Sonoma Developmental Center
The Sonoma Developmental Center is a large, state-run facility in California, United States, serving the needs of people with developmental disabilities. It is located in Eldridge in Sonoma County, it opened at its current location on November 24, 1891, though it had existed at previous locations in Vallejo and Santa Clara since 1884. The facility's current name dates from 1986. Former names include: California Home for the Care and Training of Feeble Minded Children Sonoma State Home Sonoma State Hospital Sonoma Developmental Center History: 1883 - First home opened at White Sulphur Springs near Vallejo. 1884 - Fasking Park, Alameda County. 1885-1891 - The Home was located in Santa Clara, near the intersection of Market and Washington Street. 1891 - A new site for the Home was purchased from former State Senator William Hill for $51,000. Two railroads ran through the site until World War II; the superintendent was Dr. Antrim Edgar Osborn. Superintendents 1891- Antrim Edgar Osborn, M. D. 1900 - William.
P. Lawlor, M. D. 1903 - W. J. G. Dawson, M. D. 1919 - Frederick Otis Butler, M. D. 1949 - M. E. Porter, M. D. 1918 - A Spanish influenza epidemic killed dozens of inmates. Dr. Lawlor was killed; the Home had four types of residents: the mentally handicapped, the epileptic, the physically disabled, the "psychopathic delinquent." From the start, the Home was overcrowded. In 2000 the main building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. In 2015, the State announced the closure of SDC by the end of 2018; this meant the relocation of more than 300 residents, the development of a reuse plan for the property. The October 2017 Nuns Fire had a dramatic impact on SDC, necessitating a mandatory evacuation of hundreds of residents and staff, burning the eastern third of the property along California State Route 12; the main area of SDC withstood the fires, the remaining residents all moved back in. In May 2017, the State hired Wallace Roberts & Todd to provide architectural and engineering services to prepare “a comprehensive existing conditions study and an opportunities and constraints summary and analysis for SDC.”
The State incorporated a strong community engagement plan as part of the WRT contract. In order to ensure that the site assessment was based on the best available data—and that the analysis is designed to answer the most pressing concerns of the local community—WRT created an SDC Community Advisory Committee; this Committee is composed of a broad range of local stakeholders, its purpose is “to provide comments to the WRT team on the Site Assessment findings and to offer input regarding the opportunities and constraints for the SDC site.” The first meeting of the CAC was September 28, 2017. Ten days the fires raged through the North Bay, WRT's goal of producing its reports and holding a series of community meetings by the end of 2017 was lost in the tumult of wildlife disaster response. After a three-month delay, CAC scheduled a meeting with WRT on March 22, 2018. After the cancelled September CAC meeting, WRT had planned to finish the site assessment, presenting the findings one more time to the CAC, holding a public meeting in Sonoma where the whole community would be briefed on this critical information.
According to the new timeline, after the CAC meets in March, the public meeting is to happen in mid-April. The State Archive in Sacramento have extensive holdings on the early history of the Home. Including patient registers, photographs and records; the Gosney Archive at Caltech in Pasadena, CA contains information about sterilization from the 1920s. The SDC does have some historical resources; the Center provided the setting for Jack London's short story Told in the Drooling Ward. Downloadable version of Jack London's short story Told in the Drooling Ward with an introduction by Ed Davis The book In All Things: A Return to the Drooling Ward is a fictionalized account based on the author's experiences while training as a psychiatric technician at the former hospital. Lake Suttonfield National Register of Historic Places listings in Sonoma County, California Eugenics Unethical human experimentation in the United States SDC Closing Ceremony hosted by Ed Davis, retrieved November 19, 2018 "Sonoma State Home".
Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. California Department of Developmental Services
Insanity and craziness are terms that describe a spectrum of individual and group behaviors that are characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns. Insanity can be manifest as violations of societal norms, including a person or persons becoming a danger to themselves or to other people. Conceptually, mental insanity is associated with the biological phenomenon of contagion as in the case of copycat suicides. In contemporary usage, the term insanity is an informal, un-scientific term denoting "mental instability". In medicine, the general term psychosis is used to include the presence either of delusions or of hallucinations or both in a patient. In English, the word "sane" derives from the Latin adjective sanus meaning "healthy". Juvenal's phrase mens sana in corpore sano is translated to mean a "healthy mind in a healthy body". From this perspective, insanity can be considered as poor health of the mind, not of the brain as an organ, but rather refers to defective function of mental processes such as reasoning.
Another Latin phrase related to our current concept of sanity is "compos mentis", a euphemistic term for insanity is "non compos mentis". In law, mens rea means having had a guilty mind, when the act was committed. A more informal use of the term insanity is to denote something or someone considered unique, passionate or extreme, including in a positive sense; the term may be used as an attempt to discredit or criticise particular ideas, principles, personal feelings, attitudes, or their proponents, such as in politics and religion. Madness, the non-legal word for insanity, has been recognized throughout history in every known society; some traditional cultures have turned to witch doctors or shamans to apply magic, herbal mixtures, or folk medicine to rid deranged persons of evil spirits or bizarre behavior, for example. Archaeologists have unearthed skulls that have round holes bored in them using flint tools, it has been conjectured that the subjects may have been thought to have been possessed by spirits which the holes would allow to escape.
However, more recent research on the historical practice of trepanning supports the hypothesis that this procedure was medical in nature and intended as means of treating cranial trauma. The Greeks appeared to share something of today's secular and holistic view, believing that afflictions of the mind did not differ from diseases of the body. Moreover, they saw mental and physical illness as a result of natural causes and an imbalance in bodily humors. Hippocrates wrote that an excess of black bile resulted in irrational thinking and behavior. Romans made other contributions to psychiatry, in particular a precursor of some contemporary practice, they put forward the idea that strong emotions could lead to bodily ailments, the basis of today’s theory of psychosomatic illness. The Romans supported humane treatment of the mentally ill, in so doing codified into law the principle of insanity as a mitigation of responsibility for criminal acts, although the criterion for insanity was set as the defendant had to be found "non compos mentis", a term meaning "not sound of mind".
The Middle Ages, witnessed the end of the progressive ideas of the Greeks and Romans. During the 18th century, the French and the British introduced humane treatment of the clinically insane, though the criteria for diagnosis and placement in an asylum were looser than today including such conditions as speech disorder, speech impediments and depression or being pregnant out of wedlock. Europe's oldest asylum was the precursor of today's Bethlem Royal Hospital in London, known as Bedlam, which began admitting the mentally ill in 1403 and is mentioned in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales; the first American asylum was built in Williamsburg, circa 1773. Before the 19th century these hospitals were used to isolate the mentally ill or the ostracized from society rather than cure them or maintain their health. Pictures from this era portrayed patients bound with rope or chains to beds or walls, or restrained in straitjackets. Insanity is no longer considered a medical diagnosis but is a legal term in the United States, stemming from its original use in common law.
The disorders encompassed by the term covered a wide range of mental disorders now diagnosed as bipolar disorder, organic brain syndromes and other psychotic disorders. In United States criminal law, insanity may serve as an affirmative defense to criminal acts and thus does not need to negate an element of the prosecution's case such as general or specific intent; each U. S. state differs somewhat in its definition of insanity but most follow the guidelines of the Model Penal Code. All jurisdictions require a sanity evaluation to address the question first of whether or not the defendant has a mental illness. Most courts accept a major mental illness such as psychosis but will not accept the diagnosis of a personality disorder for the purposes of an insanity defense; the second question is whether the mental illness interfered with the defendant's ability to distinguish right from wrong. That is, did the defendant know that the alleged behavior was against the law at the time the offense was committed.
Additionally, some jurisdictions add the question of whether or not the defendant was in control of their behavior at the time of the offense. For example, if the defendant was compelled by some aspect of the
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Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, was a British statesman and Prime Minister. As Prime Minister, Liverpool called for repressive measures at domestic level to maintain order after the Peterloo Massacre of 1819, he dealt smoothly with the Prince Regent. He steered the country through the period of radicalism and unrest that followed the Napoleonic Wars, he favoured manufacturing interests as well as the landed interest. He sought a compromise of the heated issue of Catholic emancipation; the revival of the economy strengthened his political position. By the 1820s he was the leader of a reform faction of "Liberal Tories" who lowered the tariff, abolished the death penalty for many offences, reformed the criminal law. By the time of his death in office, the Tory Party was ripping itself apart. John Derry says he was:a capable and intelligent statesman, whose skill in building up his party, leading the country to victory in the war against Napoleon, laying the foundations for prosperity outweighed his unpopularity in the immediate post-Waterloo years.
Important events during his tenure as Prime Minister included the War of 1812 with the United States, the Sixth and Seventh Coalitions against the French Empire, the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars at the Congress of Vienna, the Corn Laws, the Peterloo Massacre, the Trinitarian Act 1812 and the emerging issue of Catholic emancipation. Jenkinson was baptised on 29 June 1770 at St. Margaret's, the son of George III's close adviser Charles Jenkinson the first Earl of Liverpool, his first wife, Amelia Watts. Jenkinson's 19-year-old mother, the daughter of a senior East India Company official William Watts and of his wife Begum Johnson, died from the effects of childbirth one month after his birth. Jenkinson was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. In the summer of 1789, Jenkinson spent four months in Paris to perfect his French and enlarge his social experience, he returned to Oxford for three months to complete his terms of residence and in May 1790 was created master of arts. He won election to the House of Commons in 1790 for Rye, a seat he would hold until 1803.
This tour took in the Netherlands and Italy, whereby he was old enough to take his seat in Parliament. It is not clear when he entered the Commons, but as his twenty-first birthday was not reached until the end of the 1791 session, it is possible that he waited until the following year. With the help of his father's influence and his political talent, he rose fast in the Tory government. In February 1792, he gave the reply to Samuel Whitbread's critical motion on the government's Russian policy, he delivered several other speeches during the session, including one against the abolition of the slave trade, which reflected his father's strong opposition to William Wilberforce's campaign. He served as a member of the Board of Control for India from 1793 to 1796. In the defence movement that followed the outbreak of hostilities with France, was one of the first of the ministers of the government to enlist in the militia. In 1794 he became a Colonel in the Cinque Ports Fencibles, his military duties led to frequent absences from the Commons.
In 1796 his regiment was sent to Scotland and he was quartered for a time in Dumfries. In 1797, the Lord Hawkesbury was the cavalry commander of the Cinque Ports Light Dragoons who ran amok following a protest against the Militia Act at Tranent in East Lothian and twelve civilians were killed, it was reported that "His lordship was blamed for remaining at Haddington, as his presence might have prevented the outrages of the soldiery."He was appointed a Colonel of militia in 1810. His parliamentary attendance suffered from his reaction when his father angrily opposed his projected marriage with Lady Louisa Hervey, daughter of the Earl of Bristol. After Pitt and the King had intervened on his behalf, the wedding took place at Wimbledon on 25 March 1795. In May 1796, when his father was created Earl of Liverpool, he took the courtesy title of Lord Hawkesbury and remained in the Commons, he became Baron Hawkesbury in his own right and was elevated to the House of Lords in November 1803, as recognition of his work as Foreign Secretary.
He served as Master of the Mint. In Henry Addington's government, he entered the cabinet as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, in which capacity he negotiated the Treaty of Amiens with France. Most of his time as Foreign secretary was spent dealing with the nations of France and the United States, he continued to serve in the cabinet as Home Secretary in Pitt the Younger's second government. While Pitt was ill, Liverpool was in charge of the cabinet and drew up the King's Speech for the official opening of Parliament; when William Pitt died in 1806, the King asked Liverpool to accept the post of Prime Minister, but he refused, as he believed he lacked a governing majority. He was made leader of the Opposition during Lord Grenville's ministry. In 1807, he resumed office as Home Secretary in the Duke of Portland's ministry. Lord Liverpool accepted the position of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in Spencer Perceval's government in 1809. Liverpool's first step on taking up his new post was to elicit from the Duke of Wellington a strong enough statement of his ability to resist a
An editorial, leading article or leader, is an article written by the senior editorial staff or publisher of a newspaper, magazine, or any other written document unsigned. Australian and major United States newspapers, such as The New York Times and The Boston Globe classify editorials under the heading "opinion". Illustrated editorials may appear in the form of editorial cartoons. A newspaper's editorial board evaluates which issues are important for their readership to know the newspaper's opinion on. Editorials are published on a dedicated page, called the editorial page, which features letters to the editor from members of the public. However, a newspaper may choose to publish an editorial on the front page. In the English-language press, this occurs and only on topics considered important. Many newspapers publish their editorials without the name of the leader writer. Tom Clark, leader-writer for The Guardian, argues that it ensures that readers discuss the issue at hand rather than the author.
On the other hand, an editorial does reflect the position of a newspaper and the head of the newspaper, the editor, is known by name. Whilst the editor will not write the editorial themselves, they maintain oversight and retain responsibility; when The Press, a New Zealand newspaper based in Christchurch, changed after 157 years from broadsheet to compact in 2018, they published a list of editorials where current thinking differs from opinions expressed at the time. The starkest example was their view on women's suffrage in New Zealand after the government gave women the vote in 1893, where the editorial proclaimed that women would "much prefer staying at home and attending to their household duties" than going to the polling booths. In the field of fashion publishing, the term is used to refer to photo-editorials – features with full-page photographs on a particular theme, model or other single topic, with or without accompanying text. Column The dictionary definition of editorial at Wiktionary Editorial Writing Examples
The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the 27-book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era, in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around 120 AD. John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD.
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament; the Old Testament canon is not uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31:31. The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin, the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah 31:31, was rendered testamentum in Hebrews 8:8 and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, the treatment of the term Διαθήκη diathḗkē varies in Bible translations into English. John Wycliffe's 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, with the house of Judah. For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written c. 208 AD, he writes of: the Divine Word, doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.
And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses, centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets. By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae: But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti