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Federico Confalonieri

Count Federico Confalonieri was an Italian revolutionist. Confalonieri was born at descended from a noble Lombard family. In 1806 he married Teresa Casati. During the Napoleonic period Confalonieri was among the opponents of the French régime, was regarded as one of the leaders of the Italian national party. At the time of the Milan riots of 1814, when the minister Giuseppe Prina was assassinated, Confalonieri was unjustly accused of complicity in the deed. After the fall of Napoleon he went to Paris with the other Lombard delegates to plead his country's cause, advocating the formation of a separate Lombard state under an independent prince, but he received no encouragement, for Lombardy was destined for Austria, Lord Castlereagh consoled him by saying that "the Austrian government was the most beneficent in the world." Confalonieri went on to London, in the hope of winning the favour of the British government, but failed in his object. He joined the freemasons and some of the various other secret societies with which all Europe was swarming, being initiated by Filippo Buonarroti, an old Tuscan Jacobin living in Paris.

On returning to Milan, where he found the Austrians in possession, he at first devoted himself to promoting the material progress of his country, but he was watching for an opportunity to liberate it from the foreigner. Early in 1821, when the atmosphere was thick with rumours of revolt, he visited various parts of Italy to sound the liberal leaders, corresponded with the Piedmontese officers who, believing that they had the approval of Prince Charles Albert of Carignano, the heir to the throne, were planning a military revolt. There was talk of a rising at Milan combined with a Piedmontese invasion to expel the Austrians, but the plans were vague and unpractical, for the military conspirators could count only on a few hundred men, Confalonieri warned them that Lombardy was not ready. On the outbreak of the Piedmontese revolt the Austrian authorities made some arrests, through the treachery of one conspirator and the foolishness of others, discovered the plot, if it could so be called, arrested Silvio Pellico and Maroncelli and afterwards Confalonieri.

A long trial now began, conducted with all the rigour and secrecy of the Austrian procedure, Confalonieri, outwitted by the astute examining magistrate, A Salvotti, contradicted himself, made fatal admissions compromised others, together with several companions was condemned to death for high treason, but through the intercession of his wife and father, who went to Vienna to plead his cause in person, the emperor Francis commuted the penalty to perpetual imprisonment in the fortress of Spielberg. Confalonieri was taken to Vienna and had a long interview with Prince Metternich, who tried to extract further confessions incriminating other persons Charles Albert, but although Confalonieri seemed at one time inclined to prepare a report on the revolutionary movement for the emperor, he did not do so, once he was in prison he refused to say or write another word, was treated with exceptional severity in consequence, his wife died in 1830, in 1836, on the death of the emperor Francis, he was pardoned and exiled to America.

He came back to Europe after a year's absence, in 1840 obtained permission to return to Milan to see his dying father. He himself, broken in health and spirits, died on 10 December 1846, too soon to see the accomplishment of Italian freedom, he had undoubtedly played a considerable role in the conspiracy of 1821, being the most influential and richest of the Milanese Liberals. His Memorie e Lettere have been edited by Gabrio Casati. Alessandro D’Ancona’s Federico Confalonieri is based on the memoirs and on a large number of secret documents from the archives of Vienna and Milan. Alessandro Luzio’s Antonio Salvotti e i processi del Ventuno contains many fresh documents which to some extent exonerate Salvotti from the charge of cruelty. See Alessandro Luzio, Nuovi documenti sul processo Confalonieri

Supper (Spotify)

Supper is a web-based application on the Spotify digital music streaming platform. The Supper app was born from a group of friends who had backgrounds in the music and gastronomy industries. Digital music solutions company Artisan Council executed it; the app now sits in the top 40 applications on Spotify. The Supper Spotify application matches recipes for all occasions and skill levels with a playlist for both preparation and presentation, as envisioned by the chefs themselves. Supper is credited with being one of the first apps to pair music with food. Playing on the social nature of music and food culture, users can seamlessly experience both for the first time with real time music streaming. In May 2014 Supper was launched outside of the Spotify streaming platform. Though still in partnership with Spotify, supper.mx allows users to view Supper's music + food collaborations on mobile and desktop, without the need to download Spotify directly. All of the recipes and playlists featured on the Supper app come straight from a growing network of tastemakers, including chefs and institutions around the world.

Each month the recipes and playlists are updated in conjunction with current holidays and seasons. Launching in October 2013 the first edition of Supper featured content from a range of eating institutions and culture makers from the US and Australia. Brooklyn Bowl Roberta’s Pizza Fancy Hanks The Foresters/Queenies Upstairs Hipstamatic Panama House Sweetwater Inn Soul Clap Yellow Birds Yardbird Sonoma Bakery Do or Dine Cameo Gallery Hypertrak Blue Smoke The Crepes of Wrath Willin Low // Wild Rocket - Wild Oats - Relish The Copper Mill Thug Kitchen Mamak Tutu's Chin Chin Flat Iron Steak Greasy Spoon Mexicali Taco & Co. Church & State Salts Cure Nopa L & E Oyster 4100 bar Golden Gopher The Pie Hole State Bird Provisions In February 2014 Supper teamed up with restaurant heavy weights Momofuku; the recipes featured came from their iconic New York and Sydney restaurants. Head office got involved with an instructional from Brand Director Sue Chan on how to paint Momofuku vibes on to any party. March sees the Supper team migrate to Austin, Texas for SXSW, bringing together the best eateries the city has to offer as well as the music that has influenced them.

Restaurants and eateries on board in 2014 included: The Backspace Kelis Swifts Attic Uchi Jackalope Paul Qui/East Side King Thai Kun Wonderland Hole in the Wall Justine's Brasserie The Liberty In April 2014 Kelis presented 5 of her recipes paired with a personal playlist for Supper. Kelis shared her recipes for jerk ribs, New York vanilla bean cheesecake and Jerk Ribs; the Kelis/Supper collaboration coincided with the release of Kelis' 2014 album titled'Food'. In May 2014 Bushwick's Roberta's Pizza was guest curator on website. Included in their selections were restaurants and bars from across New York including Bun-ker Vietnamese, Old Stanley's Bar, St. Anselm, Frank's Cocktail Lounge, Junior's Cheesecake, Xi'an Famous Foods, Xe Lua, 124 Old Rabbit and Yuji Ramen

Chase Bliss Audio

Chase Bliss Audio is a Minnesota-based company that makes high-end electronic audio processors, known as effects pedals, used for the electric guitar, synthesizer, or for manipulating audio in a recording studio. Chase Bliss Audio was founded in 2013 by Minnesota; the company is named after the founder’s brother, Chase Korte, who died in 2007 after his car was struck by a drunk driver. Chase Bliss released the Warped Vinyl, its first pedal at the end of 2013; the company’s pedals contain multiple circuit boards and are manufactured in Minnesota and California. Premiere Guitar wrote of the pedals that they, “are notable for their kitchen-sink approach—analog guts, digital brains, multiple knobs and toggles, a bevy of DIP switches—with no parameter left untweakable.” Each has an analog signal path, controlled by digital microprocessors. Bands that have used his pedals include Nine Inch Nails, A-ha, Soul Asylum, Radiohead. In addition to the Warped Vinyl pedal and its predecessors, several other pedals have been produced by the company.

In 2014 they released the Wombtone phaser pedal, in 2015 they released the Gravitas and the Spectre flanger pedal. In 2016 the company released the Tonal Recall delay pedal. In 2017 the company released the Brothers pedal. Additionally, in 2018 they released the Thermae delay and harmonization pedal, the Condor analog EQ pedal. Tycho: Dark World, Condor, Warped Vinyl, Tonal Recall, Gravitas, Wombtone' Ed O'Brien: Tonal Recall RKM The Tallest Man on Earth: Tonal Recall

Abstract photography

Abstract photography, sometimes called non-objective, conceptual or concrete photography, is a means of depicting a visual image that does not have an immediate association with the object world and, created through the use of photographic equipment, processes or materials. An abstract photograph may isolate a fragment of a natural scene in order to remove its inherent context from the viewer, it may be purposely staged to create a unreal appearance from real objects, or it may involve the use of color, shadow, shape and/or form to convey a feeling, sensation or impression; the image may be produced using traditional photographic equipment like a camera, darkroom or computer, or it may be created without using a camera by directly manipulating film, paper or other photographic media, including digital presentations. There has been no commonly-used definition of the term "abstract photography". Books and articles on the subject include everything from a representational image of an abstract subject matter, such as Aaron Siskind's photographs of peeling paint, to non-representational imagery created without a camera or film, such as Marco Breuer's fabricated prints and books.

The term is both inclusive of a wide range of visual representations and explicit in its categorization of a type of photography, visibly ambiguous by its nature. Many photographers, art historians and others have written or spoken about abstract photography without attempting to formalize a specific meaning. Alvin Langdon Coburn in 1916 proposed that an exhibition be organized with the title "Abstract Photography", for which the entry form would state that "no work will be admitted in which the interest of the subject matter is greater than the appreciation of the extraordinary." The proposed exhibition did not happen, yet Coburn created some distinctly abstract photographs. Photographer and Professor of Psychology John Suler, in his essay Photographic Psychology: Image and Psyche, said that "An abstract photograph draws away from that, realistic or literal, it draws away from recognizable subjects in the actual world. Some people say it departs from true meaning and reality itself, it stands apart from the concrete whole with its purpose instead depending on conceptual meaning and intrinsic form....

Here’s the acid test: If you look at a photo and there’s a voice inside you that says'What is it?'…. Well, there you go. It’s an abstract photograph."Barbara Kasten a photographer and professor, wrote that "Abstract photography challenges our popular view of photography as an objective image of reality by reasserting its constructed nature.... Freed from its duty to represent, abstract photography continues to be a catchall genre for the blending of mediums and disciplines, it is an arena to test photography."German photographer and photographic theorist Gottfried Jäger used the term "concrete photography", playing off the term "concrete art", to describe a particular kind of abstract photography. He said: More conceptual artist Mel Bochner hand wrote a quote from the Encyclopædia Britannica that said "Photography cannot record abstract ideas." On a note card photographed it and printed it using six different photographic processes. He turned the words, the concept and the visualization of the concept into art itself, in doing so created a work that presented yet another type of abstract photography, again without defining the term itself.

Some of the earliest images of what may be called abstract photography appeared within the first decade after the invention of the craft. In 1842 John William Draper created images with a spectroscope, which dispersed light rays into a previously unrecorded visible pattern; the prints he made had no reference to the reality of the visible world that other photographers recorded, they demonstrated photography's unprecedented ability to transform what had been invisible into a tangible presence. Draper saw his images as science records rather than art, but their artistic quality is appreciated today for their groundbreaking status and their intrinsic individuality. Another early photographer, Anna Atkins in England, produced a self-published book of photograms made by placing dried algae directly on cyanotype paper. Intended as a scientific study, the stark white on blue images have an ethereal abstract quality due to the negative imaging and lack of natural context for the plants; the discovery of the X-ray in 1895 and radioactivity in 1896 caused a great public fascination with things that were invisible or unseen.

In response, photographers began to explore how they could capture what could not been seen by normal human vision. About this same time Swedish author and artist August Strindberg experimented with subjecting saline solutions on photographic plates to heat and cold; the images he produced with these experiments were indefinite renderings of what could not otherwise be seen and were abstract in their presentation. Near the turn of the century Louis Darget in France tried to capture images of mental processes by pressing unexposed plates to the foreheads of sitters and urging them to project images from their minds onto the plates; the photographs he produced were blurry and indefinite, yet Darget was convinced that what he called "thought vibrations" were indistinguishable from light rays. During the first decade of the 20th century there was a wave of artistic exploration that hastened the transition in painting and sculpture from Impressionism and Post-Impressionism to Cubism and Futurism.

Beginning in 1903 a series of annual art exhibitions in Paris called the Salon d'Automne introduced the public to radical vision of artists like Cézanne

Hell Frost

Hell Frost is the debut album by The Unguided. The album was released on November 30, 2011 through Despotz Records and was produced by Jonas Kjellgren; the album has been described by singer Richard Sjunnesson as a lyrical sequel to Eden Fire by Sonic Syndicate, their former band. Prior to the release of Hell Frost the band released an EP including the two tracks "Green Eyed Demon" and "Pathfinder", which were re-recorded for the album. On April 28, 2011, the band announced that pre-production of their debut album had begun, they revealed that Jonas Kjellgren would be producing the album and that The Unguided had signed a deal with Despotz Records to release and distribute it. In June 2011, The Unguided began recording their debut album. On October 3, Despotz Records announced that the recording and mastering of Hell Frost was completed. On October 25, it was announced that 12 tracks were made for the album, but only 11 tracks made it to the album due to The Unguided wanting to get the album faster out instead of delaying it further, seeing how it was supposed to be released in the summer of 2011.

On November 30, Hell Frost was released. Besides Peter Tägtgren, there are no guest singers on the album; the Unguided confirmed that Mikael Stanne, Whiplasher Bernadotte, Hansi Kürsch, Christoffer Andersson agreed to record guest vocals, but not for Hell Frost due to its release date. Richard, hopes to include them when they record their next album. On June 16, 2011, without any official announcement The Unguided released their debut single "Betrayer of the Code". "Betrayer of the Code" was written by Roger and Richard when they still played in Fallen Angels. The artwork for the single was made by Jose A. Aranguren, the same person who made the artwork for the Sonic Syndicate album Eden Fire and the alternative version of Nightmareland. On October 3, the artwork and title of their debut album Hell Frost was revealed at 616; the artwork was done by the same person who made the artwork for Nightmareland. The layout and booklet design was made by Gustavo Sazes. On October 8, it was revealed to be "Tankens Mirakel" by the Swedish EBM duo Spark.

The song has been translated into English and will appear on the album with the title "The Miracle of Mind". It will be the JakeBox exclusive bonus track for Hell Frost. On October 11 the Swedish radio station Bandit Rock premiered the song "Inherit the Earth", a preview of the song had been played the day before as well. On October 25, it was announced. "Phoenix Down" was intended as the lead single. The artwork for the single was made by Jose A. Aranguren. On November 18, Richard posted the following on his blog: "The song we decided to visualize was “Phoenix Down”. It’s a dynamic and accessible song, which we felt would represent the band in a good way as an introduction video, it has been one of the fan favorites in our live set as far as we could tell". According to singer Richard Sjunnesson, the music played by The Unguided is the music that used to be played by their old band Sonic Syndicate till they changed into mainstream metal/rock, he has described the album as a sequel to the Sonic Syndicate debut album Eden Fire, majorly considered the heaviest record written by Sonic Syndicate.

Following its digital release on October 23, 2011, the album received positive reviews, with Simon Pettersen of Sputnikmusic stating: "If this was a Sonic Syndicate album, it would’ve been their best, but fact is… It is not." Pettersen finished his review stating: "All in all, Hell Frost is the best album made by any of these musicians. It is a masterpiece worth picking up. I don’t have any complains about this album. I hoped for screaming by Roland, a ballad, but what I got was far better. If you didn’t like Sonic Syndicate, The Unguided might just change your mind." All tracks composed by Roger Roland Johansson. All lyrics written by Richard Sjunnesson. "Inherith the Earth" was written by Fallen Angels on their debut EP Fall from Heaven. The original song was written by Richard Sjunnesson. "Phoenix Down" was written by Sonic Syndicate for their EP Burn This City, but was never used. The original song was written by Richard Sjunnesson. "Betrayer of the Code" was written by Fallen Angels on their debut EP Fall from Heaven.

The original song was written by Richard Sjunnesson. The re-recording of the song was first released as a single version, which featured alternate keyboards. "Green Eyed Demon" was released on The Unguided debut EP Nightmareland. The EP version featured alternate keyboards. "Iceheart Fragment" was written by Sonic Syndicate for their EP Burn This City, but was never used. The song original song was called "Assassination of a Martyr" and was composed by Roger Sjunnesson and written by Richard Sjunnesson. "Pathfinder" was released on The Unguided debut EP Nightmareland. The EP version featured alternate keyboards. "The Miracle of Mind" was written by Spark! The Unguided Richard Sjunnesson - harsh vocals Roland Johansson - clean vocals, lead guitar Roger Sjunnesson - rhythm guitar, keyboardsSession musicians Jonas Kjellgren - bass Pontus Hjelm - additional keyboards Peter Tägtgren - additional harsh vocals on "Pathfinder" John Bengtsson - drums OtherHenric Carlsson - bass (Not credited as a full-time band member since he joined the

Mary Sheldon Barnes

Mary Downing Sheldon Barnes was an American educator and historian. Her teaching style and publications were considered ahead of their time, she used a method that encouraged students to develop their own research skills utilizing primary sources and their own problem solving skills. Sheldon was major influence on author and socialist Anna Strunsky. Mary Downing Sheldon was born in Oswego, New York, the oldest of five children, to Frances Stiles and Edward Austin Sheldon, her father was the founder of the Oswego State Normal and Training School, known for its Pestalozzian principles. Her upbringing drastically deviated from traditional nineteenth-century norms, as both her parents encouraged scholarly education and fostered her inquisitive spirit. Sheldon attended Oswego public schools and a dual program at Oswego Normal, graduating in 1869 as a certified teacher with specialized training in classical studies. After graduation, she taught there for two years, before becoming enrolled in the first coeducational class at University of Michigan in 1871.

Sheldon was a founding member of a precursor to sororities. While at Michigan, she studied extensively under the direction of Moses Coit Tyler, a professor of English language and literature within historical and political contexts, she studied under Charles Kendall Adams, a proponent of the German seminar method of teaching history However, she took particular interest in the natural sciences. She graduated with an AB in classical studies in 1874. Sheldon returned to Oswego State Normal after her graduation to teach history, Latin and botany. In January 1877 she began teaching at Wellesley College in the English and history departments for two and a half years, her teaching style was considered unorthodox at the time, using the case method process introduced by her father in the Oswego Movement. Drawing from the teachings of Pestalozzi and Leopold von Ranke, Sheldon encouraged helping students build problem-solving skills while learning historical inquiry, she encouraged her students to move beyond rote memorization.

Rather than a textbook, she used a collection of primary source reproductions. With firsthand reading of powerful documents of history, students could generate a dialogue about history’s biggest questions. However, faculty at Wellesley disapproved of her methods. In 1879 she resigned due to poor health and internal conflicts at the college, leaving behind teaching to travel abroad and rest. In 1882 she returned to Oswego Normal to write her work Studies in General History, published in 1885 for secondary-school students. On August 6, 1885 she married Earl Barnes, a former student, eleven years her junior. While Barnes taught at various universities, Sheldon concentrated on her writing and collaboration with historian Andrew Dickson White. In 1891 Barnes was appointed head of the department of education at Stanford University, where he implemented her method studies of educational history and child development. In March 1892 Sheldon joined the department of history at Stanford as the first female faculty member.

As an assistant professor, she taught 19th-century European and Pacific Slope history. The couple collaborated on Studies in American History, published in 1891 for eighth-grade students. However, Sheldon owned the copyright to the text, she conducted research in four California school districts regarding the source method and educational philosophy, through which she designed a history curriculum that accounted for developmental changes. Sheldon would go on to publish Studies in Historical Method, directed towards teachers and layman historians interested in learning about historical method. In 1897, the couple resigned from Stanford to write in Europe. Sheldon's health had always been of serious concern, her chronic illness worsened while abroad, she underwent an unsuccessful new medical procedure to treat an organic heart disease. On August 27, 1898 she died in London. Per her request, Barnes buried her in a Protestant cemetery in Rome, her teaching method encouraged students to "study the primary sources in an'independent and solitary' way using her questions as guides to problem solving...in order to develop the students abilities to observe, weigh evidence, to generalize and to exercise creative historical imagination."

This approach was described as progressive for the time, utilizing a case method that "hastened the improvement of more conventional history textbooks." Studies in General History incited debate among leading educators. The American Historical Association's Committee of Seven issued a report in 1899, rejecting Sheldon's approach to teaching; the panel, chaired by Andrew C. McLaughlin, recommended "limited contact with a limited body of materials, an examination of which may show the child the nature of the historical process." Though ignored in print, her teaching philosophy in relation to critical thinking for students, influenced the curricular structure of general education courses in the mid-twentieth century. However, modern critics of Sheldon's work note her limited sociocultural views and blinding patriotism. In 1985 and 1986, the Mary Sheldon Barnes Papers and Earl Barnes Papers were donated to the Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College by Betty Barnes, the daughter-in-law of Earl Barnes, his second wife, Anna Koehler Barnes.

Barnes, Mary Sheldon. Studies in General History. Boston, Health & Co. 1885. Studies in American History. Boston, Heath & Co. 1891. Studies in Greek and Roman History, 1894. Studies in Historical Method, 1896. Barnes, Mary Sheldon. —. "Poor White Trash". Cornhill Magazine 45: 579-584. —. "History: A Definition and a Forecast". Annals of the Amer