president for life. In August–September 1966, against the wishes of Sukarno, the New Order ended Indonesia's confrontation with Malaysia and rejoined the United Nations. Parliament re-convened in March 1967 to impeach the President for his apparent toleration of 30 September Movement and violation of the constitution by promoting PKI's international communist agenda, negligence of the economy, promotion of national "moral degradation" via his womanising behaviour.
In March 1967, the MPRS stripped Sukarno of his remaining power, Suharto was named Acting President. Sukarno was placed under house arrest in Bo
Suharto was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years, from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998. He was regarded by foreign commentators as a dictator. However, his legacy is still debated at home and abroad. Suharto was born in a small village, Kemusuk, in the Godean area near the city of Yogyakarta, during the Dutch colonial era, he grew up in humble circumstances. His Javanese Muslim parents divorced not long after his birth, he lived with foster parents for much of his childhood. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Suharto served in Japanese-organised Indonesian security forces. Indonesia's independence struggle saw his joining the newly formed Indonesian Army. Suharto rose to the rank of major general following Indonesian independence. An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 backed by the Communist Party of Indonesia was countered by Suharto-led troops; the army subsequently led an anti-communist purge, which the U.
S. Central Intelligence Agency described as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century" and Suharto wrested power from Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, he was appointed acting president in 1967, elected President the following year. He mounted a social campaign known as De-Sukarnoization to reduce the former President's influence. Support for Suharto's presidency was strong throughout the 1980s. By the 1990s, the New Order's authoritarianism and widespread corruption were a source of discontent and, following the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98 which led to widespread unrest, he resigned in May 1998. Suharto was given a state funeral; the legacy of Suharto's 31-year rule is debated both in Indonesia and abroad. Under his "New Order" administration, Suharto constructed a strong and military-dominated government. An ability to maintain stability over a sprawling and diverse Indonesia and an avowedly anti-Communist stance won him the economic and diplomatic support of the West during the Cold War.
For most of his presidency, Indonesia experienced significant economic growth and industrialisation improving health and living standards. Plans to award National Hero status to Suharto are being considered by the Indonesian government and have been debated vigorously in Indonesia. According to Transparency International, Suharto is the most corrupt leader in modern history, having embezzled an alleged $15–35 billion during his rule. Suharto was born on 8 June 1921 during the Dutch East Indies era, in a plaited-bamboo-walled house in the hamlet of Kemusuk, a part of the larger village of Godean; the village is 15 kilometres west of Yogyakarta, the cultural heartland of the Javanese. Born to ethnic Javanese parents, he was the only child of his father's second marriage, his father, had two children from his previous marriage, was a village irrigation official. His mother, Sukirah, a local woman, was distantly related to Hamengkubuwana V by his first concubine. Five weeks after Suharto's birth, his mother suffered a nervous breakdown and he was placed in the care of his paternal great-aunt, Kromodirjo.
Kertosudiro and Sukirah divorced early in Suharto's life and both remarried. At the age of three, Suharto was returned to his mother, who had married a local farmer whom Suharto helped in the rice paddies. In 1929, Suharto's father took him to live with his sister, married to an agricultural supervisor, Prawirowihardjo, in the town of Wuryantoro in a poor and low-yielding farming area near Wonogiri. Over the following two years, he was taken back to his mother in Kemusuk by his stepfather and back again to Wuryantoro by his father. Prawirowihardjo took to raising the boy as his own, which provided Suharto a father-figure and a stable home in Wuryantoro. In 1931, he moved to the town of Wonogiri to attend the primary school, living first with Prawirohardjo's son Sulardi, with his father's relative Hardjowijono. While living with Hardjowijono, Suharto became acquinted with Darjatmo, a dukun of Javanese mystical arts and faith healing; the experience affected him and as president, Suharto surrounded himself with powerful symbolic language.
Difficulties in paying the fees for his education in Wonogiri resulted in another move back to his father in Kemusuk, where he continued studying at a lower-fee Muhammadiyah middle school in the city of Yogyakarta until 1939. Like many Javanese, Suharto had only one name. In religious contexts in recent years he has sometimes been called "Haji" or "el-Haj Mohammed Suharto" but these names were not part of his formal name or used; the spelling "Suharto" reflects modern Indonesian spelling, although the general approach in Indonesia is to rely on the spelling preferred by the person concerned. At the time of his birth, the standard transcription was "Soeharto" but he preferred the original spelling; the international English-language press uses the spelling'Suharto' while the Indonesian government and media use'Soeharto'. Suharto's upbringing contrasts with that of leading Indonesian nationalists such as Sukarno in that he is believed to have had little interest in anti-colonialism, or political concerns beyond his immediate surroundings.
Unlike Sukarno and his circle, Suharto had no contact with European colonizers. He did not learn to speak Dutch or other European languages in his youth, he learned to speak Dutch after his induction into the Dutch military in 1940. Suharto took a clerical job at a bank in Wuryantaro, he was forced to resign. Following a s
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement. Rights are of essential importance in such disciplines as law and ethics theories of justice and deontology. Rights are considered fundamental to civilization, for they are regarded as established pillars of society and culture, the history of social conflicts can be found in the history of each right and its development. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "rights structure the form of governments, the content of laws, the shape of morality as it is perceived". There is considerable disagreement about what is meant by the term rights, it has been used by different groups and thinkers for different purposes, with different and sometimes opposing definitions, the precise definition of this principle, beyond having something to do with normative rules of some sort or another, is controversial. One way to get an idea of the multiple understandings and senses of the term is to consider different ways it is used.
Many diverse things are claimed as rights: There are diverse possible ways to categorize rights, such as: There has been considerable debate about what this term means within the academic community within fields such as philosophy, deontology, political science, religion. Natural rights are rights which are "natural" in the sense of "not artificial, not man-made", as in rights deriving from human nature or from the edicts of a god, they are universal. They exist inhere in every individual, can't be taken away. For example, it has been argued; these are sometimes called inalienable rights. Legal rights, in contrast, are based on a society's customs, statutes or actions by legislatures. An example of a legal right is the right to vote of citizens. Citizenship, itself, is considered as the basis for having legal rights, has been defined as the "right to have rights". Legal rights are sometimes called civil rights or statutory rights and are culturally and politically relative since they depend on a specific societal context to have meaning.
Some thinkers see rights in only one sense while others accept that both senses have a measure of validity. There has been considerable philosophical debate about these senses throughout history. For example, Jeremy Bentham believed that legal rights were the essence of rights, he denied the existence of natural rights. A claim right is a right. Somebody else must do or refrain from doing something to or for the claim holder, such as perform a service or supply a product for him or her. In logic, this idea can be expressed as: "Person A has a claim that person B do something if and only if B has a duty to A to do that something." Every claim-right entails that some other duty-bearer must do some duty for the claim to be satisfied. This duty can be to refrain from acting. For example, many jurisdictions recognize broad claim rights to things like "life and property". In jurisdictions where social welfare services are provided, citizens have legal claim rights to be provided with those services. A liberty right or privilege, in contrast, is a freedom or permission for the right-holder to do something, there are no obligations on other parties to do or not do anything.
This can be expressed in logic as: "Person A has a privilege to do something if and only if A has no duty not to do that something." For example, if a person has a legal liberty right to free speech, that means that it is not forbidden for them to speak freely: it does not mean that anyone has to help enable their speech, or to listen to their speech. Liberty rights and claim rights are the inverse of one another: a person has a liberty right permitting him to do something only if there is no other person who has a claim right forbidding him from doing so. If a person has a claim right against someone else that other person's liberty is limited. For example, a person has a liberty right to walk down a sidewalk and can decide whether or not to do so, since there is no obligation either to do so or to refrain from doing so, but pedestrians may have an obligation not to walk on certain lands, such as other people's private property, to which those other people have a claim right. So a person's liberty right of walking extends to the point where another's claim right limits his or her freedom.
In one sense, a right is a permission to do something or an entitlement to a specific service or treatment from others, these rights have been called positive rights. However, in another sense, rights may allow or require inaction, these are called negative rights. For example, in some countries, e.g. the United States, citizens have the positive right to vote and they have the negative right to no
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple, or hold land by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent and copyhold; the word peasantry is used in a non-pejorative sense as a collective noun for the rural population in the poor and under-developed countries of the world. The word "peasant" is derived from the 15th century French word païsant, meaning one from the pays, or countryside. Peasants made up the majority of the agricultural labour force in a pre-industrial society; the majority of the people in the Middle Ages were peasants. Though "peasant" is a word of loose application, once a market economy had taken root, the term peasant proprietors was used to describe the traditional rural population in countries where smallholders farmed much of the land.
More the word "peasant" is sometimes used to refer pejoratively to those considered to be "lower class" defined by poorer education and/or a lower income. The open field system of agriculture dominated most of northern Europe during medieval times and endured until the nineteenth century in many areas. Under this system, peasants lived on a manor presided over by a bishop of the church. Peasants paid labor services to the lord in exchange for their right to cultivate the land. Fallowed land, pastures and wasteland were held in common; the open field system required cooperation among the peasants of the manor. It was replaced by individual ownership and management of land; the relative position of peasants in Western Europe improved after the Black Death had reduced the population of medieval Europe in the mid-14th century: resulting in more land for the survivors and making labor more scarce. In the wake of this disruption to the established order centuries saw the invention of the printing press, the development of widespread literacy and the enormous social and intellectual changes of the Enlightenment.
The evolution of ideas in an environment of widespread literacy laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution, which enabled mechanically and chemically augmented agricultural production while increasing the demand for factory workers in cities, who became what Karl Marx called the proletariat. The trend toward individual ownership of land, typified in England by Enclosure, displaced many peasants from the land and compelled them unwillingly, to become urban factory-workers, who came to occupy the socio-economic stratum the preserve of the medieval peasants; this process happened in an pronounced and truncated way in Eastern Europe. Lacking any catalysts for change in the 14th century, Eastern European peasants continued upon the original medieval path until the 18th and 19th centuries. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in 1861, while many peasants would remain in areas where their family had farmed for generations, the changes did allow for the buying and selling of lands traditionally held by peasants, for landless ex-peasants to move to the cities.
Before emancipation in 1861, serfdom was on the wane in Russia. The proportion of serfs within the empire had decreased "from 45-50 percent at the end of the eighteenth century, to 37.7 percent in 1858." In Germany, peasants continued to center their lives in the village well into the 19th century. They belonged to a corporate body and helped to manage the community resources and to monitor community life. In the East they had the status of serfs bound permanently to parcels of land. A peasant is called a "Bauer" in German and "Bur" in Low German. In most of Germany, farming was handled by tenant farmers who paid rents and obligatory services to the landlord—typically a nobleman. Peasant leaders supervised the fields and ditches and grazing rights, maintained public order and morals, supported a village court which handled minor offenses. Inside the family the patriarch made all the decisions, tried to arrange advantageous marriages for his children. Much of the villages' communal life centered on holy days.
In Prussia, the peasants drew lots to choose conscripts required by the army. The noblemen handled external relationships and politics for the villages under their control, were not involved in daily activities or decisions. Information about the complexities of the French Revolution the fast-changing scene in Paris, reached isolated areas through both official announcements and long-established oral networks. Peasants responded differently to different sources of information; the limits on political knowledge in these areas depended more on how much peasants chose to know than on bad roads or illiteracy. Historian Jill Maciak concludes that peasants "were neither subservient, nor ignorant."In his seminal book Peasants into Frenchmen: the Modernization of Rural France, 1880–1914, historian Eugen Weber traced the modernization of French villages and argued that rural France went from backward and isolated to modern and possessing a sense of French nationhood during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
He emphasized the roles of railroads, republican schools, universal military conscription. He based his findings on school records, migration patterns, military-service documents and economic trends. Weber argued that until 1900 or so a sense of French nationhood
South Jakarta is one of the five administrative cities which form Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Indonesia. It had a population of 2,057,080 at the 2010 Census, is the third most populous among the five cities of Jakarta, after East Jakarta and West Jakarta; the administrative centre is at Kebayoran Baru. South Jakarta is bounded by Central Jakarta to the north, East Jakarta to the east, Depok to the south, West Jakarta to the northwest, Tangerang to the west. At the early of Independence, South Jakarta was planned to be the satellite city and by using the oriental concept; this area owns some industrial centers from different types of commodities. South Jakarta is the prosperous administrative city compared to the others, with much middle-to-upper class housing and major business centres; that said, South Jakarta is the administrative city with the highest Human Development Index with HDI index of 0.833. Much of the central business district is concentrated in Setiabudi, South Jakarta, such as Sudirman Central Business District.
SCBD was a service provider and real estate investment, but nowadays, it began to become the best integrated mixed-use complex in Indonesia. South Jakarta is divided into 10 subdistricts: Kebayoran Baru Kebayoran Lama Pesanggrahan Cilandak Pasar Minggu Jagakarsa Mampang Prapatan Pancoran Tebet Setiabudi Jakarta East Jakarta Depok South Jakarta Community Site www.satujakarta.com List of Jakarta subdistricts including South Jakarta