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Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana

The Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana is an umbrella organization that keeps track of all aspects of the music recording industry in Italy. It was established in 1992, when major corporate labels left the existing Associazione dei Fonografici Italiani. During the following years, most of the remaining Italian record labels left AFI to join the new organization; as of 2011, FIMI represents 2,500 companies operating in the music business. FIMI is a member of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry and of the Italian employers' federation, Confindustria, its main purpose is to protect the interests of the Italian record industry. Starting in March 1995, the Italian Music Industry Federation began providing the Italian official albums chart. In January 1997, FIMI became the provider of the Italian official singles chart. Due to the decrease of CD singles sales in Italy, FIMI replaced its physical singles chart with a digital downloads chart—based on legal internet and mobile downloads—on January 1, 2008.

In July 2011, Enzo Mazza was confirmed as FIMI chairman. In September 1994, the chairman of FIMI, Caccia Dominioni, announced the Federation's intention to establish an album chart to replace the existing charts, which were considered unreliable due to their compiling methods; the Italian Music Industry Federation compiled its first album chart in March 1995. Issued on 7 March 1995, it was based on sales between 23 February 1995 and 1 March 1995; this period coincided with the first week of sales for the albums released by the 45th Sanremo Music Festival contestants, the most important music event in Italy. The first number-one album was Bruce Springsteen's Greatest Hits. Between 1995 and 2009, the FIMI Album Chart was based on data provided by Nielsen. From January 2010, the FIMI Album Chart's positions have been derived from GfK Retail and Technology Italia sales data; the chairman of the Italian Music Industry Federation, Enzo Mazza, explained this decision declaring that "the long-time partnership with Nielsen, started in 1995, was satisfying, but in a moment marked by a deep transformation and innovation of the market, we thought that the service offered by Nielsen was no more adequate".

In 1995, the chart was based on data digitally gathered by 130 sellers. The number of sellers was increased and, as of 2011, the chart is based on the number of copies sold between Monday to Sunday by a subset of 3,400 retailers. Starting from 14 October 2011, the FIMI Albums Chart includes digital sales. In March 1995, alongside the FIMI Album Chart, the Italian Music Industry Federation began the FIMI Compilations Chart, listing the best-selling albums by various artists; these albums are not included in the FIMI Album Chart. The first number-one was Sanremo'95, released by RTI Music and featuring some of the songs performed during the 45th Sanremo Music Festival. In January 1997, the Italian Music Industry Federation started an official singles chart; the first number-one single was Depeche Mode's "Barrel of a Gun". Compiled by Nielsen, the chart listed the best-selling physical singles in Italy, but on 1 January 2008 it was replaced by the Top Digital Download, listing the best-selling digital singles.

The last number one on the physical FIMI Singles Chart was "The Singles Collection" by Vasco Rossi. The Italian DVD Chart was established by the Italian Music Industry Federation in October 2003; the first Italian DVD Chart listed only the first ten positions, was headed by Sting's Inside the Songs of Sacred. As of July 2011, it lists the 20 best-selling music DVDs in Italy, is compiled by ACNielsen. On 10 April 2006, FIMI published the first chart listing the best-selling digital singles in Italy. Compiled by Nielsen SoundScan, the chart was based on data provided by 10 digital stores; the first number-one single was "Sei nell'anima" by Gianna Nannini. Due to the decrease of CD singles sales in Italy, on 1 January 2008 the Top Digital Download became the Italian official singles chart, replacing the chart based on physical sales. A certification system has existed in Italy since the mid 1970s. During that period, albums had to sell 500,000 units to qualify for a Silver status, while for Gold, the requirement was 1,000,000 units.

Singles were required to sell 1,000,000 units to reach the Gold level in the mid 1970s. Sales requirements for music recordings in Italy for domestic and international repertoire are the same levels. Note that in the table below are the certification-levels, when the program of Gold and Platinum is operated under FIMI. Italy has had a Gold certification program for singles during the mid 1970s, with the level for Gold set at 1,000,000 units. Though, the requirement of 1,000,000 units for Gold was quite high for the Italian market, this program was carried on to the 1980s; the singles certification program was abandoned when FIMI took over the operations, it wasn't until 1999 that Italy re-launched its Gold and Platinum program for singles. Note that in the table below are the certification-levels, when the program of Gold and Platinum is operated under FIMI. Note that in the table below are the certification-levels, when the program of Gold and Platinum is operated under FIMI; the following is a list of Platinum and multi-platinum albums that have been certified by the Italian Music Industry Federation.

The listed certifications below can be verified through FIMI's certification database. For certification-levels refer to the tables above. Note that the albums released from 2005 until the end of 2011, were qualified for Diamond-award upon reaching five-times Platinum. FIMI, changed this rule in January 2012, began to base the Diamond-award on ten-times Platinum for all titles released on/after January 1, 2012. List of number-one hits Musica

Carlton Gamer

Carlton Gamer is an American composer and music theorist. He has taught at Colorado College, Princeton University, the University of Michigan, he studied at Northwestern University and Boston University and with Roger Sessions. Gamer has composed more than seventy works in a variety of categories, including songs, music for dance, solo piano pieces, chamber music, choral works, orchestral works, computer music, his music has been featured in New York’s Carnegie Recital Hall, the Kennedy Center in Washington, D. C. the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, in some sixty other venues throughout the U. S. Among its presenters have been the International Society of Contemporary Music, the Society of Composers, Inc. the Current and Modern Consort of the University of Michigan School of Music, the College Music Society, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts—Rockefeller Foundation International Competition for Excellence in the Performance of American Music, his works have been heard at conferences and festivals in the U.

S. among them the WNYC American Music Festival, San Diego International Computer Music Conference, Southwestern Composers Conference, Grand Teton Music Festival, Colorado Contemporary Music Festival, Colorado College Summer Music Festival, Colorado College New Music Symposium. His works have been performed abroad, in Sydney, Salzburg, Warsaw, Oxford and Calcutta. Gamer grew up in Champaign-Urbana, where his father taught at the University of Illinois, where at the age of eight he began to study piano with Tanya Kessler and composition with her husband Hubert Kessler, of the faculty of the University of Illinois School of Music, a student of Heinrich Schenker. From 1942 to 1946 he attended University High School, a laboratory school of Illinois State Normal University in Bloomington-Normal, during which time he continued his piano studies with two members of the faculty of Illinois Wesleyan University, first with Stefan Bardas and with Chester Barris. In 1946 he graduated from University High School as valedictorian.

He went to Northwestern University, studying theory and composition with Frank Cookson and Anthony Donato and piano with Louis Crowder and Pauline Manchester Lindsey. At Boston University he was a graduate assistant, teaching a course in orchestration, served as research assistant for Read’s Thesaurus of Orchestral Devices. In New York, 1951-3, he founded a workshop of composer-performers who met at his home to read through and critique each other’s music; the members were violin. In New York he was the pianist and music director for dancer and choreographer Ilka Suarez and her company. Gamer joined the music faculty at Colorado College in 1954. In 1954 and 1955 he served as accompanist for Hanya Holm in her summer dance workshops at the college. After studying composition with Roger Sessions in Princeton, N. J. in 1957, he was invited to be a fellow at the Princeton Seminars in Advanced Musical Studies in 1959 and 1960. His recollection of these seminars is found in his article, ”Milton at the Princeton Seminars.”.

On leave from Colorado College, he was an Asia Society Fellow at The University of California and in Kyoto, Japan in 1962-3. He taught at Princeton University as a Visiting Lecturer in Music in 1974, as a Visiting Professor of Music in 1976 and again in 1981. In 1976 he was appointed a Senior Fellow of the Council of Humanities at Princeton. In the same year, he received a MacDowell Colony Fellowship. In 1979 he taught at the Salzburg Global Seminar: “Musical Ideas and Musical Institutions” in Salzburg, with co-faculty Edward Cone, Ruth Katz, Gunther Schuller, Leo Treitler, Peter Westergaard. In 1982 he was Visiting Professor of Music, teaching a graduate seminar, at the University of Michigan, he retired from full-time teaching in 1994. Glenn Giffin in the Denver Post describes Gamer as proposing in Arkhê “a grand program--creation and evolution... The composer uses various means to present this:...by bands of sound and much shifting back and forth between sections in orchestral drones with now one section and another receiving prominence... through musical cells that get manipulated and expanded to form a large structure.”

According to the American Record Guide "Carlton Gamer's Arkhê moves between the poles of tonality and atonality... harmonies dense to the point of clusters." Fanfare remarks that, " work opens with a long crescendo on the note A and soon erupts into a Big Bang of fascinating noises." The composer himself describes this piece as using "an externally imposed scheme to derive the duration of each section of the work, upon the miniaturization of a geological time-scale formulated by recent scientific research." An evolutionary idea informs Gamer’s Choros, as described by Mark Arnest in the Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph: In Part 1 of this work, the underlying program deals with the evolution of life. Bios employs phonemic choral Sprechstimme. Nicholas Kenyon in The New Yorker characterizes “Quietly, with feeling” as “a diatonic piece of neo-Mendelssohnian rhapsody, it m

Amarna letter EA 156

Amarna letter EA 156, titled: "Aziru of Amurru" is a short letter from Aziru, the leader of the region of Amurru. EA 156 is the first letter in a series of 16 letters regarding Aziru. In synopsis, the 16 letters talk of servitude to the Pharaoh: The development of a city. A letter to Aziru, when visiting Egypt. A final conditions letter; the Amarna letters, about 300, numbered up to EA 382, are a mid 14th century BC, about 1360 BC and 20–25 years correspondence. The initial corpus of letters were found at Akhenaten's city Akhetaten, in the floor of the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh. Letter EA 156, is numbered VAT 337, from the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin. EA 156, letter number one of a series of 15, from Aziru of the Amurru kingdom. Obverse —To the king, my lord, my god, my un: Message of Aziru, your servant. I fall at the feet of my lord 7 times and 7 times.—Now as to a request that the Sun, my lord, makes, I am ur servant forever, my sons are your servants.—I herewith give sons as 2 att,1 and they are to do what the k, orders.

But let him leave in Amurru.2–Reverse Amarna letters–phrases and quotations List of Amarna letters by size Line drawing of EA 156, Obverse & Reverse Line Drawing and Akkadian, EA 156: Obverse & Reverse, CDLI no. P271199 High-resolution images, from the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin CDLI listing of all EA Amarna letters, 1-382 Moran, William L; the Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992