Fela Anikulapo Kuti professionally known as Fela Kuti, or Fela, was a Nigerian multi-instrumentalist, composer, pioneer of the Afrobeat music genre and human rights activist. At the height of his popularity, he was referred to as one of Africa's most "challenging and charismatic music performers." Fela was born Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti on 15 October 1938 in Abeokuta, the modern-day capital of Ogun State in the Federal Republic of Nigeria a city in the British Colony of Nigeria into an upper-middle-class family. His mother, Chief Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, was a feminist activist in the anti-colonial movement, his brothers, Beko Ransome-Kuti and Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, both medical doctors, are well known in Nigeria. Fela is a first cousin to the Nigerian writer and Nobel laureate Wole Soyinka, the first African to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Fela attended Abeokuta Grammar School, he was sent to London in 1958 to study medicine but decided to study music instead at the Trinity College of Music, the trumpet being his preferred instrument.
While there, he formed the band Koola Lobitos, playing a fusion of highlife. In 1960, Fela married Remilekun Taylor, with whom he would have three children. In 1963, Fela moved back to the newly independent Federation of Nigeria, re-formed Koola Lobitos and trained as a radio producer for the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, he played for some time with his All Stars. In 1967, he went to Ghana to think up a new musical direction; that was. In 1969, Fela took the band to the United States. While there, Fela discovered the Black Power movement through Sandra Smith, a partisan of the Black Panther Party; the experience would influence his music and political views. He renamed the band Nigeria'70. Soon afterwards, the Immigration and Naturalization Service was tipped off by a promoter that Fela and his band were in the US without work permits; the band performed a quick recording session in Los Angeles that would be released as The'69 Los Angeles Sessions. After Fela and his band returned to Nigeria, the group was renamed The Afrika'70, as lyrical themes changed from love to social issues.
He formed the Kalakuta Republic, a commune, a recording studio, a home for the many people connected to the band that he declared independent from the Nigerian state. According to Lindsay Barrett, the name "Kalakuta" derived from the infamous Black Hole of Calcutta dungeon in India. Fela set up a nightclub in the Empire Hotel, first named the Afro-Spot and the Afrika Shrine, where he both performed and officiated at personalized Yoruba traditional ceremonies in honour of his nation's ancestral faith, he changed his name to Anikulapo. He stopped using the hyphenated surname "Ransome". Fela's music was popular among Africans in general. In fact, he made the decision to sing in Pidgin English so that his music could be enjoyed by individuals all over Africa, where the local languages spoken are diverse and numerous; as popular as Fela's music had become in Nigeria and elsewhere, it was very unpopular with the ruling government, raids on the Kalakuta Republic were frequent. During 1972, Ginger Baker recorded Stratavarious with Fela appearing alongside Bobby Tench.
Around this time, Kuti became more involved in the Yoruba religion. In 1977, Fela and the Afrika'70 released the album Zombie, a scathing attack on Nigerian soldiers using the zombie metaphor to describe the methods of the Nigerian military; the album was a smash hit and infuriated the government, setting off a vicious attack against the Kalakuta Republic, during which one thousand soldiers attacked the commune. Fela was beaten, his elderly mother was thrown from a window, causing fatal injuries; the Kalakuta Republic was burned, Fela's studio and master tapes were destroyed. Fela claimed that he would have been killed had it not been for the intervention of a commanding officer as he was being beaten. Fela's response to the attack was to deliver his mother's coffin to the Dodan Barracks in Lagos, General Olusegun Obasanjo's residence, to write two songs, "Coffin for Head of State" and "Unknown Soldier", referencing the official inquiry that claimed the commune had been destroyed by an unknown soldier.
Fela and his band took residence in Crossroads Hotel, as the Shrine had been destroyed along with his commune. In 1978, Fela married 27 women, many of whom were his dancers and singers; the marriage served not only to mark the anniversary of the attack on the Kalakuta Republic but to protect Fela, his wives, from false claims from authorities that Fela was kidnapping the women. He was to adopt a rotation system of keeping 12 simultaneous wives; the year was marked by two notorious concerts, the first in Accra in which riots broke out during the song "Zombie", which led to Fela being banned from entering Ghana. The second was at the Berlin Jazz Festival after which most of Fela's musicians deserted him, due to rumours that Fela was planning to use the entire proceeds to fund his presidential campaign. Despite the massive setbacks, Fela was determined to come back, he formed his own political party, which he called Movem
Apapa is a Local Government Area in Lagos, located to the west of Lagos Island. Apapa contains a number of ports and terminals operated by the Nigerian Ports Authority, including the major port of Lagos State and Lagos Port Complex. In its legislation, the NPA itself does not refer to any port called "Port of Apapa", rather it refers to the "Port of Lagos", "Port of Port Harcourt" and "Port of Calabar"; the region of Apapa lies near the mouth of Lagos lagoon, contains ports and terminals for various commodities such as containers and bulk cargo, offices and a small old disused railway station. It is the site of a major container terminal, owned and operated by the Federal Government of Nigeria until March 2005, now is operated by the Danish firm A. P. Moller-Maersk Group. Adjacent to the container port is the Tin Can Island Port, it houses some refineries like the Bua Group. It has commercial offices of many shipping and transportation companies. Other notable buildings include the Folawiyo Towers.
Apapa houses the headquarters of the Nigerian newspaper Thisday. An important bronze hoard of jewellery dating from the 16th Century was found in Apapa in 1907 and is now kept at the British Museum. Prisons of the Nigerian Prisons Service include: Kirikiri Maximum Security Prison The district provides housing for various levels of housing needs from executive requirements to average families including single occupation and multiple storied accommodation. There are several schools; the German School Lagos was located in Apapa. Social and recreational facilities are provided by private and public organizations including a boat club located on Apapa Creek. Railway stations in Nigeria Apapa Local Government
Open & Close
Open & Close is an album by Nigerian Afrobeat composer and multi-instrumentalist Fela Kuti recorded in Lagos in 1971 and released on the Nigerian His Master's Voice label. The Allmusic review awarded the album 4½ stars, commenting: "Perhaps the distinguishing factors of records like Open & Close and some of Fela's other'70s releases are that as much as he liked to ride a groove, he liked to disrupt it, twist it and turn it, reshape it, only to bring it back to its original shape. There was less of that in his career". All compositions by Fela Kuti "Open and Close" - 15:02 "Swegbe and Pako" - 5:41 "Swegbe and Pako" - 6:45 "Gbagada Gbogodo" - 9:17 Fela Kuti - tenor saxophone, alto saxophone, electric piano, vocals Tony Njoku - trumpet Igo Chico - tenor saxophone Lekan Animashaun - baritone saxophone Ohiri Akigbe, Tutu Sorunmu - guitar Ayo Azenabor - bass guitar Tony Allen - drums James Abayomi - percussion Isiak Olaleye - shekere Henry Koffi, Akwesi Korrantin, Tony Kupoliyi - congas
The Underground Spiritual Game
The Underground Spiritual Game is a compilation of twelve tracks by Fela Kuti and mixed by Blackalicious producer Chief Xcel. "Intro" – 0:26 "Ololufe Mi" – 1:08 "Trouble Sleep Yanga Wake Am" – 2:35 "Look and Laugh" – 4:18 "Mr Grammarticologylisationalism Is the Boss" – 8:02 "Monkey Banana" – 2:19 "Ariya" – 5:27 "Unnecessary Begging" – 8:35 "Swegbe & Pako" – 3:37 "Mr. Follow Follow" – 5:52 "Africa Center of the World" – 17:22
Sorrow Tears and Blood
Sorrow Tears and Blood is an album by Nigerian Afrobeat composer and multi-instrumentalist Fela Kuti recorded in 1977 and released on the Nigerian Kalakuta label. The Allmusic review awarded the album 3 stars, stating: "In contrast to the hard-edged and aggressive Afro-funk that Kuti and his Africa 70 became synonymous with, both the A-side title track and B-side,'Colonial Mentality,' are staid, in light -- or because -- of the cruel state-sponsored attacks that he and his extended family suffered." All compositions by Fela Kuti. "Sorrow Tears and Blood" − 10:15 "Colonial Mentality" − 13:45 Fela Kuti - tenor saxophone, alto saxophone, electric piano, vocals Tunde Williams, Nwokoma Jkem - trumpet Lekan Animashaun - baritone saxophone Leke Benson, Clifford Itoje, Oghene Kologbo - guitar Nweke Atifoh - bass guitar Tony Allen - drums Ayoola Abayomi - percussion Babajide Olaleye - maracas Oladeinde Koffi, Addo Nettey, Shina Abiodun - congas Alake Anikulapo-Kuti, Emaruagheru Anikulapo-Kuti, Fehintola Anikulapo-Kuti, Kewe Anikulapo-Kuti, Ronke Anikulapo-Kuti, Shade Anikulapo-Kuti, Tejumade Anikulapo-Kuti - vocals
Surulere is a residential and commercial Local Government Area located on the mainland of Lagos in Lagos State, with an area of 23 km². At the last census in the year 2006, there were 503,975 inhabitants, with a population density of 21,864 inhabitants per square kilometer; the local government area is bordered by Yaba and Ebute-Metta. In the nineteenth century a number of emancipated African Brazilians and Cubans, who were referred to as Aguda or Saros settled in Surulere. People from different regions of the country have settled in Surulere. Nigerians from the Northern region settled at Idi-Araba while many people from the Eastern region are dispersed in various quarters but predominantly at Obele and Aguda areas. Residents of Lagos Island who bought or leased land from the government and Aworis settled in New Lagos while others lived in the neighborhoods of Itire, Ojuelegba and Shitta; the New Lagos neighborhood known as the Surulere Re-Housing Estate is among the first public housing projects in Nigeria.
Itirre, one of the quarters in Surulere has a recognized traditional authority in the Onitire of Itire. Festac'77 known as the Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture was a cultural jamboree held in Surulere Lagos, from 15 January 1977 to 12 February 1977, it is home to the Lagos National Stadium built in 1972 for the All-Africa Games. The stadium has been allowed to become dilapidated since 2002. However, in preparation for the 2009 Under 17 FIFA World Cup the facilities were improved, the event kicked off in October 2009; the main commercial streets in Surulere are Western Avenue, Adeniran Ogunsanya, Ogunalana drive and Aguda, various open markets are dispersed in different neighborhoods. Industrial establishments are predominantly located at Iponri and Iganmu. Film production studios started in Surulere during the late 1980s well into the 1990s, it was home to the monthly magazines Newbreed and President, founded by Chief Chris Okolie, until publication ceased in the early 1990s.
One of the most popular places in Surulere is Ojuelegba. It is regarded as one of the busiest places in Lagos, it is one of the key transport nodes of Lagos, connecting the city's mainlands with Lagos Island and Victoria Island. It's the place, popular Nigerian musician, Wizkid sang about in his one of his most acclaimed single "Ojuelegba". In 2018, international sports brand Nike Inc collaborated with Wizkid to release a limited edition sports jersey, bringing notoriety on the cultural presence of Surulere and the city of Lagos to the global scene; the following is a list of notable people who were either born in, lived in, are current residents of, or are otherwise associated with or around the city of Surulere, Nigeria. Lagos Ikeja Yaba Surulere Now
Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the most populous in Nigeria and on the African continent, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and one of the most populous urban agglomerations. Lagos is a major financial centre in Africa. Lagos emerged as a port city that originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa. Due to rapid urbanization, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present day Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun and Surulere; this led to the classification of Lagos into two main areas: the Island, the initial city of Lagos, before it expanded into the area known as the Mainland. This city area was governed directly by the Federal Government through the Lagos City Council, until the creation of Lagos State in 1967, which led to the splitting of Lagos city into the present day seven Local Government Areas, an addition of other towns from the Western Region, to form the state.
Lagos, the capital of Nigeria since its amalgamation in 1914, went on to become the capital of Lagos State after its creation. However, the state capital was moved to Ikeja in 1976, the federal capital moved to Abuja in 1991. Though Lagos is still referred to as a city, the present day Lagos known as "Metropolitan Lagos", as "Lagos Metropolitan Area" is an urban agglomeration or conurbation, consisting of 20 LGAs, 32 LCDAs including Ikeja, the state capital of Lagos State; this conurbation makes up 37% of Lagos State's total land area, but houses about 85% of the state's total population. The exact population of Metropolitan Lagos is disputed. In the 2006 federal census data, the conurbation had a population of about 8 million people. However, the figure was disputed by the Lagos State Government, which released its own population data, putting the population of Lagos Metropolitan Area at 16 million; as at 2015, unofficial figures put the population of "Greater Metropolitan Lagos", which includes Lagos and its surrounding metro area, extending as far as into Ogun State, at 21 million.
Lagos was inhabited by the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba people in the 15th century. Under the leadership of the Oloye Olofin, the Awori moved to an island now called Iddo and to the larger Lagos Island. In the 16th century, the Awori settlement was conquered by the Benin Empire and the island became a Benin war-camp called "Eko" under Oba Orhogbua, the Oba of Benin at the time. Eko is still the native name for Lagos. Lagos, which means "lakes", was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese; the present-day Lagos state has a high percentage of Awori clan, who migrated to the area from Isheri along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups. Following its early settlement by the Awori nobility, its conquest by the Bini warlords of Benin, the state first came to the attention of the Portuguese in the 15th century. Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo. Another explanation is that Lagos was named for Lagos, Portugal—a maritime town that, at the time, was the main centre of Portuguese expeditions down the African coast.
In Britain's early 19th century fight against the transatlantic slave trade, its West Africa Squadron or Preventative Squadron as it was known, continued to pursue Portuguese, American and Cuban slave ships and to impose anti-slavery treaties with West African coastal chiefs with so much doggedness that they created a strong presence along the West African coast from Sierra Leone all the way to the Niger Delta and as far south as Congo. In 1849, Britain appointed John Beecroft Consul of the Bights of Benin and Biafra, a position he held until his death in 1854. John Duncan was located at Wydah. At the time of Beecroft's appointment, the Kingdom of Lagos was in the western part of the Consulate of the Bights of Benin and Biafra and was a key slave trading port. In 1851 and with pressure from liberated slaves who now wielded political and business influence, Britain intervened in Lagos in what is now known as the Bombardment of Lagos or Capture of Lagos resulting in the installation of Oba Akitoye and the ouster of Oba Kosoko.
Oba Akitoye signed the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos abolishing slavery. The signing of the 1852 treaty ushered in the Consular Period in Lagos' history wherein Britain provided military protection to Lagos. Following threats from Kosoko and the French who were positioned at Wydah, a decision was made by Lord Palmerston who noted in 1861, "the expediency of losing no time in assuming the formal Protectorate of Lagos". William McCoskry, the Acting Consul in Lagos with Commander Bedingfield convened a meeting with Oba Dosunmu on 30 July 1861 aboard HMS Prometheus where Britain's intent was explained and a response to the terms were required by August 1861. Dosunmu resisted the terms of the treaty but under the threat to unleash violence on Lagos by Commander Bedingfield, Dosunmu relented and signed the Lagos Treaty of Cession on 6 August 1861. Lagos was declared a colony on 5 Marc