In butchery, the top blade steak comes from the chuck section of a steer or heifer. The steaks are cross-cut from the top blade subprimal known as Infraspinatus, it is becoming more popular and profitable to abstain from cross cutting the top blade and instead produce flat iron steaks which eliminate the connective tissue. Jamie Oliver has recommended this cut over the fillet, sirloin or rib eye due to the marbling and cost-effective price of the cut. Beef clod
Animal slaughter is the killing of animals referring to killing domestic livestock. In general, the animals would be killed for food; the slaughter involves some initial cutting, opening the major body cavities to remove the entrails and offal but leaving the carcass in one piece. Such dressing can be done in a slaughterhouse; the carcass is butchered into smaller cuts. The animals most slaughtered for food are cattle and water buffalo for beef and veal, sheep for lamb and mutton, goats for goat meat, pigs for pork, deer for venison, horses for horse meat, poultry and fish in the aquaculture industry; the use of a sharpened blade for the slaughtering of livestock has been practiced throughout history. Prior to the development of electric stunning equipment, some species were killed by striking them with a blunt instrument, sometimes followed by exsanguination with a knife; the belief that this was unnecessarily cruel and painful to the animal led to the adoption of specific stunning and slaughter methods in many countries.
One of the first campaigners on the matter was the eminent physician, Benjamin Ward Richardson, who spent many years of his working life developing more humane methods of slaughter as a result of attempting to discover and adapt substances capable of producing general or local anaesthesia to relieve pain in people. As early as 1853, he designed a chamber, he founded the Model Abattoir Society in 1882 to investigate and campaign for humane methods of slaughter and experimented with the use of electric current at the Royal Polytechnic Institution. The development of stunning technologies occurred in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1911, the Council of Justice to Animals was established in England to improve the slaughter of livestock. In the early 1920s, the HSA introduced and demonstrated a mechanical stunner, which led to the adoption of humane stunning by many local authorities; the HSA went on to play a key role in the passage of the Slaughter of Animals Act 1933. This made the mechanical stunning of cows and electrical stunning of pigs compulsory, with the exception of Jewish and Muslim meat.
Modern methods, such as the captive bolt pistol and electric tongs were required, the act's wording outlawed the poleaxe. The period was marked by the development of various innovations in slaughterhouse technologies, not all of them long-lasting. Many countries have adopted the principle of a two-stage process for the non-ritual slaughter of animals; this is to ensure a rapid death with minimal suffering. The first stage of the process called stunning, renders the animal unconscious, thus not susceptible to pain, but not dead. In the second stage, the animal is killed by slitting its throat and allowing the blood to drain. Countries differ in the methods which have been legalised for different species or different ages, some regulations being governmental, others being religious. Various methods are used to render an animal unconscious during animal slaughter. Electrical This method is used for swine, calves and goats. Current is applied either across the brain or the heart to render the animal unconscious before being killed.
In industrial slaughterhouses, chickens are killed prior to scalding by being passed through an electrified water-bath while shackled. Gaseous This method can be used for sheep and swine; the animal is asphyxiated by the use of CO2 gas before being killed. In several countries, CO2 stunning is used on pigs. A number of pigs enter a chamber, sealed and filled with 80% to 90% CO2 in air; the pigs lose consciousness within 13 to 30 seconds. Research has produced conflicting results, with some showing pigs tolerate CO2 stunning and others showing they do not. Nitrogen has been used to induce unconsciousness in conjunction with CO2. Domestic turkeys are averse to high concentrations of CO2 but not low concentrations. Mechanical This method can be used for sheep, goats, cattle, horses and other equines. A captive bolt pistol is applied to the head of the animal to render them unconscious before being killed. There are three types of captive bolt pistols, non-penetrating and free bolt; the use of penetrating captive bolts has been discontinued in commercial situations to minimize the risk of transmission of disease when parts of the brain enter the bloodstream.
Firearm This method can be used for cattle, sheep, goats, horses and other equines. A conventional firearm is used to fire a bullet into the brain of the animal to render the animal unconscious. Exsanguination The animal either has its throat cut or has a chest stick inserted cutting close to the heart. In both these methods, main veins and/or arteries are allowed to bleed. Drug administration Drug administration to ensure the animal is dead; the measures for sanitary checks, animal welfare protection and slaughtering procedures are harmonised throughout the European Union, detailed by the European Commissions' regulations CE 853/2004, 854/2004 and 1099/2009. In Canada, the handling and slaughter of foo
Flap steak, or flap meat is a beef steak cut. It comes from a bottom sirloin butt cut of beef, is a thin steak. Flap steak is sometimes called sirloin tips in New England; the flap steak is sometimes confused with hanger steak as both are cut thin. The item consists of the obliquus internus abdominis muscle from the bottom sirloin butt; the cut is sometimes inaccurately sold as skirt steak
Corned beef is a salt-cured beef product. The term comes from the treatment of the meat with large-grained rock salt called "corns" of salt. Sometimes and spices are added to corned beef recipes. Corned beef is featured as an ingredient in many cuisines. Most recipes include nitrates or nitrites, which convert the natural myoglobin in steak to nitrosomyoglobin, giving it a pink color. Nitrates and nitrites reduce the risk of dangerous botulism during curing by inhibiting the growth of Clostridium botulinum bacteria spores, but have been shown to be linked to increased cancer risk. Beef cured without nitrates or nitrites has a gray color, is sometimes called "New England corned beef". Corned beef was popular during World War II when fresh meat was rationed, it remains popular in Canada as an ingredient in a variety of dishes. Although the exact beginnings of corned beef are unknown, it most came about when people began preserving meat through salt-curing. Evidence of its legacy is apparent in numerous cultures, including ancient Europe and the Middle East.
The word corn is used to describe any small, hard particles or grains. In the case of corned beef, the word may refer to the granular salts used to cure the beef; the word "corned" may refer to the corns of potassium nitrate known as saltpeter, which were used to preserve the meat. Although the practice of curing beef was found locally in many cultures, the industrial production of corned beef started in the British Industrial Revolution. Irish corned beef was used and traded extensively from the 17th century to the mid-19th century for British civilian consumption and as provisions for the British naval fleets and North American armies due to its nonperishable nature; the product was traded to the French for use in Caribbean sugar plantations as sustenance for the colonists and the slave laborers. The 17th-century British industrial processes for corned beef did not distinguish between different cuts of beef beyond the tough and undesirable parts such as the beef necks and shanks. Rather, the grading was done by the weight of the cattle into "small beef", "cargo beef", "best mess beef", the former being the worst and the latter the best.
Much of the undesirable portions and lower grades were traded to the French, while better parts were saved for British consumption or shipped to British colonies. Ireland produced a significant amount of the corned beef in the Atlantic trade from local cattle and salt imported from the Iberian Peninsula and southwestern France. Coastal cities, such as Dublin and Cork, created vast beef curing and packing industries, with Cork producing half of Ireland's annual beef exports in 1668. Although the production and trade of corned beef as a commodity was a source of great wealth for the colonial nations of Britain and France, in the colonies themselves, the product was looked upon with disdain due to its association with poverty and slavery. Increasing corned beef production to satisfy the rising populations of the industrialised areas of Great Britain and Atlantic trade worsened the effects of the Irish Famine and the Great Potato Famine: The Celtic grazing lands of... Ireland had been used to pasture cows for centuries.
The British colonized... the Irish, transforming much of their countryside into an extended grazing land to raise cattle for a hungry consumer market at home... The British taste for beef had a devastating impact on the impoverished and disenfranchised people of... Ireland. Pushed off the best pasture land and forced to farm smaller plots of marginal land, the Irish turned to the potato, a crop that could be grown abundantly in less favorable soil. Cows took over much of Ireland, leaving the native population dependent on the potato for survival. Despite being a major producer of beef, most of the people of Ireland during this period consumed little of the meat produced, in either fresh or salted form, due to its prohibitive cost; this was because most of the farms and its produce were owned by wealthy Anglo-Irish who were absentee landlords and that most of the population were from families of poor tenant farmers, that most of the corned beef was exported. The lack of beef or corned beef in the Irish diet is true in the north of Ireland and areas away from the major centers for corned beef production.
However, individuals living in these production centres such as Cork did consume the product to a certain extent. The majority of Irish who resided in Ireland at the time consumed dairy products and meats such as pork or salt pork and cabbage being a notable example of a traditional Irish snack. Corned beef became a less important commodity in 19th-century Atlantic trade, due in part to the abolition of slavery, but corned beef production and its canned form remained an important food source during the Second World War. Much of the canned corned beef came from Fray Bentos in Uruguay, with over 16 million cans exported in 1943. Now, significant amounts of the global canned corned beef supply comes from South America. Today, around 80% of the global canned corned beef supply originates from Brazil. In North America, corned beef dishes are associated with traditional Irish cuisine. However, considerable debate remains about the association of corned beef with Ireland. Mark Kurlansky, in his book Salt, states that the Irish produced a salted beef around the Middle Ages, the "forerunner of what today is known as Irish corned beef" and in the 17th century, the English named the Irish salted beef "corned beef".
Some say until the wave of 18th-century Irish immigration to the United States, many of the ethnic Irish had not begun to consume corned
A rib steak is a beef steak sliced from the rib primal of a beef animal, with rib bone attached. In the United States, the term rib eye steak is used for a rib steak with the bone removed. S. the terms are used interchangeably. The rib eye or "ribeye" was as the name implies, the center portion of the rib steak, without the bone, it is considered a more flavorful cut than other steaks, such as the fillet, due to the muscle being exercised by the animal during its life. Its marbling of fat makes this suitable for slow roasting or grilling cooked to different degrees of doneness. Marbling increases tenderness, which plays a key role in consumers' rib steak purchase choices; the short ribs: several ribs cut from the rib and plate primals and a small corner of the square-cut chuck. In the United States cuisine a bone-attached beef rib can be called "rib steak", "beef rib", "bone-in beef rib", "bone-in rib steak", "ribeye steak" or "cowboy cut". "Tomahawk steak" has recently become a popular term for this cut owing to its appearance being similar to that of a tomahawk axe.
In Australia and New Zealand a bone-in rib steak is called a "ribeye". When the bone is removed and New Zealanders call the resulting piece of meat a "Scotch fillet" or "whiskey fillet". In French cuisine the rib steak is a popular dish and it is not uncommon to find French restaurants where a massive single côte de bœuf is served for two or more dinner guests; the French entrecôte corresponds to the rib eye steak. In Argentine cuisine roast short ribs are called indistinctly asado de tira de asado; the rib steak is known as ancho de bife for the entire cut, served with or without the bone, ojo de bife for the rib eye. In Spanish cuisine, in Spain, a bone-attached rib steak is called chuletón, while the same cut of meat, when its bone is removed, is called, in Spain, entrecot, a word originated in the French entrecôte. In British cuisine, the terms cote de boeuf, tomahawk steak, have been adopted to refer to the bone-attached rib steak In the Middle East, Beef Ribs are found in Rib Restaurants instead of the non Halal Pork Ribs.
Pork ribs Cotoletta
Pastrami is a meat product made from beef, sometimes from pork, mutton, or turkey. The raw meat is brined dried, seasoned with herbs and spices smoked and steamed. Beef plate is the traditional cut of meat for making pastrami, although it is now common in the United States to see it made from beef brisket, beef round, turkey. Like corned beef, pastrami was created as a way to preserve meat before refrigeration; the name pastrami comes from Romanian pastramă, a declination of the Romanian verb păstra meaning "to conserve food, to keep something for a long duration" whose etymology is linked to the Bulgarian pastrija or to the Greek παστραμάς/παστουρμάς, itself borrowed from Turkish pastırma, short for Turkish: bastırma et "pressed meat." Wind-dried beef had been made in Anatolia for centuries, Byzantine dried meat is thought by some to be "one of the forerunners of the pastirma of modern Turkey". Early references in English used the spelling "pastrama", closer to the Romanian pastramă. Pastrami was introduced to the United States in a wave of Jewish immigration from Bessarabia and Romania in the second half of the 19th century.
The modified "pastrami" spelling was introduced in imitation of the American English salami. Romanian Jews emigrated to New York as early as 1872. Among Jewish Romanians, goose breasts were made into pastrami because they were inexpensive. Beef navel was cheaper than goose meat in America, so the Romanian Jews in America adapted their recipe and began to make the cheaper-alternative beef pastrami. New York's Sussman Volk is credited with producing the first pastrami sandwich in the United States in 1887. Volk, a kosher butcher and New York immigrant from Lithuania, claimed he got the recipe from a Romanian friend in exchange for storing the friend's luggage while the friend returned to Romania. According to his descendant, Patricia Volk, he prepared pastrami according to the recipe and served it on sandwiches out of his butcher shop; the sandwich was so popular that Volk converted the butcher shop into a restaurant to sell pastrami sandwiches. New York pastrami is made from the navel end of the brisket.
It is cured in brine, coated with a mix of spices such as garlic, black pepper, cloves and mustard seed, smoked. The meat is steamed until the connective tissues within the meat break down into gelatin. Greek immigrants to Salt Lake City in the early 1960s introduced a cheeseburger topped with pastrami and a special sauce; the pastrami cheeseburger has since remained a staple of local burger chains in Utah. Bündnerfleisch Pastırma – Cured dried beef seasoned with a special spice paste called çemen Pastramă List of dried foods List of smoked foods Montreal-style smoked meat Corned beef – Salt-cured beef product Food portal Specific GeneralUrsula Heinzelmann, "Rauchware aus der Querrippe" in Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung p. 50
Beef Wellington is a preparation of fillet steak coated with pâté and duxelles, wrapped in puff pastry and baked. Some recipes include wrapping the coated meat in a crêpe to retain the moisture and prevent it from making the pastry soggy. A whole tenderloin may be wrapped and baked, sliced for serving, or the tenderloin may be sliced into individual portions prior to wrapping and baking; the origin of the name is unclear, with no definite connection to Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. Leah Hyslop, writing in The Daily Telegraph, observes that by the time Wellington became famous, meat baked in pastry was a well-established part of English cuisine, that the dish's similarity to the French filet de bœuf en croûte might imply that "Beef Wellington" was a "timely patriotic rebranding of a trendy continental dish". However, she cautions, there are no 19th-century recipes for the dish. There is a mention of "fillet of beef, a la Wellington" in the Los Angeles Times of 1903, an 1899 reference in a menu from the Hamburg-America line.
It may be related to ` steig' or steak Wellington, an Irish dish. An installment of a serialized story entitled "Custom Built" by Sidney Herschel Small in 1930 had two of its characters in a restaurant in Los Angeles that had "beef Wellington" on its menu; the first occurrence of the dish recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary is a quotation from a 1939 New York food guide with "Tenderloin of Beef Wellington", cooked, left to cool and rolled in a pie crust. Similar dishes of different types of protein baked in pastry include salmon. Various vegetarian Wellington recipes, such as mushroom and beet Wellingtons exist. Food portal Shooter's sandwich List of beef dishes List of steak dishes