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Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop. The system can be said to feed back into itself; the notion of cause-and-effect has to be handled when applied to feedback systems: Simple causal reasoning about a feedback system is difficult because the first system influences the second and second system influences the first, leading to a circular argument. This makes reasoning based upon cause and effect tricky, it is necessary to analyze the system as a whole. Self-regulating mechanisms have existed since antiquity, the idea of feedback had started to enter economic theory in Britain by the eighteenth century, but it was not at that time recognized as a universal abstraction and so did not have a name; the first known artificial feedback device was a float valve, for maintaining water at a constant level, invented in 270 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. This device illustrated the principle of feedback: a low water level opens the valve, the rising water provides feedback into the system, closing the valve when the required level is reached.

This reoccurs in a circular fashion as the water level fluctuates. Centrifugal governors were used to regulate the distance and pressure between millstones in windmills since the 17th century. In 1788 James Watt designed his first Centrifugal governor following a suggestion from his business partner Matthew Boulton, for use in the steam engines of their production. Early steam engines employed a purely reciprocating motion, were used for pumping water – an application that could tolerate variations in the working speed, but the use of steam engines for other applications called for more precise control of the speed. In 1868, James Clerk Maxwell wrote a famous paper "On governors", considered a classic in feedback control theory; this was mathematics of feedback. The verb phrase "to feed back", in the sense of returning to an earlier position in a mechanical process, was in use in the US by the 1860s, in 1909, Nobel laureate Karl Ferdinand Braun used the term "feed-back" as a noun to refer to coupling between components of an electronic circuit.

By the end of 1912, researchers using early electronic amplifiers had discovered that deliberately coupling part of the output signal back to the input circuit would boost the amplification, but would cause the audion to howl or sing. This action of feeding back of the signal from output to input gave rise to the use of the term "feedback" as a distinct word by 1920. Over the years there has been some dispute as to the best definition of feedback. According to Ashby and theorists interested in the principles of feedback mechanisms prefer the definition of circularity of action, which keeps the theory simple and consistent. For those with more practical aims, feedback should be a deliberate effect via some more tangible connection. Object to the mathematician's definition, pointing out that this would force them to say that feedback was present in the ordinary pendulum... between its position and its momentum—a "feedback" that, from the practical point of view, is somewhat mystical. To this the mathematician retorts that if feedback is to be considered present only when there is an actual wire or nerve to represent it the theory becomes chaotic and riddled with irrelevancies.

Focusing on uses in management theory, Ramaprasad defines feedback as "...information about the gap between the actual level and the reference level of a system parameter", used to "alter the gap in some way". He emphasizes. There are two types of feedback: negative feedback. Positive feedback: If the signal fed back from output is in phase with the input signal,the feedback is called positive feedback. Negative feedback: If the signal fed back is of opposite polarity or out of phase by 180° with respect to input signal, the feedback is called as negative feedback; as an example of negative feedback, the diagram might represent a cruise control system in a car, for example, that matches a target speed such as the speed limit. The controlled system is the car; the car's speed is measured by a speedometer. The error signal is the departure of the speed; this measured error is interpreted by the controller to adjust the accelerator, commanding the fuel flow to the engine. The resulting change in engine torque, the feedback, combines with the torque exerted by the changing road grade to reduce the error in speed, minimizing the road disturbance.

The terms "positive" and "negative" were first applied to feedback prior to WWII. The idea of positive feedback was current in the 1920s with the introduction of the regenerative circuit. Friis and Jensen described regeneration in a set of electronic amplifiers as a case where the "feed-back" action is positive in contrast to negative feed-back action, which they mention only in passing. Harold Stephen Black's classic 1934 paper first details the use of negative feedback in electronic amplifiers. According to Black: Positive feed-back increases the gain of the amplifier, negative feed-back reduces it. According to Mindell confusion in the terms arose shortly after this:... Friis and Jensen had made the same distinction Black used between "positive feed-back" and "negative feed-back", based not on the sign of the feedback itself but rather on its effect on the amplifier's gain. In co

National Administrative Council

The National Administrative Council was the executive council of the Independent Labour Party, a British socialist party, active from 1893 until 1975. The Independent Labour Party was founded at a conference in Bradford in 1893 by a large number of localised organisations. Delegates wished there to be a body which would implement policy between conferences, raise funds, select candidates for Parliamentary elections. However, the local organisations did not wish the new body to have too much power, requiring it not to initiate any policy which had not been approved by a conference, to emphasise this subordinate nature, it was decided to name it the "National Administrative Council", rather than "Executive Committee"; the first NAC was elected on a regional basis, with five seats for the Northern Counties, four for London, three for Scotland, three for the Midland Counties. The membership was: There were many candidates from the North and Scotland to choose from, but the London candidates were better known for their national activity than their local work, there was a lack of suitable candidate from the Midlands.

It was decided that there would be no chair, the NAC would meet at locations around the country. However, a lack of funds led to it meeting only twice: in Manchester in March, Halifax in November. However, it succeeded in agreeing to distance the organisation from Henry Hyde Champion, it selected seven candidates for the next UK general election; the second conference of the ILP, held in Manchester in 1894, started with the reading of the minutes of the NAC meetings. The organisation decided to only permit ILP branches to send delegates, this less individualised membership agreed to reduce the NAC to nine members. Three would be elected as president and general secretary, while the other six would be elected by all delegates, using plurality-at-large voting. Only three members retained their seats, Keir Hardie was elected, establishing his dominance within the party; the NAC now met more and had a greater role in determining policy. The title of president was changed to chairman in 1896, by 1898, the membership of the NAC had begun to settle down, with Hardie joined by Ramsay Macdonald, Bruce Glasier and Philip Snowden, the "Big Four" held the leading roles in the party for many years.

By 1906, there was a feeling that there was too little change in the membership of the NAC, activists popular in one region but little known in others were unable to win places on it. As a result, seven regional divisions were created, each holding conferences to elect one NAC member, joined by the chair and secretary and four national members, who continued to be elected by delegates at conference. In 1909, the divisions were reorganised, four more created, further adjustments were made over the next three years, including in 1912 the formation of a single division for the whole of Wales; this endured for many decades. From 1935, the ILP's conferences were based around a policy statement from the NAC; the NAC began electing a smaller executive committee from its ranks, with the executive committee taking on more powers, the NAC met less frequently. Faced with a continuing decline in membership, in 1970 the NAC was restructured, with twelve members serving alongside the chair and general secretary.

Annual Reports of the National Administrative Committee

Streetsboro, Ohio

Streetsboro is a city in Portage County, United States. It is formed from the former township of Streetsboro, formed from the Connecticut Western Reserve, it is nearly co-extant with the former Streetsboro Township. The population was 12,311 at the 2000 census, 16,028 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.36 square miles, of which 23.46 square miles is land and 0.90 square miles is water. Long before settlers moved into the Connecticut Western Reserve, Seneca Indians traversed the area now called Streetsboro, they used Old Portage Trail, which crosses the southwest corner of the city, to go from Lake Erie to the Ohio River basin. The founder of Streetsboro Township was Titus Street from Connecticut, who purchased the land in 1798. Streetsboro Township contained 15,279 acres; the land was surveyed by Streets' agents Ralph Cowles and Lemuel Punderson in the summer of 1822 and divided into lots of 100 acres.

In 1825, a turnpike from Cleveland to Wellsville, Ohio was laid by Frederick Wadsworth, Samuel Cowles, John Strauyhen and Titus Street. Street agreed to give enough land to make it through the township. In 1827, the turnpike was completed, it followed much of the route of the present Ohio State Route 14. Major growth occurred in Streetsboro with the opening of the Ohio Turnpike on October 1, 1955, with Exit 13 being the only interchange in Portage County. By 1957, with the growth of the automobile industry, Streetsboro experienced a population explosion. Proximity to the Akron and Cleveland areas, along with direct access to Interstate 80, Interstate 480 and State Routes 303, 43 and 14, have contributed to the rapid growth of manufacturing, distribution and residential development in the past fifty years. In 1968, voters decided to merge the township and the village to become one city consisting of 25 square miles. Streetsboro was a farming community until 1970. Streetsboro was home to a small amusement park, Shady Lake Park, located on Route 14, now an apartment complex of the same name.

Due to the steady growth of Streetsboro and its surrounding area within the past ten years, the city has become a retail hub for Portage County with the arrival of many national big-box retailers including Wal-Mart Supercenter, Lowe's, The Home Depot and Staples. The first Northeast Ohio location for Sonic Drive-In opened in Streetsboro in September 2008; as of the census of 2010, there were 16,028 people, 6,562 households, 4,316 families residing in the city. The population density was 683.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,104 housing units at an average density of 302.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.7% White, 7.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 6,562 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.2% were non-families.

26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the city was 37.9 years. 22.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,311 people, 4,908 households, 3,381 families residing in the city; the population density was 512.6 people per square mile. There were 5,244 housing units at an average density of 218.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.39% White, 1.96% African American, 0.09% Native American, 1.37% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.78% of the population. There were 4,908 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families.

25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 35.8% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $48,661, the median income for a family was $55,814. Males had a median income of $36,672 versus $27,835 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,764. About 3.9% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.5% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Primary and secondary education is provided by the Streetsboro City School District, which includes four schools, while a small portion of the city is part of the neighboring Kent City School District.

Students in preschool through third grade attend Streetsboro Elementary School known as Campus Elementary School. Henry

Will Shade

William Shade Jr. known as Will Shade, was a Memphis blues musician, best known for his leadership of the Memphis Jug Band. He was called Son Brimmer, a nickname from his grandmother Annie Brimmer; the name stuck when other members of the band noticed that the sun bothered him and he used the brim of a hat to shade his eyes. Shade was born in February 1898 in Tennessee, to William Shade and Mary. Mary was fourteen years old. After her husband's death from a gunshot wound in 1903, she married a member of the Banks family, but by 1920 she was a widow once again. Shade had Henry Banks and Robert Banks, he credited his mother with teaching him how to play his first instrument. Shade first heard jug band music in 1925, recorded by the Dixieland Jug Blowers, from Louisville, Kentucky, he was excited by what he heard and felt that bringing this style of music to his hometown of Memphis could be promising. He persuaded a few local musicians, though still reluctant, to join him in creating one of the first jug bands in Memphis.

The original Memphis Jug Band consisted of Shade and three others: Lionhouse, whom Shade converted from a whiskey bottle blower to a jug blower. Shade played the guitar, the "bullfiddle", the harmonica, the instrument on which he was most influential, his pure country blues harmonica style served as the foundation for renowned harmonicists like Big Walter Horton, Sonny Boy Williamson I and Sonny Boy Williamson II. He sang lead vocal on a handful of their recordings, his distinctive guitar style has been identified as that of the uncredited accompanist who backed the Sanctified Church gospel singer Bessie Johnson on record. The Memphis Jug Band had a fluid membership during the nearly 40 years that it was active, recording under a number of names and in various styles ranging from blues and rags to gospel. All the while, Shade was the backbone of the group, as he was the one responsible for finding new members to keep the band going; the group performed a mixture of original material. Shade tried, whenever possible.

Besides being the band's musical leader, he was in charge of their business affairs, planning concerts and distributing income. At the band's peak, Shade worked on a weekly retainer with Victor Records and was able to buy a house with his wife, the singer Jennie Mae Clayton, $3000 worth of stock in Victor, he lost both the stock and the house shortly after the Great Depression began in 1929. The band's visibility declined in the mid-1930s as a result of the overall decline in commercial recordings, a shift in musical taste toward more urbane swing music, violence occurring in Memphis. Blues revivalists found Shade and his old partners still playing together into the early 1960s and released several field recordings under the name of the Memphis Jug Band; the band during this period included Shade's long-time friend Charlie Burse, whom he had hired in 1928 as a vocalist and tenor guitarist, sometimes included his old rival Gus Cannon. Shade performed as an accompanist on Cannon's "comeback" album, Walk Right In, recorded by Stax Records in 1963.

Shade died of pneumonia, at John Gaston Hospital, in Memphis, in 1966, aged 68, was buried in Shelby County Cemetery. The fact that this is a public cemetery and full of unmarked graves, reveals Shade's poverty in his years. In 2008 a group of musicians based at the Old Town School of Folk Music held a fundraiser and purchased a headstone for his grave; the same group sponsored a "brass note" on the Beale Street walk of fame, dedicated on August 1, 2009. Shade's band was the first jug band to receive this honor; the Memphis Jug Band recorded nearly 100 sides between 1927 and 1934, making it the most recorded of the pre-war jug bands. In the first four of these years, it recorded at least 60 songs for Victor Records. Over time, the band's style moved to a jazzier beat, as evidenced by its final recordings, in 1934. Famous singles by the band include "Lindberg Hop", "On the Road Again", "Newport News Blues", "K. C. Moan", "Stealin' Stealin'". Jug band Will Shade at Find a Grave Answers Will Shade tribute

Happy Landings and Lost Tracks

Happy Landings and Lost Tracks is a compilation album by The Fixx released on December 11, 2001. The Happy Landings and Lost Tracks compilation comprises tracks recorded during sessions that commenced at Fairless Masterman's flat, Castellain Road, Maida Vale, London on February 26, 1996 and concluded on April 28, for the planned Happy Landings album to be released that year with the following track listing: "Modern World" – 4:08 "Two Different Views" – 5:11 "Going Without" – 4:41 "Freeman" – 6:06 "Happy Landings" – 4:25 "Ocean Blue" – 6:05 "We Once Held Hands" – 7:48 "Sweet Pandemonium" – 4:01 "Mayfly" – 5:42 "Elected" – 2:54 The 1996 version of the Happy Landings album was not released, but eight of the tracks were subsequently re-recorded/remixed by Stephen W. Tayler and Sadia Sadia during February and March 1997 for a planned release of the album that year, with the newly recorded tracks of "Lonely As A Lighthouse" and "Life's What's Killing Me" replacing "Mayfly" and "Elected": "Modern World" "Two Different Views" "Going Without" "Happy Landings" "Freeman" "We Once Held Hands" "Lonely As A Lighthouse" "Ocean Blue" "Life's What's Killing Me" "Sweet Pandemonium"Cy Curnin – lead vocals, guitar Rupert Greenall – keyboards, vocals Jamie West-Oram – guitar, lead vocals on "Sweet Pandemonium" Adam Woods – drumsAdditional personnel Jeff Scantlebury – percussion Chris Taitbass on "Modern World" and "Two Different Views" Dennis Bovell – bass on "Going Without", "Freeman" and "We Once Held Hands" Dan K. Brown – bass on "Sweet Pandemonium" Matthew Kleinman & Jason McDermot – brass on "Freeman" Liz Skillings – background vocals on "Two Different Views", "Ocean Blue" and "Sweet Pandemonium"Six of the 1997 session tracks were subsequently re-recorded/remixed/edited for the Elemental album released in April 1998.

The 1997 version of "Sweet Pandemonium" was made available as a digital download. A limited edition five-track EP of "tracks from the forthcoming album Happy Landings" was pressed and made available for sale on the band's tour commencing on July 10, 1997; the versions of these five tracks are unique to this EP, except for "Two Different Views" and "Going Without", which appeared on the 2000 re-release of the "Missing Links" compilation on the Fuel 2000 label. This version of "Two Different Views" appeared on the Ultimate Collection compilation album of 1999. "Two Different Views" – 5:50 "Going Without" – 4:58 "Happy Landings" – 5:03 "Freeman" – 4:33 "We Once Held Hands" – 8:23Produced and engineered by Martin Rex Additional production and mixing by Stephen W. Tayler and Sadia Executive production: Sadia Mastered at Metropolis Studios, London Mastering engineer: Ian Cooper Management: Jeff Neben / Axis Management All songs written by The Fixx Hit & Run Music Publishing Inc. JARC Ltd. 1997 Administration by Warner Chappell Music Hit & Run Music MMR8080 Happy Landings and Lost Tracks marks the first time all ten session tracks from 1996 have been released as recorded, five* for the first time, although "Modern World" and "Elected" had been available as digital downloads.

Of the ten tracks re-recorded/remixed with Stephen W. Tayler and Sadia Sadia in early 1997, only "Modern World", "Lonely As A Lighthouse", "Ocean Blue" and "Life's What's Killing Me" remain unreleased. "Lonely As A Lighthouse", "House Arrest" and "Peace Louise" remain unreleased in any form whatsoever and are "lost" tracks. An earlier recorded version of "Mayfly" appears on the same-titled first solo album by Cy Curnin in 2005. "Modern World" – 4:08* "Going Without" – 4:41 "Freeman" – 6:06* "Elected" – 2:54* "Mayfly" – 5:42* "Two Different Views" – 5:11 "Ocean Blue" – 6:05 "We Once Held Hands" – 7:48 "Sweet Pandemonium" – 4:01* "Happy Landings" – 4:25 Cy Curnin – lead vocals, guitar Rupert Greenall – keyboards, vocals Jamie West-Oram – guitar, vocals Adam Woods – drumsAdditional personnel Jeff Scantlebury — percussion Dennis Bovell — bass on "Going Without", "Freeman" and "We Once Held Hands" Dan K. Brown — bass on "Mayfly" and "Sweet Pandemonium". Thanks to Howard Jones for the use of his shed, to Fairless Masterman for the use of his home, to Jeff Neben for his encouragement.

Happy Landings and Lost Tracks at Allmusic Happy Landings and Lost Tracks at Rainman Records

Bremen Town House

The Bremen Town House Bremen Town Hall is a historic municipal building on Maine State Route 32 in Bremen, Maine. Built in 1874 and sympathetically enlarged in 1938, it served for many years as the community's town hall, continues to serve the community as one of its major social gathering points; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. The Bremen Town House is located near the geographic center of Bremen, on the east side of Waldoboro Road, the major north-south route through the community; the building is a two-story wood frame structure, with gabled roof. Its exterior is clad in clapboards, the building rests on a stone foundation; the original main block is oriented with its gable end to the street, the original main entrance framed by simple molding and topped by a cornice. Bays to either side house sash windows on both the first and second floors, there is a fifth window in the gable. A lower two-story cross-gabled addition extends to its right, its side flush to the front of the main block.

Its street-facing facade has single windows on both levels, set near the far right corner. There is a second entrance in the addition's south side, trimmed in a manner similar to the original front door; the building was erected in 1874 by a local chapter of a temperance organization. In 1877 the town began to use it for town meetings, purchased the building outright in 1884, it was used as a government and social meeting venue until 1959, when the town moved its functions into new facilities. It continues to be owned by the town, continues to function as a community meeting place; the building was enlarged in the ell adding a kitchen and space for the town selectmen. The town continues to own the building, managed under lease by a local nonprofit. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Maine