William Parry (explorer)
Rear-Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was an English explorer of the Arctic, known for his 1819 expedition through the Parry Channel the most successful in the long quest for the Northwest Passage. In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole, he reached 82°45′N, setting the record for human exploration Farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′N by Sir Albert Hastings Markham in 1875. Parry was born in Bath, the son of Caleb Hillier Parry and Sarah Rigby, he was educated at King Edward's School. At the age of thirteen he joined the flagship of Admiral Sir William Cornwallis in the Channel fleet as a first-class volunteer, in 1806 became a midshipman, in 1810 received promotion to the rank of lieutenant in the frigate Alexander, which spent the next three years in the protection of the Spitsbergen whale fishery, he took advantage of this opportunity for the study and practice of astronomical observations in northern latitudes, afterwards published the results of his studies in a small volume on Nautical Astronomy by Night.
From 1813 to 1817 he served on the North American station. In 1818 he received command of the brig Alexander in the Arctic expedition under Captain John Ross; this expedition followed the coast of Baffin Bay without making any new discoveries. Parry and many others thought that Ross was wrong to turn back after entering Lancaster Sound at the north end of Baffin Island; as a result Parry was given command of a new expedition in HMS Hecla accompanied by the slower HMS Griper under Matthew Liddon. Others on the expedition were science officer and Frederick William Beechy. For protection from ice the ships were clad with 3-inch oak, had iron plates on their bows and internal cross-beams, they carried food in tin cans, an invention so new that there were as yet no can openers. Instead of taking Ross's easy route anti-clockwise around Baffin Bay he headed straight for Lancaster Sound. Fighting his way through ice he headed for Lancaster Sound, he kept going. Blocked by heavy ice, they went south for more than 100 miles into Prince Regent Inlet before turning back.
Continuing west they passed 110 ° W. Blocked by ice they turned back to a place Parry called Winter Harbour on the south shore of Melville Island, somewhere near 107- or 108° W. Cutting their way through new ice the ships reached anchorage on 26 September. Here they were frozen in for the next 10 months. There were three months of total darkness and in the new year the temperature reached −54 °F; the men were kept busy with regular exercise while the officers put on plays and produced a newspaper. The first case of scurvy was reported in January and by March fourteen men were on the sick list, about half with mild scurvy. Parry planted them in his cabin; the leaves seemed to help. There was some excitement in early March when the first melt water appeared, but by the end of the month the ice was still 6 feet thick. In June Parry led a group of men dragging a wooden cart to the north shore of the island which he named Hecla and Griper Bay, it was the first of August. They got as far west as 113°46'W before turning back.
It was too late in the season and new ice was beginning to form. They reached England in October 1820 having lost only one man. Parry's voyage, which had taken him through the Parry Channel three quarters of the way across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was the single most productive voyage in the quest for the Northwest Passage. Luck had been on their side. A narrative of the expedition, entitled Journal of a Voyage to discover a North-west Passage, appeared in 1821, publisher John Murray paying 1,000 guineas for it. Upon his return Lieutenant Parry received promotion to the rank of commander, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in February 1821. In April 1821 he again left for the Arctic commanding HMS Fury accompanied by HMS Hecla under George Francis Lyon. Others with him were George Fisher and chaplain, William Hooper and diarist, lieutenants Francis Crozier and Henry Parkyns Hoppner and James Clark Ross a midshipman. Experience from the previous voyage led to improvements; the two vessels were nearly identical.
They had cork insulation, cork plugs for the portholes and a coal-burning stove in the lowest deck to deal with condensation. The men were issued better clothing and lemon juice was stored in kegs rather than glass bottles; the goal this time was to find a passage near the northwest end of Hudson Bay. After working through the ice of Hudson Strait he headed directly west to Frozen Strait which Christopher Middleton had found impassable in 1742, he passed Frozen Strait in a fog and found himself in Repulse Bay which he re-checked and found land-locked. He ran northeast and mapped the coast of the Melville Peninsula and wintered at the southeast corner of Winter Island. From the Inuit he learned. In March and May Lyon led two sledging expeditions into the interior. Freed from the ice in July he went north and found the Fury and Hecla Strait, ice-filled, they waited for the ice to clear. In September Lieutenant Ried trekked 100 miles west along the Strait to the ice-filled Gulf of Boothia, the north end of which Parry had app
Adolphus Washington Greely was a United States Army officer, polar explorer, recipient of the Medal of Honor. He began his long and distinguished military career shortly after the outbreak of the American Civil War. On 26 July 1861, he enlisted in the 19th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment at the age of 17, after having been rejected twice before. Over the next two years he worked his way up the enlisted ranks to 1st sergeant. On 18 March 1863, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 81st United States Colored Infantry, he was promoted to 1st lieutenant on 26 April 1864 and to captain on 4 April 1865. After the war he received a brevet promotion to major to rank from 13 March 1865 for "faithful and meritorious service during the war", he was mustered out of the Volunteer Army on 22 March 1867. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 36th Infantry Regiment of the Regular Army on 7 March 1867 and was reassigned to the 5th Cavalry Regiment on 14 July 1869 after the 36th Infantry was disbanded.
He was promoted to first lieutenant on 27 May 1873. In 1881, First Lieutenant Greely was given command of the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition on the ship Proteus. Promoted by Henry W. Howgate, its purpose was to establish one of a chain of meteorological-observation stations as part of the First International Polar Year; the expedition was commissioned by the US government to collect astronomical and polar magnetic data, carried out by the astronomer Edward Israel, part of Greely's crew. Another goal of the expedition was to search for any clues of the USS Jeannette, lost in the Arctic two years earlier. Greely was without previous Arctic experience, but he and his party were able to discover many hitherto unknown miles along the coast of northwest Greenland; the expedition crossed Ellesmere Island from east to west and Lt. James B. Lockwood and Sgt. David Legge Brainard achieved a new "farthest north" record of 83°23'8" on Lockwood Island. In 1882, Greely sighted a mountain range during a dog sledding exploration to the interior of northern Ellesmere Island and named them the Conger Range.
He sighted the Innuitian Mountains from Lake Hazen. Two consecutive supply parties failed to reach Greely's party encamped at Fort Conger on Ellesmere Island in 1882 and 1883. In accordance with his instructions for this case, Greely decided in August 1883 to abandon Fort Conger and retreat south with his team, they reached Cape Sabine expecting to find food and equipment depots from the supply ships, but these had not been provided. With winter setting in Greely and his men were forced to winter at Cape Sabine with inadequate rations and little fuel. A rescue expedition, led by Capt. Winfield Scott Schley on the USRC Bear, was sent to rescue the Greely party. By the time Bear and ships Thetis and Alert arrived on June 22, 1884, to rescue the expedition, nineteen of Greely's 25-man crew had perished from starvation, hypothermia, and, in the case of Private Henry, gunshot wounds from an execution ordered by Greely. Greely and the other survivors were themselves near death; the returning survivors were venerated as heroes, though the heroism was tainted by sensational accusations of cannibalism during the remaining days of low food.
An exhibition on the "Greely expedition" was part of the Columbian Exposition in 1893 and was captured on stereoscopic images. In June 1886, Greely was promoted to captain after serving twenty years as a lieutenant and, in March 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed him as Chief Signal Officer of the U. S. Army with the rank of brigadier general. During his tenure as Chief Signal Officer of the Army, the following military telegraph lines were constructed and maintained during the Spanish–American War: Puerto Rico, 800 miles. In connection with Alaska General Greely had constructed under adverse conditions a telegraph system of nearly 4,000 mi, consisting of submarine cables, land cables and wireless telegraphy, the latter covering a distance of 107 mi, which at the time of installation was the longest commercial system working in the world. In 1906, he served as military commander over the emergency situation created by the San Francisco earthquake. On February 10, 1906, he was promoted to major general and on March 27, 1908, he retired, having reached the mandatory retirement age of 64.
In 1911 he represented the United States Army at the coronation of King George V. On March 21, 1935, a special act of Congress awarded Greely the Medal of Honor in recognition of his long and distinguished career, he is the second person to be awarded the Medal of Honor for "lifetime achievement" rather than for acts of physical courage at the risk of one's own life. His was the last award of the Medal of Honor by the Army for non-combat service. General Greely died on October 20, 1935, in Washington, D. C. and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia. Greely attended the First Presbyterian Church and married Henrietta Nesmith in 1878 and with her had six children: Antoinette in 1879, Adola in 1881, John in 1885, Rose in 1887, Adolphus in 1889, Gertrude in 1891. Henrietta was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and one of the founding vice presidents general of the Children of the American Revolution. After the Civil War, Greely became a companion of the District of Columbia Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - a military society composed of Union officers
Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev was a Russian explorer of Siberia and the first European to sail through the Bering Strait, 80 years before Vitus Bering did. In 1648 he sailed from the Kolyma River on the Arctic Ocean to the Anadyr River on the Pacific, his exploit was forgotten for a hundred years and Bering is given credit for discovering the strait that bears his name. Dezhnyov was a Pomor, born about 1605 in the town of Veliky Ustyug or the village of Pinega. According to the anthropologist Lydia Black, Dezhnyov was recruited for Siberian service in 1630 as a service man or government agent, he served for eight years in Tobolsk and Yeniseisk, went to Yakutia in 1639, or earlier. He is said to have been a member of the Cossack detachment under Beketov, credited with founding Yakutsk in 1632. In any case, no than 1639 he was sent to Yakutia, where he married a Yakut captive and spent the next three years collecting tribute from the natives. In 1641 Dezhnyov moved northeast to a newly discovered tributary of the Indigirka River where he served under Mikhail Stadukhin.
Finding few furs and hostile natives and hearing of a rich river to the east, he, Stadukhin and Yarilo Zyrian sailed down the Indigirka east along the coast to the Kolyma River, where they built an ostrog. This was at the time the easternmost Russian frontier; the Kolyma soon proved to be one of the richest areas in eastern Siberia. In 1647, 396 men paid head-tax there and 404 men received passports to travel from Yakutsk to the Kolyma. From about 1642, Russians began hearing of a'Pogycha River' to the east which flowed into the Arctic and that the nearby area was rich in sable fur, walrus ivory and silver ore. An attempt to reach it in 1646 failed. In 1647 Fedot Alekseyev, an agent of a Moscow merchant, organized an expedition and brought in Dezhnyov because he was a government official; the expedition reached the sea but was unable to round the Chukchi Peninsula because it had to turn back due to thick drift ice. They tried again the following year. Fedot Alekseyev was joined by two others and Afstaf'iev, representing the Guselnikov merchant house, with their own vessels and men, while Alekseyev provided five vessels and the majority of the men.
Gerasim Ankudinov, with his own vessel and 30 men joined the expedition. Dezhnyov recruited his own men, 18 or 19, for fur gathering for private profit, as was the custom at the time; the whole group numbered between 121 people, travelling in traditional koch vessels. At least one woman, Alekseyev's Yakut wife, was with this group. On 20 June 1648 they sailed down the river to the Arctic. During the next year it was learned from captives that two koches had been wrecked and their survivors killed by the natives. Two other koches were lost in a way, not recorded; some time before 20 September they rounded a'great rocky projection'. Here Ankudinov's koch was wrecked and the survivors were transferred to the remaining two vessels. At the beginning of October a storm blew up and Fedot's koch disappeared.. Dezhnyov's koch was driven by the storm and was wrecked somewhere south of the Anadyr; the remaining 25 men wandered in unknown country for 10 weeks until they came to the mouth of the Anadyr. Twelve men walked for 20 days, found nothing and turned back.
Three of the stronger men got back to Dezhnyov and the rest were never heard of again. In the spring or early summer of 1649 the 12 remaining men built boats from driftwood and went up the Anadyr, they were trying to get out of the tundra into forested country to obtain sables and firewood. About 320 miles upriver they built a zimov'ye somewhere near Anadyrsk and subjected the local Anauls to tribute. Here they were stranded. In 1649 Russians on the Kolyma ascended the Anyuy River branch of the Kolyma and learned that one could travel from its headwaters to the headwaters of the Pogycha-Anadyr. In 1650 Stadukhin and Semyon Motora stumbled onto Dezhnyov's camp; the land route was superior and Dezhnyov's sea route was never used again. Dezhnyov spent the next several years collecting tribute from the natives. More cossacks arrived from the Kolyma. Dezhnyov found a walrus rookery at the mouth of the Anadyr and accumulated over 2 tons of Walrus ivory, far more valuable than the few furs found at Anadyrsk.
In 1659 Dezhnyov transferred his authority to the discoverer of Lake Baikal. In 1662 he was at Yakutsk. In 1664 he reached Moscow in charge of a load of tribute goods, he served on the Olenyok River and the Vilyuy River. In 1670 he escorted 47,164 rubles of tribute to Moscow and died there in late 1672; as stated above, Dezhnyov traveled with Fedot Alekseyev and two others and Afstaf'iev. Except for Dezhnyov, none of the other leaders of this expedition survived to tell their tale. Dezhnyov rounded the eastern extremity of Asia, East Cape, now known to Russians as mys Dezhenyova made landfall on the Diomede Islands, sailed through the Bering Strait, reached the Anadyr River, ascended it and founded the Anadyr ostrog. Four of the
HMS Alert (1856)
HMS Alert was a 17-gun wooden screw sloop of the Cruizer class of the Royal Navy, launched in 1856 and broken up in 1894. It was the eleventh ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name, was noted for her Arctic exploration work. Alert served with the US Navy, ended her career with the Canadian Marine Service as a lighthouse tender and buoy ship; the wooden sloops of the Cruizer class were designed under the direction of Lord John Hay, after his "Committee of Reference" was disbanded, their construction was supervised by the new Surveyor of the Navy, Sir Baldwin Walker. Ordered together with her co-ship Falcon on 2 April 1853, Alert was laid down at the Royal Dockyard, Pembroke in January 1855, it was fitted at Chatham with a two-cylinder horizontal single-expansion steam engine, supplied by Ravenhill & Salkeld at a cost of £6,052 and generated an indicated horsepower of 383 hp. The class was given a barque-rig sail plan. All the ships of the class were provided with one 32-pounder long gun on a pivot mount and sixteen 32-pounder carriage guns in a broadside arrangement.
When converted for Arctic exploration in 1874, her armament was reduced to a token outfit of four Armstrong breech-loaders. Alert spent the first 11 years of her life on the Pacific Station, based at Esquimalt at the southern tip of Vancouver Island, Canada. Alert Bay, British Columbia is named after the ship, nearby Pearse Island, at the north entrance to Johnstone Strait, is named after Commander William Alfred Rumbulow Pearse, her commanding officer. During this period it returned to May 1863 for a refit, her service on the Pacific station was the type of work for which her class had been designed—the policing of Britain's far-flung maritime empire. A photograph exists of Alert at Esquimalt, British Columbia from 1867, it is further attested to by the following extract from The Colonist newspaper: "The'Alert' Taken! – On Wednesday, H. M. S. Alert was taken without resistance on the part of her officers and crew, who are believed to have lent themselves to the plot; the ship was lying at anchor in Esquimalt harbour when the affair occurred, the time chosen by the enemy was noon-day.
The captor was Mr. Robinson the Photographer, the only weapons he used in effecting his object were a Camera, a bit of glass." Alert was placed in the Steam Reserve. In 1874, Alert was taken in hand for conversion to the role of Arctic exploration, her single-expansion engine was replaced with an R & W Hawthorn compound-expansion engine, it was reboilered to 60 pounds per square inch, her armament was reduced to four guns and her hull was strengthened with felt-covered iron. Above the waterline it was sheathed with teak, below it, Canadian elm and pitch-pine; the modifications caused her displacement to increase to 1,240 tons. The British Arctic Expedition was commanded by Captain George Strong Nares, comprised Alert and Discovery; the expedition aimed to reach the North Pole via Smith Sound, the sea passage between Greenland and Canada's northernmost island, Ellesmere Island. Contemporary geographers proposed that there could be an Open Polar Sea, that if the thick layer of ice surrounding it were overcome, access to the North Pole by sea might be possible.
Since Edward Augustus Inglefield had penetrated Smith Sound in 1852, it had been a route to the North. Despite finding heavier-than-expected ice, the expedition pressed on. Leaving Discovery to winter at Lady Franklin Bay, Alert pressed on a further 50 nautical miles through the Robeson Channel, establishing her winter quarters at Floeberg Beach. Spring 1876 saw considerable activity by sledge, charting the coasts of Ellesmere Island and Greenland, but scurvy had begun to take hold, with Alert suffering the greatest burden. On 3 April the second-in-command of Alert, Albert Hastings Markham, took a party north to attempt the Pole. By 11 May, having made slow progress, they reached their greatest latitude at 83° 20' 26"N. Suffering from snow blindness and exhaustion, they turned back; the expedition was rewarded on its return. The geography of northern Canada and Greenland is dotted with the names of those connected with the expedition: Nares Strait, Nares Lake, Markham Ice Shelf, Ayles Ice Shelf, Mount Ayles.
The northernmost permanently inhabited place on earth, the settlement of Alert at the northern point of Ellesmere Island, was named for the ship. Alert recommissioned at Chatham on 20 August 1878 under the command of Captain Sir George Strong Nares for a survey of the Strait of Magellan. On 12 March 1879 Captain John Fiot Lee Pearse Maclear took command, under him she went to Australia Station and the Pacific, she was employed in surveying, but the presence of Doctor Richard Coppinger, her surgeon, ensured that she made a huge contribution to the field of zoology. Coppinger, who had served in the Arctic expedition, was an accomplished naturalist and his collections from the period 1878–1882, which included indigenous cultural artifacts purloined, as he admitted, from Mutumui sites on Clack Island, added 1,300 species to the National Collection. Alert paid off at Sheerness on 20 September 1882. Adolphus Greely led the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition to the Arctic in 1881. Two supply ships failed to reach his party, a relief expedition in 1883 failed to extract the team.
The US Navy put together a further relief expedition in 1884 under Captain W. S. Schley, Alert was offered, she was loaned to the US Navy und
Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen was a Norwegian polar explorer. He participated on the third Fram expeditions, he shipped out with the Fridtjof Nansen expedition in 1893–1896, accompanied Nansen to notch a new Farthest North record near the North Pole. Johansen participated in the expedition of Roald Amundsen to the South Pole in 1910–1912. Born at Skien in Telemark county, Norway, he was the son of Maren Pedersdatter. He was the second eldest son in a family of five children, he attended Royal Frederick University to study law in Christiania. However, he performed poorly at law school, due to a low attendance of lectures. At the age of 21, Johansen's father died. After dropping out of school, Hjalmar worked in an office job at Bratsberg. However, by that time he had made his mark as an athlete. In gymnastics he became Norwegian champion in 1885 in Fredrikshald and world champion in 1889 in Paris. Johansen joined Nansen's polar expedition with Fram in 1893. After Fram froze fast, he became an assistant to Sigurd Scott-Hansen with his meteorologic studies.
Johansen was an expert dog driver. Using skis and sled dogs, Johansen accompanied Nansen on their joint closest approach to the North Pole, 86 degrees 14 minutes north, in 1895. On their way home and Nansen were forced to spend the winter on Franz Josef Land because of severe damage to their kayaks when crossing open channels in the ice. During the expedition, Johansen once fell through the ice and was saved by Nansen, received a blow on his head by a polar bear. On the return of the Nansen parties to Norway and other members of the crew of the Fram were celebrated as heroes. Johansen was promoted to captain in the Norwegian infantry at the garrison in Tromsø; however he drank and in 1907 he was asked to resign his position in the army. Between the years 1907 to 1909, Johansen participated in four expeditions to Svalbard. In 1910 he was one of Amundsen's men in Antarctica. Amundsen and his men, racing for the South Pole with Robert Falcon Scott, started out for the South Pole too early in the season and had to return to base camp at the Bay of Whales.
Johansen had disagreed with the early start and had to rescue a less experienced member of the party, Kristian Prestrud, from freezing to death on the return journey. Amundsen had taken the best dogsled and sped off towards the camp without regard for his men as a storm approached; as a result and Johansen had no tent or cooking equipment to melt snow and had no choice but to press on for the camp in a blizzard with extreme windchill and a dangerous descent towards the base camp. Johansen carried him to the base camp. However, the mishap enraged Amundsen. Upon their return to the Bay of Whales, Johansen quarrelled with Amundsen in front of the other men, he further disciplined Johansen by ordering him to subordinate himself to Prestrud, ordering the two men to embark on a minor expedition towards King Edward VII Land while the other members of the main expedition resumed their trek towards the Pole. The Amundsen party reached the South Pole and reunited with the subsidiary party. On the expedition's landfall in Tasmania Amundsen dismissed Johansen from the Fram, paid him off, ordered him to return separately to Norway.
Once Johansen had left Amundsen's party, the triumphant leader made the entire remaining crew sign a paper that stated that they were to keep quiet about the whole expedition. Amundsen was to have the sole right of writing about it in his soon-to-be-published book. After returning separately to Norway, Johansen found that he was never to be credited by Amundsen for any contribution to the expedition, including his heroic rescue of Prestrud. Johansen was awarded the South Pole Medal, the Royal Norwegian award instituted by King Haakon VII in 1912 to reward participants in Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition. However, Johansen had resumed drinking alcohol, became clinically depressed and in 1913 committed suicide, his wife Hilda Øvrum and their four children survived him. After his death, Johansen's reputation drifted into obscurity. In 1997, biographer Ragnar Kvam, Jr. published a biography of the forgotten explorer, Den tredje mann: Beretningen om Hjalmar Johansen. As a result of this and other work, Johansen's place in the story of Norwegian polar exploration is being rehabilitated.
In 2005, the International Hydrographic Organization approved the proposal by an American arctic scientist to name Hjalmar Johansen Seamount, a newly discovered volcanic edifice on the floor of the Arctic Ocean northwest of Spitzbergen. The location is 82 degrees, 57 minutes N, 3 degrees, 40 minutes W; the top of the undersea mountain lies at a water depth of 4800 meters. Hjalmar Johansen With Nansen in the North Ragnar Kvam Den tredje mann: Beretningen om Hjalmar Johansen ISBN 978-8205248847
James Clark Ross
Sir James Clark Ross was a British Royal Navy explorer known for his exploration of the Arctic with Sir William Parry and Sir John Ross, his uncle, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica. Ross was born in London, the nephew of Sir John Ross, under whom he entered the navy in 1812, accompanying him on Sir John's first Arctic voyage in search of a Northwest Passage in 1818. Between 1819 and 1827, Ross took part in four Arctic expeditions under Sir William Parry, in 1829 to 1833, again served under his uncle on Sir John's second Arctic voyage, it was during this trip that a small party led by James Ross located the position of the North Magnetic Pole on 1 June 1831 on the Boothia Peninsula in the far north of Canada. It was on this trip, that Ross charted the Beaufort Islands renamed Clarence Islands by his uncle. In 1834, Ross was promoted to captain. In December 1835, he offered his services to the Admiralty to resupply 11 whaling ships which had become trapped in Baffin Bay, they accepted his offer, he set sail in HMS Cove in January 1836.
The crossing was difficult, by the time he had reached the last known position of the whalers in June, all but one had managed to return home. Ross found no trace of this last vessel, William Torr, crushed in the ice in December 1835, he returned to Hull in September 1836 with all his crew in good health. From 1835–1839, except for his voyage with Cove, he conducted a magnetic survey of Great Britain with Sir Edward Sabine. Between 1839 and 1843, Ross commanded HMS Erebus on his own Antarctic expedition and charted much of the continent's coastline. Captain Francis Crozier was second-in-command of commanding HMS Terror. Support for the expedition had been arranged by Francis Beaufort, hydrographer of the Navy and a member of several scientific societies. On the expedition was Joseph Dalton Hooker, invited along as assistant ship's surgeon. Erebus and Terror were bomb vessels—an unusual type of warship named after the mortar bombs they were designed to fire and constructed with strong hulls, to withstand the recoil of the mortars, which were to prove of great value in thick ice.
In 1841, James Ross discovered the Ross Sea, Victoria Land, the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror, which were named for the expedition's vessels. They sailed for 250 nautical miles along the edge of the low, flat-topped ice shelf they called variously the Barrier or the Great Ice Barrier named the Ross Ice Shelf in his honour; the following year, he attempted to penetrate south at about 55° W, explored the eastern side of what is now known as James Ross Island and naming Snow Hill Island and Seymour Island. Ross reported that Admiralty Sound appeared to him to have been blocked by glaciers at its southern end. Ross's ships arrived back in England on 4 September 1843, he was awarded the Grande Médaille d'Or des Explorations in 1843, knighted in 1844, elected to the Royal Society in 1848. In 1848, Ross was sent on one of three expeditions to find Sir John Franklin; the others were the Rae–Richardson Arctic Expedition and the expedition aboard HMS Plover and HMS Herald through the Bering Strait.
He was given command of HMS Enterprise, accompanied by HMS Investigator, Because of heavy ice in Baffin Bay he only reached the northeast tip of Somerset Island where he was frozen in at Port Leopold. In the spring he and Sir Francis McClintock explored the west coast of the island by sledge, he thought it too ice-choked for Franklin to have used it. The next summer he was blocked by ice and returned to England, he was married to Lady Ann Coulman. He died at Aylesbury five years after his wife. A blue plaque marks Ross's home in Eliot Place, London, his closest friend was Francis Crozier. He lived in the ancient House of the Abbots of St. Albans in Buckinghamshire, he is buried with his wife in Aston Abbotts. In the gardens of the Abbey there is a lake with two islands, named after the ships Terror and Erebus. Ross, played by British actor Richard Sutton, is a secondary character in the 2018 AMC television series The Terror, portrayed in a fictionalized version of his 1848 search for Franklin's lost expedition, as well as in the 2007 Dan Simmons novel on which the series is based.
The Ross seal, one of the four Antarctic phocids, first described during the Ross expedition The James Ross Strait, Ross Bay, Ross Point, Rossoya in the Arctic are all named after him. RRS James Clark Ross is a British Antarctic Survey research ship; the crater Ross on the Moon is named after him. Ross's gull, a small gull, the only species in its genus, that breeds in the high arctic of northernmost North America and northeast Siberia Ross Dependency, Ross Island, Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea in the Antarctic are all named after him. European and American voyages of scientific exploration E. C. Coleman, The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration From Frobisher to Ross. ISBN 0752436600. Ray Edinger, Fury Beach: The Four-Year Odyssey of Captain John Ross and the Victory. ISBN 0425188450. "Ross, John". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Media related to James Clark Ross at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about James Clark Ross at Internet Archive
The koch was a special type of small one or two mast wooden sailing ships designed and used in Russia for transpolar voyages in ice conditions of the Arctic seas, popular among the Pomors. Because of its additional skin-planking and Arctic design of the body and the rudder, it could sail without being damaged in the waters full of ice blocks and ice floes; the koch was the unique ship of this class for several centuries. The development of koch began in the 11th century, when Russians started settling of the White Sea shores; this type of ship was in wide use during the heyday of Russian polar navigation in the 15th and 16th centuries. There is documentary proof that in those days the private Russian civil fleet in the Arctic seas numbered up to 7,400 small ships in a single year. In the 17th century, kochs were used on Siberian rivers during the Russian exploration and conquest of Siberia and the Far East. In 1715, during the Great Northern War, the Russian Arctic shipbuilding and navigation were undermined by the ukase of Tsar Peter the Great.
According to the ukase, only novomanerniye vessels could be built, the civil ships, which could be used for military purposes. The koch with its special anti-icebound features did not suit this aim. In the 19th century the anti-ice floe protective features of koch were adopted to the first modern icebreakers, in fact koch may be regarded as the most ancient form of icebreaker, though wooden and small; the koches were traditionally built shell-first, with overlapping planks, following the once-widespread Northern European clinker shipbuilding tradition. Iron rivets and brackets, as long as shrub branches or tree roots, were used to fasten the planks to each other. Ribs were inserted into the hull; as these ships were in use as late as early 17th century, this may be by far the last use of the clinker technology on large sea-going vessels. They were flat-bottomed, but there is no reliable information whether the bottom was carvel built, as on the cogs, or clinker built, as on Viking ships; the keel length of koch was about 10–25 meters.
It had 13 combination ribs, each consisting of several details. The keel was a combination of several parts. Bulkheads divided the body into several cross-section compartments; each compartment served a specific purpose. There invariably were the fore-part compartment used as the crew's quarters, the stern cabin for the captain, the cargo hold amidships; the koch had a flat deck. A typical koch carried one square sail on one mast. A distinctive peculiarity of the koch was the big size of its square rudder fin which compensated for the special extra-slim design of the upper part of the rudder; this type of ship had two 70 pounds main anchors and often, light anchors. Naval historians think that the light anchors could have been used for mooring kochs to the edge of the ice fields. Special Arctic design features included the rounded lines of the ship's body below the water line, an additional belt of ice-floe resistant flush skin-planking along the variable water-line, a false keel for on-ice portage, the shaft-like upper part and wide lower part of the rudder.
Another Arctic feature was the invariable presence aboard any koch of two or more iceboats and of a windlass with anchor rope. Each iceboat had the cargo capacity of 1.5 to 2.0 metric tons and was equipped with long runners for portage on ice. If a koch became trapped in the ice, its rounded bodylines below the water-line would allow for the ship, squeezed by the ice-fields, to be pushed up out of the water and onto the ice with no damage to the body. Besides the anti-icebound equipment, the captains of kochs had the traditional set of navigation instruments, including a sundial and a magnetic compass with floating vetromet. Other tools and means of navigation were the detailed charts and sailing directions, the stars, the pilot's marks on the familiar shores. There are two main classifications of koch subtypes; the first, a mixed classification, distinguishes between three subtypes of kochs depending on both their place of origin and their sea-worthiness. The second classification does not pay any attention to minor shipbuilding differences and divides all kochs into two categories according to the main spheres of their maritime operations: river/sea, morskiye for long-range sea voyages.
The following is added from Fisher. He claims that the koch had only one mast; the largest koches were 60 feet long and 20 feet wide, with a draft of 5 or 6 feet and a crew of 6 to 12. They could hold up to 45 tonnes of cargo, they were oval when viewed from the side. The flat or rounded bottom made them maneuverable when dodging ice floes, but unstable in a severe storm; the square sail and flat bottom meant. Other boat types used in Siberia: Shitik, Baidarka. Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records Glorious beginnings at rusnavy.com Navigation in ice conditions. Experience of Russian sailors; the boat's hull is built in the same manner the Kothes were built