The Celtic cross is a form of Christian cross featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages. A type of ringed cross, it became widespread through its use in the stone high crosses erected across the islands in regions evangelized by Irish missionaries, from the 9th through the 12th centuries. A staple of Insular art, the Celtic cross is a Latin cross with a nimbus surrounding the intersection of the arms and stem. Scholars have debated its exact origins; the form gained new popularity during the Celtic Revival of the 19th century. The shape decorated with interlace and other motifs from Insular art, became popular for funerary monuments and other uses, has remained so, spreading well beyond Ireland. Ringed crosses similar to older Continental forms appeared in Ireland and Scotland in incised stone slab artwork and artifacts like the Ardagh chalice. However, the shape achieved its greatest popularity by its use in the monumental stone high crosses, a distinctive and widespread form of Insular art.
These monuments, which first appeared in the 9th century take the form of a ringed cross on a stepped or pyramidal base. The form has obvious structural advantages, reducing the length of unsupported side arms. There are a number of theories as to its origin in Britain; some scholars consider the ring a holdover from earlier wooden crosses, which may have required struts to support the crossarm. Others have seen it as deriving from indigenous Bronze Age art featuring a wheel or disc around a head, or from early Coptic crosses based on the ankh. However, Michael W. Herren, Shirley Ann Brown, others believe it originates in earlier ringed crosses in Christian art. Crosses with a ring representing the celestial sphere developed from the writings of the Church Fathers; the "cosmological cross" is an important motif in Coelius Sedulius's poem Carmen Paschale, known in Ireland by the 7th century. It is not clear; the first examples date to about the 9th century and occur in two groups: at Ahenny in Ireland, at Iona, an Irish monastery off the Scottish coast.
The Ahenny group is earlier. However, it is possible. A variety of crosses bear inscriptions in an early medieval Irish alphabet. Standing crosses in Ireland and areas under Irish influence tend to be shorter and more massive than their Anglo-Saxon equivalents, which have lost their headpieces. Irish examples with a head in cross form include the Cross of Kells, Ardboe High Cross, the crosses at Monasterboice, the Cross of the Scriptures and those in Scotland at Iona and the Kildalton Cross, which may be the earliest to survive in good condition. Surviving, free-standing crosses are in Cornwall, including St Piran's cross at Perranporth, Wales. Other stone crosses are found in the former Northumbria and Scotland, further south in England, where they merge with the similar Anglo-Saxon cross making tradition, in the Ruthwell Cross for example. Most examples in Britain were destroyed during the Protestant Reformation. By about A. D. 1200 the initial wave of cross building came to an end in Ireland.
Popular legend in Ireland says that the Christian cross was introduced by Saint Patrick or Saint Declan, though there are no examples from this early period. It has been claimed that Patrick combined the symbol of Christianity with the sun cross to give pagan followers an idea of the importance of the cross. By linking it with the idea of the life-giving properties of the sun, these two ideas were linked to appeal to pagans. Other interpretations claim that placing the cross on top of the circle represents Christ's supremacy over the pagan sun. Notable high crosses with the Celtic shape in Ireland Ahenny, County Tipperary Ardboe County Tyrone Carndonagh, County Donegal Drumcliff, County Sligo Dysert O'Dea Monastery, County Clare Glendalough County Wicklow St. Kevin's Cross Killamery, County Kilkenny Fahan, County Donegal Monasterboice, County Louth Clonmacnoise Cross of the Scriptures, County Offaly Clonmacnoise North Cross, County Offaly Clonmacnoise South Cross, County Offaly Kells, County Meath Moone, County KildareNotable high crosses in Scotland Iona Abbey Crosses Inchbraoch Cross Kildalton Cross Meigle 1 Cross St. Martin's Cross at Iona AbbeyNotable Celtic crosses in India Mateer Memorial Church, India The Celtic Revival of the mid-19th century led to an increased use and creation of Celtic crosses in Ireland.
In 1853, casts of several historical high crosses were exhibited at the Dublin Industrial Exhibition. In 1857, Henry O'Neill published Illustrations of the Most Interesting of the Sculptured Crosses of Ancient Ireland; these two events stimulated interest in the Celtic cross as a symbol for a renewed sense of heritage within Ireland. New versions of the high cross were designed for fashionable cemetery monuments in Victorian Dublin in the 1860s. From Dublin, the revival spread to the rest of the country and beyond. Since the Celtic Revival, the ringed cross became an emblem of Celtic identity, in addition to its more traditional religious symbolism. Modern interest in the symbol increased because of Euphemia Ritchie; the two worked on the Isle of Iona in Scotland from 1899 to 1940 and popularised use of the Celtic cross in jewelry. Using the Celtic cross in fashion is still popular today. Since its revival in the 1850s, the Celtic cross has been used extensively as grave markers. Straying fr
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
A harvest festival is an annual celebration that occurs around the time of the main harvest of a given region. Given the differences in climate and crops around the world, harvest festivals can be found at various times at different places. Harvest festivals feature feasting, both family and public, with foods that are drawn from crops that come to maturity around the time of the festival. Ample food and freedom from the necessity to work in the fields are two central features of harvest festivals: eating, contests and romance are common features of harvest festivals around the world. In North America and the US each have their own Thanksgiving celebrations in October and November. In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. Harvest festival is traditionally held on the Sunday of the Harvest Moon; this is the full Moon. The celebrations on this day include singing hymns and decorating churches with baskets of fruit and food in the festival known as Harvest Festival, Harvest Home, Harvest Thanksgiving or Harvest Festival of Thanksgiving.
In British and English-Caribbean churches and schools, some Canadian churches, people bring in produce from the garden, the allotment or farm. The food is distributed among the poor and senior citizens of the local community, or used to raise funds for the church, or charity. Harvest festivals in Asia include the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival, one of the most spread harvest festivals in the world. In Iran Mehrgan was celebrated in an extravagant style at Persepolis. Not only was it the time for harvest, but it was the time when the taxes were collected. Visitors from different parts of the Persian Empire brought gifts for the king, all contributing to a lively festival. In India, Makar Sankranti, Thai Pongal, Uttarayana and Magh Bihu or Bhogali Bihu in January, Holi in February–March, Vaisakhi in April and Onam in August–September are a few important harvest festivals. Jews celebrate the week-long harvest festival of Sukkot in the autumn. Observant Jews build a temporary hut or shack called a sukkah, spend the week living, eating and praying inside of it.
A sukkah has a semi-open roof to allow the elements to enter. It is reminiscent of the structures Israelite farmers would live in during the harvest, at the end of which they would bring a portion to the Temple in Jerusalem. An early harvest festival used to be celebrated at the beginning of the harvest season on 1 August and was called Lammas, meaning'loaf Mass'; the Latin prayer to hallow the bread is given in the Durham Ritual. Farmers made loaves of bread from the fresh wheat crop; these were given to the local church as the Communion bread during a special service thanking God for the harvest. By the sixteenth century a number of customs seem to have been established around the gathering of the final harvest, they include the reapers accompanying a laden cart. A play by Thomas Nashe, Summer's Last Will and Testament, contains a scene which demonstrates several of these features. There is a character personifying harvest; the scene is inspired by contemporary harvest celebrations, singing and drinking feature largely.
The stage instruction reads: The song which follows may be an actual harvest song, or a creation of the author's intended to represent a typical harvest song of the time: The shout of "hooky, hooky" appears to be one traditionally associated with the harvest celebration. The last verse is repeated in full after the character Harvest remarks to the audience "Is your throat cleare to helpe us sing hooky, hooky?" and a stage direction adds, "Heere they all sing after him". In 1555 in Archbishop Parker's translation of Psalm 126 occur the lines: In some parts of England "Hoakey" or "Horkey" became the accepted name of the actual festival itself: Another widespread tradition was the distribution of a special cake to the celebrating farmworkers. A prose work of 1613 refers to the practice as predating the Reformation. Describing the character of a typical farmer, it says: Early English settlers took the idea of harvest thanksgiving to North America; the most famous one is the harvest Thanksgiving held by the Pilgrims in 1621.
Nowadays the festival is held at the end of harvest. Sometimes neighbouring churches will set the Harvest Festival on different Sundays so that people can attend each other's thanksgivings; until the 20th century most farmers celebrated the end of the harvest with a big meal called the harvest supper, to which all who had helped in the harvest were invited. It was sometimes known as a "Mell-supper", after the last patch of corn or wheat standing in the fields, known as the "Mell" or "Neck". Cutting it signified the end of the work of harvest and the beginning of the feast. There seems to have been a feeling that it was bad luck to be the person to cut the last stand of corn; the farmer and his workers would race against the harvesters on other farms to be first to complete the harvest, shouting to announce they had finished. In some counties the last stand of corn would be cut by the workers throwing their sickles at it until it was all down, in others the reapers would take it
For the coastal town and a municipality in southwestern Slovenia, see Piran. Saint Piran or Pyran, died c. 480, was a legendary 5th-century Cornish abbot and saint of Irish origin. He is the patron saint of tin-miners, is generally regarded as the patron saint of Cornwall, although Saint Michael and Saint Petroc have some claim to this title. Traditionally, St Piran has been identified as the Irish saint Ciarán of Saigir. Saint Piran's Flag, a white cross on a black background, is the Cornish national flag. Saint Piran's Day falls on 5 March. Piran is. By at least the 13th century, since Brittonic languages and Goidelic languages alternate p and k sounds, he had become identified as the Irish Saint Ciarán of Saigir who founded the monastery at Seir-Kieran in County Offaly; the 14th-century Life of Saint Piran written at Exeter Cathedral, is a complete copy of an earlier Middle Irish life of Saint Ciarán of Saighir, with different parentage and a different ending that takes into account Piran's works in Cornwall, details of his death and the movements of his Cornish shrine.
However, there is no shrine to him in Ireland. 5 March is the traditional feast day of both St Ciarán of St Piran. However the Calendar of Launceston Church records an alternative date of 18 November for the latter. In Perranzabuloe parish Perran Feast is traditionally celebrated on the last Monday in October. On the previous Sunday there are services at the site of St Piran's Oratory and in the parish church of St Piran. Charles Plummer suggested that St Piran might, instead, be identified with St Ciarán of Clonmacnoise, who founded the monastery of Clonmacnoise in County Offaly, but this is doubtful since this saint is believed to have died of yellow fever at the age of thirty-two and was buried at Clonmacnoise, his father is, sometimes said to have been a Cornishman. Joseph Loth, has argued, on detailed philological grounds, that the two names could not be identical. G. H. Doble thought that Piran was a Welshman from Glamorgan, citing the lost chapel once dedicated to him in Cardiff. David Nash Ford accepts the Ciarán of Clonmacnoise identification, whilst further suggesting that Piran's father in the Exeter life, Domuel, be identified with Dywel ab Erbin, a 5th-century prince of Dumnonia.
The St Piran Trust has undertaken research which suggests that St Piran was either St Ciarán of Saighir or a disciple, as indicated by Dr James Brennan of Kilkenny and Dr T. F. G. Dexter, whose thesis is held in the Royal Cornwall Museum. Professor Nicholas Orme writes in his Churches of Medieval Exeter, that "it may well be that Piran was the inspiration for the Kerrian dedication, albeit believed to be identical with Ciarán." The saint of the church in Exeter was Keranus or Kyeranus in Latin documents, with Kerrian being the local vernacular pronunciation. The heathen Irish tied him to a mill-stone, rolled it over the edge of a cliff into a stormy sea, which became calm, the saint floated safely over the water to land upon the sandy beach of Perranzabuloe in Cornwall, his first disciples are said to have been a badger, a fox, a bear He landed in Cornwall, there established himself as a hermit. His sanctity and his austerity won for him the veneration of all around, the gift of miracles, with which he was favoured, brought many to seek his charitable aid.
He was joined at Perranzabuloe by many of his Christian converts and together they founded the Abbey of Lanpiran, with Piran as abbot. St Piran'rediscovered' tin-smelting when his black hearthstone, evidently a slab of tin-bearing ore, had the tin smelt out of it and rise to the top in the form of a white cross, it is said that at his death, the remains of the Blessed Martin the Abbot which he had brought from Ireland were buried with him at Perranzabuloe. His own remains were subsequently redistributed to be venerated in various reliquaries. Exeter Cathedral was reputed to be the possessor of one of his arms, while according to an inventory, St Piran's Old Church, had a reliquary containing his head and a hearse in which his body was placed for processionals. In 1443, Cornish nobleman, Sir John Arundell bequeathed money in his Will for the preservation of the head of St Piran in the chapel at Perranzabuloe; the churches at Perranuthnoe and Perranarworthal were dedicated to Piran and holy wells at Perranwell and Probus, Cornwall are named after him.
In Brittany St. Peran and Saint-Perran are named after him; the former Methodist chapel at Laity Moor has served as the Orthodox Church of Archangel Michael and Holy Piran since 1996. The earliest documented link to the design of the St Piran's Flag with St Piran is on the coat of arms of the de Saint-Péran or Saint-Pezran family from Cornouaille in Brittany; the earliest evidence known comes from the 15th century, with the arms being De sable à la croix pattée d'argent.. Mount St. Piran is a mountain in Banff National Park near Lake Louise, Canada, named after the saint. St Piran's crab, Clibanarius erythropus, was named in his honour, in 2016. St Piran's Day is popular in Cornwall and the term'Perrantide' has been coined to describe the week prior to this day. Many Cornish-themed events occur in the Duchy and in areas in
St Piran's Day
St Piran's Day is the national day of Cornwall, held on 5 March every year. The day is named after one of the patron saints of Cornwall, Saint Piran, the patron saint of tin miners. St Piran's Day started. Other miners' holidays of a similar nature include Chewidden Thursday; the miners of Breage and Germoe observed St Piran's feast day as that of their patron saint until at least 1764."St. Piran's Day was said to be a favourite with the tinners who having a tradition that some secrets regarding the manufacture of tin were communicated to their ancestors by that saint, they leave the manufacture to shift for itself for that day, keep it as a holiday." There is little description of specific traditions associated with this day apart from the consumption of large amounts of alcohol and food during'Perrantide', the week leading up to 5 March. The day following the St Piran's Day was known by many as'Mazey Day', a term which has now been adopted by the revived Golowan festival in Penzance; the phrase'drunk as a perraner' was used in 19th century Cornwall to describe people who had consumed large quantities of alcohol.
The modern observance of St Piran's day as a national symbol of the people of Cornwall started in the late 19th and early 20th century when Celtic Revivalists sought to provide the people of Cornwall with a national day similar to those observed in other nations. Since the 1950s, the celebration has become observed and since the start of the 21st century every Cornish community holds some sort of celebration to mark the event. Saint Piran's Flag is seen flying throughout Cornwall on this day. Parades and celebrations take place in a number of towns and cities including: Bodmin – A parade through the streets with Cornish pipers and a children's dance. Speeches by various notables, including the town mayor, Lord Lieutenant, Grand Bard of Cornwall, followed by children's performances of Cornish plays and songs. 400 people attended the parade in 2009. The parade was started in 1999. Bude – a St Piran's day walk led by a piper and attended by hundreds of people annually. Callington – Shop decorations and a St Piran's Supper with Cornish music and poetry.
Falmouth – parade through the town including nearly 100 school children. Shop window competition. Penzance – annual performance of St Piran Furry dance and procession through the streets by 500 children. Annual St Piran Schools Concert. Redruth – first held in 2011 and billed as the biggest St Piran's celebration in Cornwall, it includes entertainments in the town centre before a parade to the rugby club where there was a market and fairground rides, with a rugby match. During the evening there are various live music events at venues across the town. In 2011 over 2000 people attended the rugby club events while hundreds more attended events in the town. 2012 saw three separate marches from different parts of the town converge as one giant procession at the miner's statue before heading to the rugby club. St Ives – Procession through the streets. Truro – Procession through the streets with speeches outside Truro Cathedral, which has a St Piran themed lunch menu in its café, a Cornish folk music session afterwards.
Hundreds of people attend the parade annually. United States – St Piran's day is celebrated annually in Grass Valley, United States, to honour the Cornish miners who participated in the area's mining history beginning in the mid 19th century. In addition, Cornish genealogy organisations throughout the United States meet in celebration of Cornish history. In 2006 Cornish MP Dan Rogerson asked the government to make 5 March a public holiday in Cornwall to recognise St Piran's Day celebrations; some council workers in Bodmin were granted the holiday in 2006, from 2009 Penzance Town Council offered its employees a St Piran's Day Holiday following a campaign by the Celtic League. A total of nine town and city councils across Cornwall have given their staff the day off. There have been other petitions for a Cornish public holiday on 5 March, it has been suggested that a move from the May Day Bank Holiday to a St Piran's Day Bank Holiday in Cornwall would be worth £20–35 million to the Cornish economy.
In December 2011 Cornwall Council voted in favour of asking the government to make St Piran's Day a bank holiday in Cornwall, should they decide to move the May Day holiday. A petition for a county wide day off at the Cornwall council website, closed with only 363 signatures, fell far short of the 50,000 signatures required. Towns and cities that give their staff an annual day off work for St Piran's Day: Bodmin Town Council Penzance Town Council Truro City Council Hayle Town Council St Columb Major Town Council St Blazey Town Council St Ives Town Council Camelford Town Council Redruth Town CouncilSchools that give parents the option of taking their children out of school for the day: Falmouth Secondary School Penryn Secondary School Mylor Primary School Mabe Primary School Mawnan Smith Primary School Flushing Primary School List of county days in the United Kingdom Yorkshire Day BBC St Piran holiday call for Duchy St Piran's Day images from Newlyn's fishing industry St Piran's Day Events 2011 An Daras: The Cornish Folk Art Project Who Was St Pieran
Cornish kilts and tartans
Cornish kilts and tartans are thought to be a modern tradition started in the early to mid 20th century. The first modern kilt was plain black, other patterns followed, it is documented that a garment known as a bracca was worn by Celtic people who inhabited the British Isles, the term indicating its appearance. The Welsh word brech means "checkered", the word bracca is derived from the Welsh or Cornish word brythen which in English translates as "striped" or "checkered". Cornish historian L. C. R. Duncombe-Jewell attempted to prove that plain kilts were in use in Cornwall, he discovered carvings of minstrels dressed in kilts and playing bagpipes on bench ends at Altarnun church, which dated from circa 1510. The earliest historical reference to the Cornish kilt is from 1903, when the Cornish delegate to the Celtic Congress, convening at Caernarvon, L. Duncombe-Jewell, appeared in a woad blue kilt. John T. Koch in his work Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia mentions a black kilt worn by the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry in combat.
First created in 1963, the Cornish National tartan was designed by the poet E. E. Morton Nance, nephew of Robert Morton Nance; each colour of tartan has meaning. The White Cross on a black background is from the banner of Saint Piran, the Patron Saint of tinners, used as the flag of Cornwall. A prototype of the Cornish national tartan was first worn by Morton-Nance in the 1963 Celtic Congress held at Carbis Bay attached to a Clan Douglas kilt that he was wearing for the occasion; the Cornish Hunting Tartan was registered in the 1980s. The following Cornish tartans have been registered or have been registered; some of these are Cornish family tartans which are worn at family get weddings. Cornish National Tartan Cornish Hunting Tartan Saint Piran Cornish Flag Tartan Saint Piran Cornish Dress Tartan Cornish National Day Tartan Christopher family Tartan Rosevear Tartan Curnow of Kernow Tartan. Pengelly, The Cornish Jewell Tartan Cornish National Tartan http://www.alanrichards.org/cornishtartan.htm Cornish tartans Cornish Kilts