Feistritz an der Drau
The 1989 Biathlon World Championship was held here, the first joint Men and Women BWCH.
|This Carinthia location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
The 1989 Biathlon World Championship was held here, the first joint Men and Women BWCH.
|This Carinthia location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Slovene language – Slovene or Slovenian belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide and it is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union. Standard Slovene is the standard language that was formed in the 18th century, mostly based on Upper and Lower Carniolan dialect groups. For example, the Resian and Torre dialects in the Italian Province of Udine differ most from other Slovene dialects, the distinctive characteristics of Slovene are dual grammatical number, two accentual norms, and abundant inflection. Although Slovene is basically an SVO language, word order is very flexible, Slovene has a T-V distinction, second-person plural forms are used for individuals as a sign of respect. Slovene and Slovak are the two modern Slavic languages whose names for themselves literally mean Slavic. Slovene is an Indo-European language belonging to the Western subgroup of the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, furthermore, Slovene shares certain linguistic characteristics with all South Slavic languages, including those of the Eastern subgroup, such as Bulgarian. The Slovene language also has commonalities with the West Slavic languages. Like all Slavic languages, Slovene traces its roots to the same group of languages that produced Old Church Slavonic. The earliest known examples of a distinct, written Slovene dialect are from the Freising Manuscripts, the consensus estimate of their date of origin is between 972 and 1093. These religious writings are among the oldest surviving manuscripts in any Slavic language and this linguistic border remained almost unchanged until the late 19th century, when a second process of Germanization took place, mostly in Carinthia. Between the 9th and 12th century, proto-Slovene spread into northern Istria, during most of the Middle Ages, Slovene was a vernacular language of the peasantry, although it was also spoken in most of the towns on Slovene territory, together with German or Italian. Although during this time, German emerged as the language of the nobility, Slovene had some role in the courtly life of the Carinthian, Carniolan and Styrian nobility. This is proved by the survival of certain ritual formulas in Slovene, the words Buge waz primi, gralva Venus. The first printed Slovene words, stara pravda, appeared in 1515 in Vienna in a poem of the German mercenaries who suppressed the Slovene peasant revolt. Standard Slovene emerged in the half of the 16th century, thanks to the works of Slovene Lutheran authors. During this period, German had a influence on Slovene. Many Slovene scientists before the 1920s also wrote in languages, mostly German
2. Paternion – Paternion is a market town in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia. It is located within the Drava valley about 18 kilometres in the north-west of the city of Villach, Paternion is subdivided into six Katastralgemeinden, Feistritz an der Drau, Kamering, Kreuzen, Nikelsdorf, Paternion and Rubland. In 1530 Paternion received market rights from Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria, with a percentage of about 30%, the municipality is today one of the centres of Protestantism in Carinthia
3. Carinthia – Carinthia is the southernmost Austrian state or Land. Situated within the Eastern Alps, it is noted for its mountains and its regional dialects belong to the Southern Bavarian group. Carinthian Slovene dialects, which predominated in the part of the region up to the first half of the 20th century, are now spoken by a small minority. Carinthias main industries are tourism, electronics, engineering, forestry, the multinational corporations Philips, Infineon and Siemens have large operations there. The etymology of the name “Carinthia”, similar to Carnia or Carniola, has not been conclusively established, the Ravenna Cosmography referred to a Slavic “Carantani” tribe as the eastern neighbours of the Bavarians. In his History of the Lombards, the 8th century chronicler Paul the Deacon mentions “Slavs in Carnuntum, likewise the Slovene name *korǫtanъ may have been adopted from the Latin *carantanum. The toponym Carinthia is also claimed to be related, deriving from pre-Slavic *carantia. The state stretches about 180 km in east-west and 70 km in north-south direction, with 9,536 km2 it is the fifth largest Austrian state by area. Most of the larger Carinthian towns and lakes are situated within the Klagenfurt Basin in the southeast and these Lower Carinthian lands differ from the mountainous Upper Carinthian region in the northwest, stretching up to the Alpine crest. The Carinthian lands are confined by mountain ranges, the Carnic Alps, the High Tauern mountain range with Mt Grossglockner,3,797 m, separates it from the state of Salzburg in the northwest. To the northeast and east beyond the Pack Saddle mountain pass is the state of Styria, the main river of Carinthia is the Drava, it makes up a continuous valley with East Tyrol to the west. Tributaries are the Gurk, the Glan, the Lavant, carinthias lakes including Wörther See, Millstätter See, Ossiacher See, and Faaker See are a major tourist attraction. The capital city is Klagenfurt, which in Slovenian is called Celovec, the next important town is Villach, both strongly linked economically. While some of these Slovene place names are official designations, the majority are Slovene colloquial usage, Carinthia has a humid continental climate, with hot and moderately wet summers and long harsh winters. In recent decades, winters have been exceptionally arid, the summer precipitation maxima often takes the form of heavy rain and thunderstorms, especially in the mountainous regions. The main Alpine ridge in the north is a divide with pronounced windward and leeward sides where foehn occurs regularly. Due to the terrain, numerous distinct microclimates exist. Nevertheless, the amount of sunshine hours is the highest of all states in Austria
4. Austria – Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany. In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, today, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum later became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
5. Biathlon World Championships – The first Biathlon World Championships was held in 1958, with individual and team contests for men. The number of events has grown significantly over the years, beginning in 1984, women biathletes had their own World Championships, and finally, from 1989, both genders have been participating in joint BWCHs. In 1978 the development was enhanced by the change from the large army rifle calibre to a small rifle, while the range to the target was reduced from 150 to 50 meters. The seasons BWCHs takes place during February or March, some years it has been necessary to schedule parts of the Championships at other than the main venue because of weather and/or snow conditions. Full, joint BWCHs have never held in Olympic Winter Games seasons. BWCHs in non-IOC events, however, have held in Olympic seasons. In 2005, the new event of Mixed Relay was arranged separately from the ordinary Championships. Arranged Championships, This event was first held in 1958, medals, This event was first held in 1974. Medals, This event was first held in 1997, medals, This event was first held in 1999. Medals, This event was first held unofficially in 1965 and it was a success, and replaced the team competition as an official event in 1966. Medals, This event was held from 1958 to 1965, the times of the top 3 athletes from each country in the 20 km individual were added together. Medals, This event, a race, was held from 1989 to 1998. Medals, This event was first held in 1984, through 1988 the distance was 10 km. Medals, This event was first held in 1984, through 1988 the distance was 5 km. Medals, This event was first held in 1997, medals, This event was first held in 1999. Medals, This event was first held in 1984, through 1988, the event was 3 ×5 km. In 2003, the leg distance was set to 6 km, medals, This event, a patrol race, was held from 1989 to 1998. Medals, This event was first held in 2005, at the Biathlon World Cup finals in Khanty-Mansiysk, in 2005 the women biathletes did the first two legs, and the men did the following two, while in 2006 the sequence was woman–man–woman–man
6. Sveti Stefan – Sveti Stefan is a small islet and 5-star hotel resort on the Adriatic coast of Montenegro, approximately 6 kilometres southeast of Budva. The resort, known commercially as Aman Sveti Stefan, includes part of the mainland, formerly an island, Sveti Stefan is now connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The resort in total contains 50 rooms, cottages and suites on the island and 8 grand suites at the Villa Miločer, the island has a 2-kilometre coast line in the central part of Montenegro Adriatic coast line. It is situated to the south of Budva between Pržno and Sveti Stefan villages, the pink sandy beaches of Sveti Stefan, Miločer Beach and Queen’s Beach are part of the coast line. The island encompasses an area of 12,400 m2, Sveti Stefan was first mentioned in 1442 as a fort near seacoast from which Paštrovići, led by vojvoda Radič repulsed the forces of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača during his offensive in Zeta. According to a legend recounted by Stjepan Mitrov Ljubiša, the fortification was funded after Paštrovići looted Turkish ships moored in front of Jaz during Barbarossas siege of Kotor in 1539. The town was razed shortly after, during the fourth Ottoman-Venetian war, after continuous pleas by Paštrovići, the Venetian Republic finally agreed to rebuild it in the 16th century. All of the buildings were acquired by the Yugoslav government and turned into an hotel during the communist period. In the 15th century, the village was built to defend against the Turks. Initially, the island with its fortress had 12 families, in the 1800s, a village came to be established on the island with a population of about 400 people. The villa, surrounded by 800 olive trees, is out over a 32-hectare plot. Subsequent to the villagers being moved to the mainland by the authorities, one of the four churches belong to Praskvica Monastery on Sveti Stefan was turned into a casino by the communists. The resort was described as a 70s Adriatic playground on a hilly peninsula thats barely connected to the mainland and it was also a venue for political conferences, and an occasional chess venue, attracting top-class players such as Boris Spassky and Bobby Fischer. However, in the 1990s, the break-up of Yugoslavia saw the decline of this resort, the Government of Montenegro proposed to recreate the old charm of the island. Action was initiated by inviting international bids for the revitalization project, the contract was awarded to Aman Resorts in 2007. The refurbished resort, completed in 2009, retains the old charm of its exterior view. The Aman Sveti Stefan has a 30-year lease, on 13 July 2010 Montenegrin Statehood Day, Italian tenor, Andrea Bocelli gave a concert at the resort, to mark the Golden Jubilee of the hotel. The hotel won the Hotel of the Year award from Gallivanters Guide in 2010, in July 2014, tennis champion Novak Djokovic married Jelena Ristić at Sveti Stefan
7. Gail (river) – Gail is the name of a river in southern Austria, the largest right tributary of the Drava. The name Gēlias is of ancient Illyrian origin, denoting foaming waters, the river is documented as Gila in a 1090 deed. The Slovene name Zilja is also common as the lower Gail Valley is a settlement area of the Carinthian Slovenes. The river source is located east of the Kartitsch Saddle and the Puster Valley in the Tyrolean municipality of Obertilliach and it flows from west to east through the Southern Limestone Alps, between the Gailtal Alps in the north and the Carnic Alps in the south. The river reaches the state of Carinthia in Lesachtal and from Kötschach-Mauthen runs down the broader Gail Valley with its slopes, parallel to the borders with Italy. Following the 1348 Friuli earthquake, the course near Villach was buried by a major landslide. The rockslide region along a length of 10 km is still discernible on the slopes of Mt. Dobratsch north of Arnoldstein. In recent times, some sections have been renaturated, today the trout zone reaches up to Hermagor with 17 species, among them common barbel, the common nase, and the rare souffia. Gössering Slizza Entry at Aeiou Encyclopedia
8. Drava – The Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe. With a length of 749 kilometres, it is the fourth longest tributary of the Danube and its source is near the market town of Innichen, in the Puster Valley of South Tyrol, Italy. The river flows eastwards through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria into the Styria region of Slovenia and it then turns southeast, passing through Croatia and forming most of the border between Croatia and Hungary, before it joins the Danube near Osijek. In ancient times the river was known as Latin, Dravus, cf. Sanskrit, द्रवति, dravati, the name is most likely of Celtic or Illyrian origin. The river gives its name to the species of tourmaline. The Drava and the Spöl are the two rivers originating in Italy that belong to the Danube drainage basin. The Drava sources are located at the divide between the market town of Innichen and neighbouring Toblach in the west, where the Rienz river rises. The river flows eastwards and after a few kilometres reaches the border with East Tyrol in Austria and it flows through Lienz and into Carinthia at Oberdrauburg. Downstream of Villach, it runs along the slopes of the Karawanks to Ferlach. The Drava passes into Slovenia at Dravograd, from where it runs for 142 kilometres via Vuzenica, Muta, Ruše, and Maribor to Ptuj, the river then passes Varaždin, Belišće and Osijek in Croatia, and Barcs in Hungary. It is navigable for about 90 kilometres from Čađavica in Croatia to its mouth, the hydrological parameters of Drava are regularly monitored in Croatia at Botovo, Terezino Polje, Donji Miholjac and Osijek. Currently, there are 22 hydroelectric power plants on the Drava
9. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
10. Displaced persons camp – A displaced persons camp or DP camp is a temporary facility for displaced persons. Such camps are now known as refugee camps. Combat operations, ethnic cleansing, and the fear of genocide uprooted millions of people from their homes over the course of World War II, between 11 million and 20 million people were displaced. The majority were inmates of Nazi concentration camps, Labor camps, as the war ended, these people found themselves facing an uncertain future. Allied military and civilian authorities faced considerable challenges resettling them, in addition, displaced persons came from every country that had been invaded and/or occupied by German forces. Additionally, many could not return home for fear of persecution or retribution for perceived collaboration with Axis powers. The original plan for those displaced as a result of World War II was to them to their countries of origin as quickly as possible. Depending on sectors occupied in Austria and Germany, American, French, British, or Soviet forces tended to the needs of the refugees. In the months and sometimes following the end of the war. Nearly all of them were malnourished, a number were ill. Shelter was often improvised, and there were instances of military personnel sharing from their own supplies of food, medicine, clothing. In a matter of weeks, there was a more or less formalized infrastructure for taking in, registering, treating, classifying, sorting, and transporting displaced persons. Initially, military missions of the various Allied nations attached to the British, French, for example, during 1945 and 1946 there were several dozen Polish liaison officers attached to individual occupation army units. Those who were classified and were willing to be repatriated were rapidly sent back to their country of origin. By the end of 1945, over six million refugees were repatriated by the military forces, the American sector ceased receiving new arrivals on April 21,1947. An unknown number of displaced persons rejected by authorities were left to find their own means of survival, Displaced persons began to appear in substantial numbers in the spring of 1945. Allied forces took them into their care by improvising shelter wherever it could be found, accommodation primarily included former military barracks, but also included summer camps for children, airports, hotels, castles, hospitals, private homes, and even partly destroyed structures. Although there were efforts to sort and consolidate populations, there were hundreds of DP facilities in Germany, Austria, Italy
11. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation