The Frauenkirche is a church in the Bavarian city of Munich that serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and seat of its Archbishop. It is considered a symbol of the Bavarian capital city. Although called "Münchner Dom" on its website and URL, the church is always referred to as "Frauenkirche" by locals; the church towers are visible because of local height limits. According to the narrow outcome of a local plebiscite, city administration prohibits buildings with a height exceeding 99 m in the city center. Since November 2004, this prohibition has been provisionally extended outward and as a result, no buildings may be built in the city over the aforementioned height; the south tower, open to those wishing to climb the stairs, will, on completion of its current renovation, offer a unique view of Munich and the nearby Alps. Right next to the town's first ring of walls, a Romanesque church was added in the 12th century, replacing a former, late romanesque building and serving as a second city parish following Alter Peter church, the oldest.
The current late Gothic construction replaced this older church and was commissioned by Duke Sigismund and the people of Munich in the 15th century. The cathedral was erected in only 20 years' time by Jörg von Halsbach. For financial reasons and due to the lack of a nearby stone pit, brick was chosen as building material. Construction began in 1468. Since the cash resources were exhausted in 1479, Pope Sixtus IV granted an indulgence; the two towers were completed in 1488 and the church was consecrated in 1494. However, due to lack of funds, the planned, open-work spires typical of the Gothic style could not be built and the towers had to stay unfinished until 1525. Hartmann Schedel printed a view of Munich including the uncovered towers in his famous Nuremberg Chronicle known as Schedel's World Chronicle. However, because rainwater was penetrating the temporary roofing in the tower's ceilings, a decision was made to complete them in a budget-priced design; this is how the building got its famous domes atop each tower and the church became such a non-interchangeable landmark.
Their design was modelled on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which in turn took a lead from late Byzantine architecture and was at that time falsely considered to be Solomon's original temple. The building has a volume of about 200,000 m³, it is said to have had the capacity to house 20,000 standing people. This is quite remakable for a town that, besides having had another parish church, counted only 13,000 inhabitants at the end of the 15th century and for a church, erected to serve but a modest city parish repacing an earlier, yet smaller construction; the cathedral suffered severe damage during World War II due to the Allied forces' aerial raids during the latter stages of the war — the roof collapsed, one of the towers suffered severe damage and a lion's share of the immensely precious interior from all centuries since the foundation of the parish was lost either due to bomb raids or in their aftermath, when tons of debris had to be removed. Major restoration efforts began after the war and were carried out in several stages, the last of which came to an end in 1994.
The Frauenkirche was constructed from red brick in the late Gothic style within only 20 years. The building is designed plainly, without rich Gothic ornaments and its buttresses moved into and hidden in the interior. This, together with the two tower's special design, lets the construction, mighty anyway, look more enormous and gives it a near-modern appearance according to the principle of "less is more"; the Late Gothic brick building with chapels surrounding the apse is 109 metres long, 40 metres wide, 37 metres high. Contrary to a widespread legend that says the two towers with their characteristic domes are one meter different in height, they are equal: the north tower is 98.57 metres while the south tower is only 98.45 metres, 12 centimetres less. The original design called for pointed spires to top the towers, much like Cologne Cathedral, but those were never built because of lack of money. Instead, the two domes were constructed during the Renaissance and do not match the architectural style of the building, however they have become a distinctive landmark of Munich.
With an enclosed space of about 200,000 m³, with 150,000 m³ up to the height of the vault, it is the second among the largest hall churches in general and the second among the largest brick churches north of the Alps. Catholic Mass is held in the cathedral, which still serves as a parish church, it is among the largest hall churches in southern Germany. The interior does not overwhelm despite its size; the hall is divided into 3 sectors (the main nave and two side aisles of equal height by a double-row of 22 pillars that help enclose the space. These are voluminous, but appear quite slim due to their impressive height and the building's height-to-width ratio; the arches were designed by Heinrich von Straubing. From the main portal the view seems to be only the rows of columns with no windows and translucent "walls" between the vaults through which the light seems to shine; the spatial effect of the church is connected with a legend about a footprint in a square tile at the entrance to the nave, the so-called "devil's footstep".
Hermann Wilhelm Göring was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945. A veteran World War I fighter pilot ace, he was a recipient of the Pour le Mérite, he was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen. An early member of the Nazi Party, Göring was among those wounded in Adolf Hitler's failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. While receiving treatment for his injuries, he developed an addiction to morphine which persisted until the last year of his life. After Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Göring was named as Minister Without Portfolio in the new government. One of his first acts as a cabinet minister was to oversee the creation of the Gestapo, which he ceded to Heinrich Himmler in 1934. Following the establishment of the Nazi state, Göring amassed power and political capital to become the second most powerful man in Germany, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe, a position he held until the final days of the regime.
Upon being named Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan in 1936, Göring was entrusted with the task of mobilizing all sectors of the economy for war, an assignment which brought numerous government agencies under his control and helped him become one of the wealthiest men in the country. In September 1939 Hitler designated him as his deputy in all his offices. After the Fall of France in 1940, he was bestowed the specially created rank of Reichsmarschall, which gave him seniority over all officers in Germany's armed forces. By 1941, Göring was at the peak of his influence; as the Second World War progressed, Göring's standing with Hitler and with the German public declined after the Luftwaffe proved incapable of preventing the Allied bombing of Germany's cities and resupplying surrounded Axis forces in Stalingrad. Around that time, Göring withdrew from the military and political scene to devote his attention to collecting property and artwork, much of, stolen from Jewish victims of the Holocaust.
Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler requesting permission to assume control of the Reich. Considering his request an act of treason, Hitler removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, ordered his arrest. After the war, Göring was convicted of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials, he was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide the night before the sentence was to be carried out. Göring was born on 12 January 1893 at the Marienbad Sanatorium in Bavaria, his father, Heinrich Ernst Göring, a former cavalry officer, had been the first Governor-General of the German protectorate of South-West Africa. Heinrich had three children from a previous marriage. Göring was the fourth of five children by Heinrich's second wife, Franziska Tiefenbrunn, a Bavarian peasant. Göring's elder siblings were Karl and Paula. At the time that Göring was born, his father was serving as consul general in Haiti, his mother had returned home to give birth.
She left the six-week-old baby with a friend in Bavaria and did not see the child again for three years, when she and Heinrich returned to Germany. Göring's godfather was Dr. Hermann Epenstein, a wealthy Jewish physician and businessman his father had met in Africa. Epenstein provided the Göring family, who were surviving on Heinrich's pension, first with a family home in Berlin-Friedenau in a small castle called Veldenstein, near Nuremberg. Göring's mother became Epenstein's mistress around this time, remained so for some fifteen years. Epenstein acquired the minor title of Ritter von Epenstein through service and donations to the Crown. Interested in a career as a soldier from a early age, Göring enjoyed playing with toy soldiers and dressing up in a Boer uniform his father had given him, he was sent to boarding school at age eleven, where the food was poor and discipline was harsh. He sold a violin to pay for his train ticket home, took to his bed, feigning illness, until he was told he would not have to return.
He continued to enjoy war games, pretending to lay siege to the castle Veldenstein and studying Teutonic legends and sagas. He became a mountain climber, scaling peaks in Germany, at the Mont Blanc massif, in the Austrian Alps. At sixteen he was sent to a military academy at Berlin Lichterfelde, from which he graduated with distinction. Göring joined the Prince Wilhelm Regiment of the Prussian army in 1912; the next year his mother had a falling-out with Epenstein. The family was moved to Munich; when World War I began in August 1914, Göring was stationed at Mulhouse with his regiment. During the first year of World War I, Göring served with his infantry regiment in the area of Mülhausen, a garrison town less than 2 km from the French frontier, he was hospitalized with a result of the damp of trench warfare. While he was recovering, his friend Bruno Loerzer convinced him to transfer to what would become, by October 1916, the Luftstreitkräfte of the German army, but his request was turned down; that year, Göring flew as Loerzer's observer in Feldflieger Abteilung 25 – Göring had informally transf
Beer Hall Putsch
The Beer Hall Putsch known as the Munich Putsch, and, in German, as the Hitlerputsch, Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch, Bürgerbräu-Putsch or Marsch auf die Feldherrnhalle, was a failed coup d'état by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler—along with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders—to seize power in Munich, which took place from 8 November to 9 November 1923. Two thousand Nazis were marching to the Feldherrnhalle, in the city center, when they were confronted by a police cordon, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazis and four police officers. Hitler, wounded during the clash, escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, he was charged with treason; the putsch brought Hitler to the attention of the German nation and generated front-page headlines in newspapers around the world. His arrest was followed by a 24-day trial, publicised and gave him a platform to publicise his nationalist sentiment to the nation. Hitler was found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg Prison, where he dictated Mein Kampf to his fellow prisoners Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess.
On 20 December 1924, having served only nine months, Hitler was released. Hitler now saw that the path to power was through legal means rather than revolution or force, accordingly changed his tactics, further developing Nazi propaganda. In the early 20th century, many of the larger cities of southern Germany had beer halls where hundreds or thousands of people would socialise in the evenings, drink beer and participate in political and social debates; such beer halls became the host of occasional political rallies. One of Munich's largest beer halls was the Bürgerbräukeller; this was the location of the Putsch. The Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, sounded the death knell of German power and prestige. Like many Germans of the period, Hitler believed that the treaty was a betrayal, with the country having been "stabbed in the back" by its own government as the German Army was popularly thought to have been undefeated in the field. Germany, it was felt, had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists, who were called the "November Criminals".
Hitler remained in the army, in Munich, after World War I. He participated in various "national thinking" courses; these had been organised by the Education and Propaganda Department of the Bavarian Army, under Captain Karl Mayr, of which Hitler became an agent. Captain Mayr ordered Hitler an army lance corporal, to infiltrate the tiny Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated DAP. Hitler joined the DAP on 12 September 1919, he soon realised that he was in agreement with many of the underlying tenets of the DAP, he rose to its top post in the ensuing chaotic political atmosphere of postwar Munich. By agreement, Hitler assumed the political leadership of a number of Bavarian "patriotic associations", called the Kampfbund; this political base extended to include about 15,000 Sturmabteilung, the paramilitary wing of the NSDAP. On 26 September 1923, following a period of turmoil and political violence, Bavarian Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling declared a state of emergency, Gustav von Kahr was appointed Staatskomissar, or state commissioner, with dictatorial powers to govern the state.
In addition to von Kahr, Bavarian state police chief Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser and Reichswehr General Otto von Lossow formed a ruling triumvirate. Hitler announced that he would hold 14 mass meetings beginning on 27 September 1923. Afraid of the potential disruption, one of Kahr's first actions was to ban the announced meetings. Hitler was under pressure to act; the Nazis, with other leaders in the Kampfbund, felt they had to march upon Berlin and seize power or their followers would turn to the Communists. Hitler enlisted the help of World War I general Erich Ludendorff in an attempt to gain the support of Kahr and his triumvirate. However, Kahr had his own plan with Seisser and Lossow to install a nationalist dictatorship without Hitler; the attempted putsch was inspired by Benito Mussolini's successful March on Rome, from 22 to 29 October 1922. Hitler and his associates planned to use Munich as a base for a march against Germany's Weimar Republic government, but the circumstances were different from those in Italy.
Hitler came to the realisation that Kahr sought to control him and was not ready to act against the government in Berlin. Hitler wanted to seize a critical moment for successful popular support, he decided to take matters into his own hands. Hitler, along with a large detachment of SA, marched on the Bürgerbräukeller, where Kahr was making a speech in front of 3,000 people. In the cold, dark evening, 603 SA surrounded the beer hall and a machine gun was set up in the auditorium. Hitler, surrounded by his associates Hermann Göring, Alfred Rosenberg, Rudolf Hess, Ernst Hanfstaengl, Ulrich Graf, Johann Aigner, Adolf Lenk, Max Amann, Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter, Wilhelm Adam, others, advanced through the crowded auditorium. Unable to be heard above the crowd, Hitler fired a shot into the ceiling and jumped on a chair yelling: "The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with six hundred men. Nobody is allowed to leave." He went on to state the Bavarian government was deposed and declared the formation of a new government with Ludendorff.
Hitler, accompanied by Hess and Graf, ordered the triumvirate of Kahr and Lossow into an adjoining room at gunpoint and demanded they support the putsch. Hitler demanded. Hitler had promised Los
The Blood Order known as the Decoration in Memory of 9 November 1923, was one of the most prestigious decorations in the Nazi Party. During March 1934, Hitler authorized the Blood Order to commemorate the 9 November 1923 coup attempt of the NSDAP; the medal is silver, with the obverse bearing a depiction of an eagle grasping an oakleaf wreath. Inside the wreath is the date 9. Nov. and to the right is the inscription München 1923–1933. The reverse shows the entrance of the Feldherrnhalle in relief, directly above is the angled swastika with sun rays in the background. Along the top edge is the inscription: UND IHR HABT DOCH GESIEGT; the first issue of the decoration, struck in 99% pure silver, was awarded to 1500 participants in the putsch, members of the party or one of its formations before January 1932, or had been cadets from the Munich Infantry School who marched in support of Ludendorff. All medals were numbered and awarding was done carefully. Unlike other medals, the ribbon was worn on the right breast of the uniform tunic in the form of a rosette and the medal sometimes was pinned on and suspended below.
In May 1938, to the dismay of the putsch participants, the award was extended to persons who had served time in prison for Nazi activities before 1933, received a death sentence, commuted to life imprisonment for Nazi activities before 1933, or been wounded in the service of the Party before 1933. It could be bestowed on certain other individuals at the discretion of Adolf Hitler, the last recipient being Reinhard Heydrich; these subsequent medals were struck in 80% silver with serial numbers above 1500 and did not carry the maker's name as the Type I medals did. If a holder of this medal left the party, the medal would have to be relinquished. In total 16 women received the award, two from the'Altreich' and 14 from Austria. Given the number of original marchers in the putsch, the number of awards given under the 1938 extensions, the awards for outstanding service under those same extensions, the total number of recipients numbered fewer than 6,000. In November 1936, Hitler gave new "orders" for the "Awards" of Nazi Germany.
The top NSDAP awards are listed in this order: 1. Coburg Badge. Nürnberg Party Badge of 1929. SA Treffen at Brunswick 1931. Golden Party Badge; the Blood Order. Angolia, John. For Führer and Fatherland: Political & Civil Awards of the Third Reich. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 978-0-912-13816-9. Doehle, Heinrich. Medals & Decorations of the Third Reich: Badges, Insignia. Reddick Enterprises. ISBN 0962488348. Williams, Max. Reinhard Heydrich: The Biography, Volume 2—Enigma. Church Stretton: Ulric Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9537577-6-3. Jörg Nimmergut, Orden & Ehrenzeichen 1800-1945, Deutschland-Katalog, Munich 1980
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but from violence and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945. A war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers; these states employed large mercenary armies, the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose, granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant; these events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war; the Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union.
The southern states Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor; the Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories; the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; the Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers; the rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and dominant in the latter part of the 17th century. The Peace of Augsburg, signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, establishing that: Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion of their realms.
Subjects had to follow that emigrate. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552. Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed; this added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties. The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empir
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Third French Republic, the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. Lasting from 19 July 1870 to 28 January 1871, the conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded; some historians argue that the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck deliberately provoked the French into declaring war on Prussia in order to draw the independent southern German states—Baden, Württemberg and Hesse-Darmstadt—into an alliance with the North German Confederation dominated by Prussia, while others contend that Bismarck did not plan anything and exploited the circumstances as they unfolded. None, dispute the fact that Bismarck must have recognized the potential for new German alliances, given the situation as a whole.
On 16 July 1870, the French parliament voted to declare war on Prussia and hostilities began three days when French forces invaded German territory. The German coalition mobilised its troops much more than the French and invaded northeastern France; the German forces were superior in numbers, had better training and leadership and made more effective use of modern technology railroads and artillery. A series of swift Prussian and German victories in eastern France, culminating in the Siege of Metz and the Battle of Sedan, saw French Emperor Napoleon III captured and the army of the Second Empire decisively defeated. A Government of National Defence declared the Third French Republic in Paris on 4 September and continued the war for another five months. Following the Siege of Paris, the capital fell on 28 January 1871, a revolutionary uprising called the Paris Commune seized power in the city and held it for two months, until it was bloodily suppressed by the regular French army at the end of May 1871.
The German states proclaimed their union as the German Empire under the Prussian king Wilhelm I uniting Germany as a nation-state. The Treaty of Frankfurt of 10 May 1871 gave Germany most of Alsace and some parts of Lorraine, which became the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine; the German conquest of France and the unification of Germany upset the European balance of power that had existed since the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Otto von Bismarck maintained great authority in international affairs for two decades. French determination to regain Alsace-Lorraine and fear of another Franco-German war, along with British apprehension about the balance of power, became factors in the causes of World War I; the causes of the Franco-Prussian War are rooted in the events surrounding the unification of Germany. In the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Prussia had annexed numerous territories and formed the North German Confederation; this new power destabilized the European balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon III the emperor of France, demanded compensations in Belgium and on the left bank of the Rhine to secure France's strategic position, which the Prussian chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, flatly refused. Prussia turned its attention towards the south of Germany, where it sought to incorporate the southern German kingdoms, Bavaria, Württemberg and Hesse-Darmstadt, into a unified Prussia-dominated Germany. France was opposed to any further alliance of German states, which would have strengthened the Prussian military. In Prussia, some officials considered a war against France both inevitable and necessary to arouse German nationalism in those states that would allow the unification of a great German empire; this aim was epitomized by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's statement: "I did not doubt that a Franco-German war must take place before the construction of a United Germany could be realised." Bismarck knew that France should be the aggressor in the conflict to bring the southern German states to side with Prussia, hence giving Germans numerical superiority.
He was convinced that France would not find any allies in her war against Germany for the simple reason that "France, the victor, would be a danger to everybody – Prussia to nobody," and he added, "That is our strong point." Many Germans viewed the French as the traditional destabilizer of Europe, sought to weaken France to prevent further breaches of the peace. The immediate cause of the war resided in the candidacy of Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, a Prussian prince, to the throne of Spain. France feared encirclement by an alliance between Spain; the Hohenzollern prince's candidacy was withdrawn under French diplomatic pressure, but Otto von Bismarck goaded the French into declaring war by releasing an altered summary of the Ems Dispatch, a telegram sent by William I rejecting French demands that Prussia never again support a Hohenzollern candidacy. Bismarck's summary, as mistranslated by the French press Havas, made it sound as if the king had treated the French envoy in a demeaning fashion, which inflamed public opinion in France.
French historians François Roth and Pierre Milza argue that Napoleon III was pressured by a bellicose press and public opinion and thus sought war in response to France's diplomatic failures to obtain any territorial gains following the Austro-Prussian War. Napoleon III believed. Many in his court, such as Empress Eugénie wanted a