The Warrior Games is a multi-sport event for wounded, injured or ill service personnel and veterans organized by the United States Department of Defense. The Warrior Games have taken place annually since 2010. Through 2014, it was hosted by the United States Olympic Committee in Colorado. Britain's Prince Harry, at the time serving as a Captain and helicopter pilot in the British Army, opened the 2013 Games, which inspired him to create the Invictus Games, an international counterpart to the Warrior Games with national representations; the 2015 event was the first organized by the DoD. It was held June 19–28 at the Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia. Teams from the Army, Marine Corps, Navy/Coast Guard, Air Force, Special Operations Command, the British Armed Forces took part, competing in eight adaptive sports. In 2016, the event took place on June 15–21 at United States Military Academy in West Point, New York and was hosted by the United States Army. Jon Stewart emceed the ceremonies. In 2017, the event was hosted by the United States Navy.
Chicago was chosen by the Navy over seven other potential sites in the United States. It was the first time that the games were held off a military base or U. S. Olympic training facility. Sponsors of the games included Boeing, Fisher House, the Pritzker Military Museum & Library, United Airlines, the Bob Woodruff Foundation, many other companies. Jon Stewart emceed the opening ceremonies, followed by a concert by Kelly Clarkson and Blake Shelton; the attendance at the opening ceremony, which included a video message from Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, was 10,000. Blues artist Sam Moore sang Soul Man. In addition to teams representing all branches of the United States armed forces and the United Kingdom had participating teams. Leticia L. Vega, a Marine sergeant on the Special Operations Command team, took a medal in each event in which she competed; the United States Navy team beat the United States Army team in the finals for sitting volleyball. The United States Army team beat the United States Navy team in the finals for wheelchair basketball.
The Air Force hosted the 2018 Warrior Games at the United States Air Force Academy in June 2018. Sponsors of the games include Green Beans Coffee, Fisher House, Under Armour and many other companies. In 2015 and 2016, the eight sports included were: Archery Cycling Field: Events included men's and women's shot put, standing shot put, seated discus, standing discus. Shooting Sitting volleyball Swimming: Events included men's and women's 50 meter freestyle, 100 meter freestyle, 50 meter backstroke, 50 meter breaststroke. Track: Events included 100 meters, 200 meters, 400 meters, 800 meters, 1500 meters. There were events for athletes using those using prosthetics. Wheelchair basketballIn 2015, wheelchair rugby was held as an exhibition sport. In 2019, there will be 14 sports: archery, time-trial cycling, sitting volleyball, track, ﬁeld, wheelchair basketball, indoor rowing, golf, wheelchair tennis and wheelchair rugby. Warrior Games official website Warrior Games on Facebook
.177 caliber is the smallest diameter of pellets used in air guns, is the only caliber accepted for formal target competition. It is sometimes used for hunting small game, as well as in Field Target competition, where it competes with 20 caliber and 22 caliber rifles. Steel BB shot is 0.175-inch diameter. Some air guns are designed to accept.175 steel BBs interchangeably. If two guns fire pellets of different weights, the gun firing the lighter pellet must fire it at a higher velocity to achieve the same muzzle energy; this is an important consideration in locations where air guns are restricted by muzzle energy. Because a.177 pellet is lighter than a larger caliber pellet of similar design, the.177 pellet can be propelled faster and therefore on a flatter trajectory, without exceeding the legal limit on energy. However, because the lighter projectile has a lower ballistic coefficient, it loses its initial energy to air resistance faster than a heavier, slower pellet. Therefore, a heavier pellet may be preferred for hunting.
Information on.177 air rifle pellets 4 mm caliber Air gun BB gun Pellet Weapon
A firearm is a portable gun that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by expanding high-pressure gas produced chemically by exothermic combustion of propellant within an ammunition cartridge. If gas pressurization is achieved through mechanical gas compression rather than through chemical propellant combustion the gun is technically an air gun, not a firearm; the first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance, used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an in 1132. In the 13th century the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon considered the true ancestor of all firearms; the technology spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Europe. Older firearms used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.
Modern firearms can be described in the case of shotguns by their gauge. Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used and to the barrel length, to the firing mechanism, to the design's primary intended use, or to the accepted name for a particular variation. Shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye coordination, using either iron sights or optical sights; the accurate range of pistols does not exceed 110 yards, while most rifles are accurate to 550 yards using iron sights, or to longer ranges using optical sights. Purpose-built sniper rifles and anti-materiel rifles are accurate to ranges of more than 2,200 yards. Firearms include a variety of ranged weapons and there is no agreed upon definition. Many soldiers consider a firearm to be any ranged weapon that uses gunpowder or a derivative as a propellant. Small arms include handguns and long guns, such as rifles, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons, light machine guns; the world's top small arms manufacturing companies are Browning, Colt, Smith & Wesson, Mossberg, Heckler & Koch, SIG Sauer, Walther, ČZUB, Steyr-Mannlicher, FN Herstal, Norinco, Tula Arms and Kalashnikov, while former top producers were Mauser, Springfield Armory, Rock Island Armory under Armscor.
In 2018, Small Arms Survey reported that there are over one billion small arms distributed globally, of which 857 million are in civilian hands. U. S. civilians alone account for 393 million of the worldwide total of civilian held firearms. This amounts to "120.5 firearms for every 100 residents." The world's armed forces control about 133 million of the global total of small arms, of which over 43 percent belong to two countries: the Russian Federation and China. Law enforcement agencies control about 23 million of the global total of small arms; the smallest of all firearms is the handgun. There are two common types of handguns: semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have "charge holes" in a revolving cylinder. Semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, a magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round; each press of the trigger fires a cartridge, using the energy of the cartridge to activate the mechanism so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately.
This is opposed to "double-action" revolvers which accomplish the same end using a mechanical action linked to the trigger pull. Prior to the 19th century all handguns were single-shot muzzleloaders. With the invention of the revolver in 1818, handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. Certain designs of auto-loading pistol appeared beginning in the 1870s and had supplanted revolvers in military applications by the end of World War I. By the end of the 20th century, most handguns carried by military and civilians were semi-automatic, although revolvers were still used. Speaking and police forces use semi-automatic pistols due to their high magazine capacities and ability to reload by removing the empty magazine and inserting a loaded one. Revolvers are common among handgun hunters because revolver cartridges are more powerful than similar caliber semi-automatic pistol cartridges and the strength and durability of the revolver design is well-suited to outdoor use. Revolvers in.22 LR and 38 Special/357 Magnum, are common concealed weapons in j
ISSF shooting events
The International Shooting Sport Federation recognizes several shooting events, some of which have Olympic status. They are divided into four disciplines: rifle, pistol and running target; the main distinctions between different rifle events are the distances to the target and the shooting positions used. For the other disciplines, the position is always standing, changes include limits to shooting times and different types of targets. Due to the ISSF, some Olympic events have been discontinued in the past. In total, Forty-five ISSF events have been discontinued. All ISSF shooting events consist of precision shooting in the sense that only the position of the shot on the target determines the result, not the time used to produce that shot; this separates them from International Practical Shooting Confederation events and other kinds of action shooting. In rifle and running target events, the maximum score for each shot is 10. In shotgun events, there miss. In the 300 metre rifle events and the 50 metre rifle and pistol events, all participants of a main competition must compete at the same time.
If the range capacity is not enough for this, an elimination round is conducted the day before the main competition. From this round, only so many shooters advance; the program of the elimination round is the same as that of the qualification round. The match, or qualification round in case of Olympic events, is the major part of the competition. In all events except those where elimination rounds are held, shooters are divided as necessary into relays and shoot the match at different times during the competition day. In matches consisting of two stages, all shooters must complete the first stage before the second stage may commence; the stages are not completed on two consecutive days. In larger matches, but only in the Olympic events, a final is added to the qualification round; the top eight contestants, qualify for the final. The final consists of 24 shots in the 10 meter air rifle event, 45 shots across all three positions in the 50 meter rifle three positions event, 20 shots in the 25 metre events, one series in the shotgun events.
In rifle and pistol finals, the score zones are divided into decimals, so that each final shot may give up to 10.9 points. In shotgun finals, there is still only a hit or a miss, but a special type of clay target with coloured powder is used to make it easier for spectators to see the result. In all cases, the final score is added to the score of the qualification round, the winner is the shooter with the best aggregate score. Ties are resolved by shooting as many additional shots. In all rifle and running target events results are recorded in ten-shot series, despite the fact that none of them are shot this way. However, the recorded ten-shot series are used for tie-breaking, so that the participant with the better last series comes before the other. From 2009 however, the number of inner tens, where applicable, will be the first tie-breaking criterion. In events without finals this tie-breaking system can decide championships, while in Olympic events it only decides the qualification and starting order for the finals.
In 25 metre center-fire pistol and 25 metre standard pistol, ties for medal places are resolved by a one-string shoot-off. Shotgun events are recorded in series of 40 targets or 50 targets; the first ISSF World Shooting Championships were held in 1897, while the Olympic shooting program changed until the 1930s, the World Championship program was quite stable. The early events were 300 metre rifle, 50 metre pistol, 300 metre army rifle. In 1929, the program was extended with 50 metre rifle and trap. Rapid fire pistol, although a popular Olympic event, was not added until 1933. After World War II, a number of new events were introduced. After the inclusion of the airgun events and 25 metre standard pistol in 1970, there have not been many additions, double trap being an exception. Events can have a status as test events, with rules provided by the ISSF but not counted among the ISSF shooting events. 5-shot air pistol is such an event. The development of this 10 metre version of rapid fire pistol is more or less stalled however, as few shooters have the special airguns needed, several of the countries where the shooting form has some popularity use other rulesets instead of the one suggested by the ISSF.
There are official ISSF rules for automatic trap, although there are no ISSF championships in that event. Several companies design and manufacture firearms for use in ISSF shooting events; some companies specialize in air guns, while others specialize in pistols whether air powered or small caliber. For shotgun events, guns from traditional shotgun manufact
Archery is the art, practice, or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus. Archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is called an archer or a bowman, a person, fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite; the bow and arrow seems to have been invented in the Paleolithic or early Mesolithic periods. The oldest signs of its use in Europe come from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg and dates from the late Paleolithic, about 10,000–9000 BC; the arrows were made of pine and consisted of a main shaft and a 15–20 centimetres long fore shaft with a flint point. There are no definite earlier bows; the oldest bows known so far comes from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Bows replaced the spear-thrower as the predominant means for launching shafted projectiles, on every continent except Australasia, though spear-throwers persisted alongside the bow in parts of the Americas, notably Mexico and among the Inuit.
Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian & neighboring Nubian culture since its respective predynastic & Pre-Kerma origins. In the Levant, artifacts that could be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, onwards; the Khiamian and PPN A shouldered. Classical civilizations, notably the Assyrians, Armenians, Parthians, Koreans and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. Akkadians were the first to use composite bows in war according to the victory stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad. Egyptians referred to Nubia as "Ta-Seti," or "The Land of the Bow," since the Nubians were known to be expert archers, by the 16th Century BC Egyptians were using the composite bow in warfare; the Bronze Age Aegean Cultures were able to deploy a number of state-owned specialized bow makers for warfare and hunting purposes from the 15th century BC. The Welsh longbow proved its worth for the first time in Continental warfare at the Battle of Crécy. In the Americas archery was widespread at European contact.
Archery was developed in Asia. The Sanskrit term for archery, came to refer to martial arts in general. In East Asia, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea was well known for its regiments of exceptionally skilled archers. Central tribesmen of Asia and American Plains Indians became adept at archery on horseback. Armored, but mobile archers were excellently suited to warfare in the Central Asian steppes, they formed a large part of armies that conquered large areas of Eurasia. Shorter bows are more suited to use on horseback, the composite bow enabled mounted archers to use powerful weapons. Empires throughout the Eurasian landmass strongly associated their respective "barbarian" counterparts with the usage of the bow and arrow, to the point where powerful states like the Han Dynasty referred to their neighbors, the Xiong-nu, as "Those Who Draw the Bow". For example, Xiong-nu mounted bowmen made them more than a match for the Han military, their threat was at least responsible for Chinese expansion into the Ordos region, to create a stronger, more powerful buffer zone against them.
It is possible that "barbarian" peoples were responsible for introducing archery or certain types of bows to their "civilized" counterparts—the Xiong-nu and the Han being one example. Short bows seem to have been introduced to Japan by northeast Asian groups; the development of firearms rendered bows obsolete in warfare, although efforts were sometimes made to preserve archery practice. In England and Wales, for example, the government tried to enforce practice with the longbow until the end of the 16th century; this was because it was recognized that the bow had been instrumental to military success during the Hundred Years' War. Despite the high social status, ongoing utility, widespread pleasure of archery in Armenia, Egypt and Wales, India, Korea and elsewhere every culture that gained access to early firearms used them to the neglect of archery. Early firearms were inferior in rate-of-fire, were sensitive to wet weather. However, they had longer effective range and were tactically superior in the common situation of soldiers shooting at each other from behind obstructions.
They required less training to use properly, in particular penetrating steel armor without any need to develop special musculature. Armies equipped with guns could thus provide superior firepower, trained archers became obsolete on the battlefield. However, the bow and arrow is still an effective weapon, archers have seen action in the 21st century. Traditional archery remains in use for sport, for hunting in many areas. Early recreational archery societies included the Finsbury Archers and the Ancient Society of Kilwinning Archers; the latter's annual Papingo event was first recorded in 1483. The Royal Company of Archers was formed in 1676 and is one of the oldest sporting bodies in the world. Archery remained a small and scattered pastime, until the late 18th century when it experienced a fashionable revival among the aristocracy. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, wit
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Computer-aided manufacturing is the use of software to control machine tools and related ones in the manufacturing of workpieces. This is not the only definition for CAM, its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and components and tooling with more precise dimensions and material consistency, which in some cases, uses only the required amount of raw material, while reducing energy consumption. CAM is now a system used in lower educational purposes. CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after computer-aided design and sometimes computer-aided engineering, as the model generated in CAD and verified in CAE can be input into CAM software, which controls the machine tool. CAM is used in many schools alongside Computer-Aided Design to create objects. Traditionally, CAM has been considered as a numerical control programming tool, where in two-dimensional or three-dimensional models of components generated in CAD; as with other “Computer-Aided” technologies, CAM does not eliminate the need for skilled professionals such as manufacturing engineers, NC programmers, or machinists.
CAM, in fact, leverages both the value of the most skilled manufacturing professionals through advanced productivity tools, while building the skills of new professionals through visualization and optimization tools. Early commercial applications of CAM was in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries, for example Pierre Béziers work developing the CAD/CAM application UNISURF in the 1960s for car body design and tooling at Renault. CAM software was seen to have several shortcomings that necessitated an overly high level of involvement by skilled CNC machinists. Fallows created the first CAD software but this had severe shortcomings and was promptly taken back into the developing stage. CAM software would output code for the least capable machine, as each machine tool control added on to the standard G-code set for increased flexibility. In some cases, such as improperly set up CAM software or specific tools, the CNC machine required manual editing before the program will run properly.
None of these issues were so insurmountable that a thoughtful engineer or skilled machine operator could not overcome for prototyping or small production runs. In high production or high precision shops, a different set of problems were encountered where an experienced CNC machinist must both hand-code programs and run CAM software. Integration of CAD with other components of CAD/CAM/CAE Product lifecycle management environment requires an effective CAD data exchange, it had been necessary to force the CAD operator to export the data in one of the common data formats, such as IGES or STL or Parasolid formats that are supported by a wide variety of software. The output from the CAM software is a simple text file of G-code/M-codes, sometimes many thousands of commands long, transferred to a machine tool using a direct numerical control program or in modern Controllers using a common USB Storage Device. CAM packages could not, still cannot, reason as a machinist can, they could not optimize toolpaths to the extent required of mass production.
Users would select the type of machining process and paths to be used. While an engineer may have a working knowledge of G-code programming, small optimization and wear issues compound over time. Mass-produced items that require machining are initially created through casting or some other non-machine method; this enables hand-written and optimized G-code that could not be produced in a CAM package. At least in the United States, there is a shortage of young, skilled machinists entering the workforce able to perform at the extremes of manufacturing; as CAM software and machines become more complicated, the skills required of a machinist or machine operator advance to approach that of a computer programmer and engineer rather than eliminating the CNC machinist from the workforce. Typical areas of concern: High Speed Machining, including streamlining of tool paths Multi-function Machining 5 Axis Machining Feature recognition and machining Automation of Machining processes Ease of Use Over time, the historical shortcomings of CAM are being attenuated, both by providers of niche solutions and by providers of high-end solutions.
This is occurring in three arenas: Ease of usage Manufacturing complexity Integration with PLM and the extended enterpriseEase in useFor the user, just getting started as a CAM user, out-of-the-box capabilities providing Process Wizards, libraries, machine tool kits, automated feature based machining and job function specific tailorable user interfaces build user confidence and speed the learning curve. User confidence is further built on 3D visualization through a closer integration with the 3D CAD environment, including error-avoiding simulations and optimizations. Manufacturing complexity The manufacturing environment is complex; the need for CAM and PLM tools by the manufacturing engineer, NC programmer or machinist is similar to the need for computer assistance by the pilot of modern aircraft systems. The modern machinery cannot be properly used without this assistance. Today's CAM systems support the full range of machine tools including: turning, 5 axis machining, laser / plasma cutting, wire EDM.
Today’s CAM user can generate streamlined tool paths, optimized tool axis tilt for higher feed rates, better tool life and surface finish, an