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Barzan Towers

Barzan Towers known as the Umm Salal Mohammed Fort Towers, are watchtowers that were built in the late 19th century and renovated in 1910 by Sheikh Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani. They are located at the southern side of the defensive system established at the end of the 19th century and start of the 20th century to protect the'rawdat', a valley where precious rainwater is collected when it flows down from higher ground. In Arabic "barzan" means "high place"; the buildings were restored in 2003. The towers measure 16 metres high; the fort links to two other fortified buildings towards the west and another tower towards the north. Barzan Towers may have been built near the sea to keep an observant eye on pearl divers, as a look-out for approaching ships, as an observatory for keeping track of the moon; the Barzan Towers have been rebuilt with features such as air-conditioners. Built with coral rock and limestone cementing the structures featured traditional Qatari design and building methods including "marazim" wooden to drain rainwater during storms away from the building walls, a "majilis" room between the towers to receive guests, four-layer roofs with "danchal" wood pole construction,'basgijl,' woven bamboo strips, mangrove mesh and a layer of compressed mud.

The Barzan Towers were built in the late 19th century and were renovated by Sheikh Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani in the early 20th century to serve as watchtowers against the incoming Ottoman soldiers. Although his father had defeated the Ottomans several years before in the Battle of Al Wajbah, Mohammed remained weary of renewed military tensions, they were used by the native Qataris to scrutinize the new moon during the holy month of Ramadan, since keeping track of the moon was essential. The towers were restored in 2003 by the Qatari authorities; the Barzan Towers are situated in the town of Umm Salal Mohammed, in the municipality of Umm Salal, about 10 km from the coast and 15 km north of Doha, the capital city of Qatar. On one side of the towers, modern houses stand, while on the other, makeshift shacks exist; the former fortified house, or sometimes referred to as castle, of Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani is located beside the towers. A unique oasis full of green trees and palm trees can be found behind the towers.

The Barzan Towers have walls which are one meter thick in the base, are further reinforced and toughened by buttresses. One tower has walls in massive and enormous staircases in the other; these walls were built by first merging and blending overlapping raw pieces of coral stones with limestone and cementing the two with a mud mortar after, somehow, similar to the construction of the walls of the Zubarah Fort. The walls were covered with a gypsum-based plaster once dry; the Barzan Towers have a roof, built with four layers. The first layer is composed of a series of "danchal" wood poles, which were sometimes painted with bitumen for protection; the "danchal" poles were covered by a layer of "basgijl", a layer of woven bamboo strips. A constructed net of mangrove branches was added, followed by a layer of compressed mud to protect the towers from the sun during the hot summers; the towers were built with some external features such as a room for receiving guests, called "majilis", built as an L-shaped pavilion with windows for ventilation, a mosque which has a prayer room, used as a school for teaching the Quran to children, called "madrassa".

Traditional "marazims" protect the walls' surfaces and were built as wooden channels that stretch out from the roof to drain rainwater just in case heavy, but rare and uncommon and other types of storms strike the desert. The "marazims" were built on top of the mosque; the Barzan Towers are open to visitors for 24 hours. On the other hand, several surrounding landmarks, such as the house of Sheikh Jassim bin Muhammed Al Thani, the Umm Salal Fortresses and other additional towers of the forts, are closed for visitors since they are private property. Click on the thumbnail to enlarge. Lusail Al Koot Fort Zubarah Fort Video of Barzan Towers site Qatar Museums Authority Qatar Tourism Authority Qatar Visitor

Aspley Football Club

Aspley Hornets Football Club is an Australian rules football club competing in the North East Australian Football League competition and the AFL Queensland QFA Division 1 competition. A strong club financially and in terms of playing numbers, the Aspley Hornets were admitted to the Division One competition in 2009 following the collapse of fellow northern Brisbane club the Zillmere Eagles. In recognition of this change, Aspley played four matches in the 2009 season at Zillmere's former homeground O’Callaghan Park. With the biggest number of juniors in Queensland, Aspley carries AFLQ's expectations of being a power base for the game in the region for the next few decades. Aspley finished well down the ladder in the second-tier competition in 2008, so it may take the Hornets a season or two to adjust to the higher level, they will be boosted by the signing of inaugural captain, 27-year-old dual AFL premiership player, Robert Copeland. Aspley have a successful licence and gaming club at its Graham Road premises, own other grounds at Brendale, opened a new $1.5 million training and changeroom complex.

The club song is sung to the tune of "Toreador" from Carmen. There is a list of Aspley players who have played in the AFL: NEAFL: 2014 SEQFL: 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1992, 2002 QFA Division 2: 2017NEAFL League MVP's: 3 Official website

O'Bannon High School

Norma C. O'Bannon High School is a public junior and senior high school located in unincorporated Washington County, Mississippi, USA, adjacent to Greenville; the school is part of the Western Line School District. The school includes students in grades 7 through 12. Norma C. O'Bannon High School was established in 1950; the school is named after Norma C. O'Bannon, a career educator in Mississippi, for many years the Superintendent of Washington County schools. Norma O'Bannon, was the Illinois-born daughter of a man who bought a plantation in Arcola, Mississippi, she began her career in 1921 at Central School in Greenville, where she taught English literature and science at the junior high school level. She moved to elementary education, becoming principal at the city's Starling Elementary School, she became superintendent of Washington County schools in 1948, remaining in that position until 1968. O'Bannon saw a great period of great change during her tenure as superintendent, with Washington County's count of schools being reduced through consolidation from 96 small and segregated facilities to just 6 integrated schools.

O'Bannon High School includes students in grades 7 through 12 — combining a junior and senior high school in a single facility. The school has 435 students, making it the 146th largest of the state's 249 public high schools; the student body of O'Bannon High School is 95% African-American/Black and 3% White American, with an additional 1% listing an ethnicity including "two or more races." These percentages differ from the state averages of 50% black and 46% white for Mississippi public school students. Some 91% of OHS students are eligible for free or reduced price school lunches, in comparison to 71% of Mississippi students statewide; the disproportionately high percentage of black students at O'Bannon High School is a legacy of the segregation era, during which wealthy white plantation-owning families traditionally sent their children to out-of-state boarding schools, while poor whites attended segregated public schools. With the coming of federally ordered efforts at desegregation in the 1970s, parents of white students in the Mississippi Delta region, "fled en masse" from public schools to private academies, leaving the public school system in a state of ethnic and economic imbalance.

In the 21st Century public schools in the Delta region remain predominantly black, with African-American enrollments ranging from 80 to nearly 100 percent — far in excess of the state average. O'Bannon High School athletic teams are known as the "Greenwaves" and the school colors are Kelly Green and White Charles C. Bolton, The Hardest Deal of All: The Battle over School Integration in Mississippi, 1870-1980. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2005. Ruby Shaffner, "Interview with Norma C. O'Bannon," Delta State University, Nov. 15, 1980. William Bert Thompson, A History of the Greenville, Public Schools under the Administration of E. E. Bass, 1884-1932. MA thesis. University, MS: University of Mississippi, 1968. Western Line School District home page, Elizabeth Evans, "Western Line," AT&T Early Educators Wiki Pages, May 3, 2011

Brest Arsenal

The Brest Arsenal is a collection of naval and military buildings located on the banks of the river Penfeld, in Brest, France. It is located at 48°23′12″N 4°29′48″W. 1631-1635 Beginning of the foundations of the port infrastructure. 1674 Appearance of the Powder Magazines and Military Hospital. 1683 Creation of the Troulan dock. 1746 Creation of the three Pontaniou docks near naval constructions. 1752 Construction of the Bagne demolished in 1947. 1807 Construction of the Bâtiment aux Lions to house the arsenal's magazines. 1822-1827 Construction of Bassin 6 at the Salou. 1858 Appropriation of the Tourville and Jean Bart quays by the navy. 1864-1865 Construction of Bassin 7 at the Salou. 1865 Closure of the Penfeld port to commercial boats, turning it into a military port. 1889-1896 Construction of the South Jetty. 1895-1900 Construction of the West Jetty. 1899-1902 Transformation of the four Pontaniou docks into 2 large basins, now known as Basin 2 and Basin 3. 1900-1905 South Jetty extended by 750 m. 1905 Construction of the Quai d'Armement.

1910 Installation of the Grande Grue. 1910-1916 Digging of the two construction docks and of the Laninon dry dock, now known as Basin 8 and Basin 9. 1911 Infilling of the terreplein of Brest Castle. 1918 Construction of the Quai des Flottilles. 1931-1933 Closure of the western passage. 1938 Work begun on the construction of Bassin 10 de Laninon. 1940 Construction of the Submarine Base during the German occupation - the military port became an important German strategic base. 1963-1964 Jetty enlarged. 1969-1970 Construction of aircraft-carrier locks 3 and 4. The Penfeld, within the military enclosure, is wholly lined with quays, but ships cannot come directly alongside these quays because of heads of rock that are left exposed at low tide. That's why floating stages are moored fore and aft on the left bank, to make up postes where some “small” ships can come alongside and use some installations such as the large crane. Little used upstream of the Pont de Recouvrance, downstream of this bridge these postes serve the old sailing ships of the Navy, the tugboats and other support boats of the arsenal, transrades, passenger ships which provide a service across the roadstead between Brest and the Crozon peninsula Île Longue Pont de Recouvrance Recouvrance Penfeld Rue Saint-Malo High command of the Brest maritime arrondissement French Navy site

Line of succession to the Belgian throne

There are sixteen persons in the line of succession to the Belgian throne. The monarch is considered to have acceded to the throne upon her/his taking of the oath as required by article 91 of the constitution. Since 1991, Belgium practises absolute primogeniture among the descendants of King Albert II. Descendants of earlier monarchs and princes are only eligible to succeed if male and descended from King Leopold I in male-line, meaning that descendants of all Belgian princesses not descended from Albert II are barred from the throne. There are no living princes of Belgium who are not descended from Albert II, so agnatic primogeniture de facto doesn't apply to anyone anymore and the right to succeed is limited to Albert II's descendants. A person is deprived of his or her rights to the crown if he or she marries without the consent of the monarch; the lost right may be re-established by the monarch in the event of parliamentary agreement. Should there be no eligible descendant of King Leopold I, the reigning monarch may name his or her heir presumptive with the approval of the Parliament, but if she or he doesn't name the heir presumptive, the throne would become vacant.

When King Albert II's daughter Astrid married Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este in 1984, agnatic primogeniture being in effect, she had no succession rights and therefore did not seek the consent to her marriage. Following the introduction of absolute primogeniture among her father's descendants in 1991, it was deemed that she had obtained the necessary consent and thus assumed her place in the line along with her children; when Prince Amedeo married in 2014, it was reported that he did not ask his uncle King Philippe's permission, had therefore lost his right to the Belgian throne. However, on November 12, 2015, a Royal Decree was published which showed that consent had been given after the marriage retroactively. List of Belgian monarchs Lists of incumbents