Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by The Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, illumos and Solaris operating systems, its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface. An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015. Due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed and add-ons compared to Microsoft's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6.
Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, challenged Internet Explorer's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, with version 3.5 overtaking Internet Explorer 7, although not Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage declined in competition with Google Chrome; as of January 2019, Firefox has 9.5% usage share as a "desktop" browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second-most popular such web browser. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in a few countries including Cuba and Eritrea with 72.26% and 83.28% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, in December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world; the project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird; the community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes, it was titled Phoenix, which carried the implication of the mythical firebird that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor, in this case from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator after it had been killed off by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War". Phoenix was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox.
The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, which became the mascot for the newly named project. For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is abbreviated as FF; the Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004. In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, transition the browser to a multi-process model; these improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension system, designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, has thus been named Firefox Quantum.
Firefox supported add-ons using the XUL and XPCOM APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As they are not compatible with its m
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Avant Browser is a freeware web browser from a Chinese programmer named Anderson Che, which unites the Trident layout engine built into Windows with an interface intended to be more feature-rich and ergonomic than Microsoft's Internet Explorer. It runs on Windows 2000 and above, including Windows 8, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10. Internet Explorer versions 6 through 11 are supported. Version 2012 was separated in two editions: Ultimate edition, which added the Gecko layout engine, allowing the user choose between both layout engines, Lite edition which contains only the Trident layout engine; as of November 2008, total downloads surpassed 22.5 million. Avant Browser is available in 41 languages. Avant Browser was inspired by Opera, the first major browser to have a multiple document interface; the developer's objective was to wrap a comparable interface around the layout engine used by Internet Explorer, thereby achieving Opera-like ergonomics without suffering the frequent problems that browser had rendering pages tested only in Internet Explorer.
Orca Browser project is now discontinued. Gecko layout engine was included in Avant Browser version 2012 Ultimate edition, alongside the traditional Trident layout engine. Avant was one of the twelve browsers offered to European Economic Area users of Microsoft Windows in 2010. Avant Browser 11, introduces more new features than any previous version; these include support for many toolbars that are compatible with Internet Explorer, a facility for users to create their own scripted toolbar buttons, a password and form-filling wizard. The overall trend though seems to be a gradual movement away from Avant's Internet Explorer roots. More radical is the addition of a native bookmark system in place of sharing Internet Explorer's Favorites; these bookmarks may be stored online - as can feeds and browser settings. This allows the user to synchronize any number of Avant installations on different computers. Avant can still share Internet Explorer's Favorites; this option was reintroduced by the developer.
Another innovation is that Avant may now be run from a USB flash drive without needing to be installed. In conjunction with Avant's session saving facility, this allows the user to halt a browsing session on one PC, move to another and resume viewing the same web pages. Avant Browser 2012 Ultimate edition added the Gecko layout engine, the most recent release included the WebKit layout engine, making Avant Browser a three-engine browser. Layout engine is selectable by the user. User-customizable tabbed interface Progress bar on each tab Tab locking and drop-and-drag arrangement Automatically save and reopen any number of pages Can restore open pages after system crash Undo menu for last 25 closed tabs All pages open in single process, reducing resource demands Multiple home pages Compatible with many Internet Explorer toolbars and add-ins, including Google toolbar Highlight marker to find keywords on any page Facility for user to add custom-made function buttons RSS feed reader built in URL alias facility to create keyboard shortcuts to favorite sites Page zoom slider - 25% to 500% Full desktop mode - hides toolbars Full screen mode - hides toolbars and taskbar Compact mode - saves interface space Boss button - hides browser Tray icon - keeps Avant running in system tray for fast access Mouse gestures Autoscroll facility for hands-free reading Context-activated floating toolbars to save and edit images and Flash Customizable right-click menu entries Quick translation menu 15 interface languages available so far Automatic page refresh at custom intervals Sidebar access to: Advanced search Blocked URL record History Bookmarks Feeds Fully skinnable: Range of bundled skin options Accessory application allows user to create own skins Highly customizable: Toolbars can be rearranged Most functions may be accessed from either toolbar buttons or menus All Buttons and menus are optional Push-button quick blocking of unwanted items Customizable black/white lists for popups and ad servers Multiple proxy servers may be configured Browsing tracks cleaner - can clear traces automatically Windows XP Service Pack 2 security extensions can
A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
RAID is used for recovery of data. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databas
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
A webclient is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server. The server is on another computer system, in which case the client accesses the service by way of a network; the term applies to the role that devices play in the client -- server model. A client is a computer or a program that, as part of its operation, relies on sending a request to another program or a computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server. For example, web browsers are clients that connect to web servers and retrieve web pages for display. Email clients retrieve email from mail servers. Online chat uses a variety of clients. Multiplayer video games or online video games may run as a client on each computer; the term "client" may be applied to computers or devices that run the client software or users that use the client software. A client is part of a client–server model, still used today. Clients and servers may be computer programs run on the same machine and connect via inter-process communication techniques.
Combined with Internet sockets, programs may connect to a service operating on a remote system through the Internet protocol suite. Servers wait for potential clients to initiate connections; the term was first applied to devices that were not capable of running their own stand-alone programs, but could interact with remote computers via a network. These computer terminals were clients of the time-sharing mainframe computer. In one classification, client computers and devices are either thick clients, thin clients, or hybrid clients. A Thick client known as a rich client or fat client, is a client that performs the bulk of any data processing operations itself, does not rely on the server; the personal computer is a common example of a fat client, because of its large set of features and capabilities and its light reliance upon a server. For example, a computer running an Art program that shares the result of its work on a network is a thick client. A computer that runs entirely as a standalone machine save to send or receive files via a network is by standard called a workstation.
A thin client is a minimal sort of client. Thin clients use the resources of the host computer. A thin client only presents processed data provided by an application server, which performs the bulk of any required data processing. A device using web application is a thin client. A hybrid client is a mixture of the above two client models. Similar to a fat client, it relies on the server for storing persistent data; this approach offers features from both the thin client. A device running an online version of the video game Diablo III is an example of hybrid client
Basilisk (web browser)
Basilisk is an open-source web browser created by the developers of the Pale Moon browser. There are releases for Microsoft Windows and Linux, an unofficial build for macOS. First released in 2017, Basilisk is a perpetual beta intended to refine the UXP codebase it is built from. Pale Moon and other applications are built from this codebase. Like Pale Moon, Basilisk is a fork of Firefox with substantial divergence. Basilisk has the user interface of the Firefox version 29–56 era. For add-ons, Basilisk has similar support as Pale Moon for XUL/XPCOM extensions and NPAPI plugins, all of which are no longer supported in Firefox. Basilisk had experimental support for current Firefox WebExtensions, but this was removed in February 2019. Unlike Pale Moon, Basilisk has limited support for Widevine DRM and WebRTC. Old Latest Official website