Bendigo is a city in Victoria, located near the geographical centre of the state and 150 kilometres north west of the state capital, Melbourne. As of June 2016, Bendigo had an urban population of 95,587, making it the fourth-largest inland city in Australia and fourth-most populous city in the state, it is the administrative centre for the City of Greater Bendigo, which encompasses both the urban area and outlying towns spanning an area around 3,000 km2 and over 111,000 people. The discovery of gold in the soils of Bendigo during the 1850s made it one of the most significant Victorian-era boomtowns in Australia. News of the finds intensified the Victorian gold rush, bringing an influx of migrants to the city from around the world within a year and transforming it from a sheep station to a major settlement in the newly proclaimed Colony of Victoria. Once the alluvial gold had been mined out, mining companies were formed to exploit the rich underground quartz reef gold. Since 1851, about 780,000 kilograms of gold have been extracted from Bendigo's goldmines, making it the highest producing goldfield in Australia in the 19th century and the largest gold-mining economy in eastern Australia.
It is notable for its Victorian architectural heritage. The city took its name from the Bendigo Creek and its residents from the earliest days of the gold rush have been called "Bendigonians". Although the town flourished in its beginnings as a result of the discovery of gold, it experienced a reversal of fortune in the early 20th century. However, its growth accelerated in the postwar years and has continued to increase since; the original inhabitants of the Mount Alexander area that includes Greater Bendigo were the Dja Dja Wurrung people, who exploited the rich local hunting grounds. These grounds were noticed by white settlers, who established the first of many vast sheep runs in 1837; the Mount Alexander North sheep run was bordered by a creek that came to be known as Bendigo, after a local shepherd nicknamed for the English bare-knuckle prizefighter William Abednego Thompson. Gold was discovered in the area in September 1851, just after the other significant goldfields in neighbouring Castlemaine, from where many diggers migrated, bringing the total to 40,000 in less than a year.
In 1853, a massive protest was held over the cost of the licence fee for prospectors, though it passed off peacefully, due to good diplomacy by police and miners’ leaders. From being a tent city, the boomtown grew into a major urban centre with many grand public buildings; the municipality became a borough in 1863 known as Sandhurst until 1891, but always unofficially as Bendigo. The railway had reached here by 1862, stimulating rapid growth, with flour mills, woollen mills, quarries, eucalyptus oil production, food production industries, timber cutting; when the alluvial gold ran out, the gold fields evolved into major mines with deep shafts to mine the quartz-based gold. Bendigo was declared a city in 1871. Rapid population growth brought a water shortage solved with a new viaduct that harnessed the Coliban River; the architect William Charles Vahland left an important mark on Bendigo during this period. He is credited with the popular cottage design with verandahs decorated in iron lace, a style, soon adopted right across the state of Victoria.
Vahland designed more than 80 buildings, including the Alexandra Fountain, arguably the most prominent monument in Bendigo, with its granite dolphins, unicorns and allegorical figures. A tram network was in use by 1890. After a temporary drop in population, renewed growth occurred from the 1930s, as the city consolidated as a manufacturing and regional service centre, though gold mining continued until 1954. Recent growth has been most concentrated in areas such as Epsom, Kangaroo Flat and Strathfieldsaye. In 1994, the City of Bendigo was abolished and merged with the Borough of Eaglehawk, the Huntly and Strathfieldsaye shires, the Rural City of Marong to form the larger City of Greater Bendigo; the population of the city increased from around 78,000 in 1991 to about 100,617 in 2012. Bendigo is one of the fastest-growing regional centres in Victoria; the city is surrounded by components of the Greater Bendigo National Park, as well as the Bendigo Box-Ironbark Region Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for swift parrots and other woodland birds.
A dozen species of insect-eating bats and the pollinating grey-headed flying fox inhabit the area. Bendigo has a dry temperate climate with warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters. Under the Köppen-Geiger classification, it lies on a humid subtropical/oceanic transitional climate zone, due to its location being on the boundary of the hot, sultry inland areas to the north and the cool, damp Southern Ocean to the south. Bendigo gets 109.9 clear days annually. The mean minimum temperature in January is 14.3 °C and the maximum 28.7 °C, although temperatures above 35 °C are reached. The highest temperature recorded was 45.4 °C, during the early 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave. There is a disputed recording of 47.4 °C. The mean minimum temperature in July is 3.5 °C and winter minima below 0 °C are recorded 28 nights per year on average. Mean maximum winter temperatures in July are 12.1 °C. Most of the city's annual rainfall of 582.1 millimetres falls between September. Snowfalls are unknown.
Neighbours is an Australian television soap opera. It was first broadcast on the Seven Network on 18 March 1985, it was created by TV executive Reg Watson, who proposed the idea of making a show that focused on realistic stories and portrayed adults and teenagers who talk and solve their problems together. Seven decided to commission the show following the success of Watson's shorter-lived soap Sons and Daughters, which aired on the network. Although successful in Melbourne, Neighbours underperformed in the Sydney market and struggled for months before Seven cancelled it; the show was bought by rival network Ten. After taking over production of the show, the new network had to build replica sets because Seven destroyed the originals to prevent its rival from obtaining them. Ten began screening Neighbours on 20 January 1986, beginning where the previous series left off and commencing with episode 171. Neighbours has since become the longest running drama series in Australian television and in 2005, it was inducted collectively into the Logie Hall of Fame.
The show's storylines concern the domestic and professional lives of the people who live and work in Erinsborough, a fictional suburb of Melbourne, Victoria. The series centres on the residents of Ramsay Street, a short cul-de-sac, its neighbouring area, the Lassiters complex, which includes a bar, cafe, police station, lawyers' office and park. Neighbours began with three families created by Watson -- the Robinsons and the Clarkes. Watson said; the Robinsons and the Ramsays were involved in an ongoing rivalry. Pin Oak Court, in Vermont South, is the real cul-de-sac that has doubled for Ramsay Street since 1985. All of the houses featured are real and the residents allow the production to shoot external scenes in their yards; the interior scenes are filmed at the Global Television studios in Forest Hill. Through its entire run in Australia, Neighbours has been screened as a twenty-two-minute episode each week night in an early-evening slot. Neighbours moved to Ten's digital channel, Eleven on 11 January 2011, it is broadcast each weeknight at 6:30 pm.
The show is produced by FremantleMedia Australia and has been sold to over sixty countries around the world, making it one of Australia's most successful media exports. Neighbours was first screened in the United Kingdom in October 1986 on BBC1 where it achieved huge popularity among British audiences in the late 1980s and 1990s. In 2008, it moved to the UK's Channel 5. From 2018, the show became the first Australian drama to air all year round after securing a new deal with Channel 5. Neighbours was created in the early-to-mid-1980s by Australian TV executive Reg Watson. Watson decided to create a soap opera after working on Crossroads and seeing how successful it and Coronation Street were in Britain, he had created such successful Australian made soap operas as The Young Doctors and Sons and Daughters. Watson proposed the idea of making a show that would focus on more realistic stories and portray teens and adults who talk to each other and solve their problems together. Watson, who worked for the Grundy production company, decided to make his show appeal to both Australia and Britain.
In 2005, Darren Devlyn and Caroline Frost from the Herald Sun reported that Watson took his idea to the Nine Network in 1982, but it was rejected. Former Network Nine chief executive Ian Johnson commented that it was one of the "biggest missed opportunities" in his twenty-four years at the network, he added "I remember it being discussed, but I'm not sure what went against it. It may have had something to do with the fact we'd picked up Sale of the Century with Tony Barber in 1980 and it was doing huge business, so we didn't have a pressing need for a five-night-a-week show." Watson took his idea to the Seven Network, who commissioned the show, following the success of his other Seven Network soap opera and Daughters. Several titles for the show were discussed, including People Like Us, One Way Street, No Through Road and Living Together until the network programmers voted on Neighbours; the first episode was broadcast on 18 March 1985 and reviews for the show were favourable. However, the Melbourne-produced programme underperformed in the Sydney market and after a meeting of the general managers, Seven decided to drop the show in October 1985.
Seven's Melbourne programme boss, Gary Fenton said Sydney chief Ted Thomas told the other general managers that Seven could not afford three dramas and argued that the Sydney-based A Country Practice and Sons and Daughters be retained. Neighbours was bought by Seven's rival Network Ten; the new network had to build replica sets when it took over production after Seven destroyed the original sets to prevent the rival network obtaining them. Ten began screening the series with episode 171 on 20 January 1986. In 1986, the series was bought by the BBC as part of their new daytime schedule in the United Kingdom. Neighbours made its debut on BBC1 on 27 October 1986 starting with the pilot episode, it soon gained a loyal audience and the show became popular with younger viewers, before long was watched by up to 16 million viewers - more than the entire population of Australia at the time. In 1988 Neighbours became the only television show to have its entire cast flown over to the UK to make an appearance at the Royal Variety Performance in front of the Queen.
Neighbours has since become the longest running drama series in Australian television and the seventh longest running serial drama still on the air in the world. In 2005, Neighbours celebrated its 20th anniversary and over twenty former cast members r
A soap opera is an ongoing drama serial on television or radio, featuring the lives of many characters and their emotional relationships. The term soap opera originated from radio dramas being sponsored by soap manufacturers. BBC Radio's The Archers, first broadcast in 1950, is the world's longest-running radio soap opera; the first serial considered to be a "soap opera" was Painted Dreams, which debuted on October 20, 1930 on Chicago radio station WGN. Early radio series such as Painted Dreams were broadcast in weekday daytime slots five days a week. Most of the listeners would be housewives. Thus, the shows were consumed by a predominantly female audience; the first nationally broadcast radio soap opera was Clara, Lu, Em, which aired on the NBC Blue Network at 10:30 p.m. Eastern Time on January 27, 1931. A crucial element that defines the soap opera is the open-ended serial nature of the narrative, with stories spanning several episodes. One of the defining features that makes a television program a soap opera, according to Albert Moran, is "that form of television that works with a continuous open narrative.
Each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode". In 2012, Los Angeles Times columnist Robert Lloyd wrote of daily dramas, "Although melodramatically eventful, soap operas such as this have a luxury of space that makes them seem more naturalistic. You spend more time with the minor characters. An individual episode of a soap opera will switch between several different concurrent narrative threads that may at times interconnect and affect one another or may run independent to each other; each episode may feature some of the show's current storylines, but not always all of them. In daytime serials and those that are broadcast each weekday, there is some rotation of both storyline and actors so any given storyline or actor will appear in some but not all of a week's worth of episodes. Soap operas bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time; when one storyline ends, there are several other story threads at differing stages of development.
Soap opera episodes end on some sort of cliffhanger, the season finale ends in the same way, only to be resolved when the show returns for the start of a new yearly broadcast. Evening soap operas and those that air at a rate of one episode per week are more to feature the entire cast in each episode, to represent all current storylines in each episode. Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger. In 1976, Time magazine described American daytime television as "TV's richest market," noting the loyalty of the soap opera fan base and the expansion of several half-hour series into hour-long broadcasts in order to maximize ad revenues; the article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. The issue's cover notably featured its first daytime soap stars, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of Our Lives, a married couple whose onscreen and real-life romance was covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press at large.
The main characteristics that define soap operas are "an emphasis on family life, personal relationships, sexual dramas and moral conflicts. Fitting in with these characteristics, most soap operas follow the lives of a group of characters who live or work in a particular place, or focus on a large extended family; the storylines follow personal relationships of these characters. "Soap narratives, like those of film melodramas, are marked by what Steve Neale has described as'chance happenings, missed meetings, sudden conversions, last-minute rescues and revelations, deus ex machina endings.'" These elements may be found from EastEnders to Dallas. Due to the prominence of English-language television, most soap-operas are English. However, several South African soap operas started incorporating a multi-language format, the most prominent being 7de Laan, which incorporates Afrikaans, English and several other Bantu languages which make up the 11 Official Languages of South Africa. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the US, the characters are attractive, seductive and wealthy.
Soap operas from the United Kingdom and Australia tend to focus on more everyday characters and situations, are set in working class environments. Many of the soaps produced in those two countries explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown or financial problems. Both UK and Australian soap operas feature comedic elements affectionate comic stereotypes such as the gossip or the grumpy old man, presented as a comic foil to the emotional turmoil that surrounds them; this diverges from US soap operas. UK soap operas make a claim to presenting "reality
Godspell is a musical composed by Stephen Schwartz with the book by John-Michael Tebelak. The show opened off-Broadway on May 17, 1971, has since been produced by multiple touring companies and in many revivals; the 2011 revival played on Broadway from October 13, 2011 through June 24, 2012. The musical is structured as a series of parables based on the Gospel of Matthew. However, four of the featured parables are only recorded in the Gospel of Luke, the narrative of the woman taken in adultery is only in the Gospel of John; the parables are interspersed with music set to lyrics from traditional hymns, with the passion of Christ appearing near the end of the show. Godspell began as a project by the drama students at Carnegie Mellon University moved to the off-off-Broadway theater La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club in the East Village of Manhattan; the show was re-scored for an off-Broadway production, which became a long-running success. An abbreviated one-act version of the musical has been produced under the title Godspell Junior.
Several cast albums have been released over the years. "Day by Day", from the original cast album, reached #13 on the Billboard pop singles chart in the summer of 1972. The show originated in 1970 as Tebelak's master's thesis project, under the direction of Lawrence Carra at Carnegie Mellon University; this version was performed at Carnegie Mellon in 1970 by students from Carnegie Mellon's Music Department. Tebelak directed the show, maintaining much of the original student cast, for a two-week, ten-performance run at La MaMa Experimental Theatre Club, which opened February 24, 1971; the show was brought to the attention of producers Edgar Lansbury, Joseph Beruh, Stuart Duncan by Carnegie Mellon alumnus and associate producer Charles Haid, who wanted to transfer the show to off-Broadway. The producers hired another Carnegie Mellon alumnus, to re-score the show. Schwartz's score incorporated a variety of musical genres, including pop, folk rock and vaudeville. "By My Side", written by Carnegie Mellon students Jay Hamburger and Peggy Gordon, was kept from the original score.
As in the original score, most of the lyrics not written by Schwartz were from the Episcopal hymnal. The show features eight non-Biblical characters, who act out the parables: Gilmer. In the original script, licensed through Theatre Maximus, the "Christ" character and the "John" and "Judas" role are assigned the names of the original performers and David. In the revised script used for the 2012 Broadway revival, the names of the cast are again assigned to the non-Biblical roles: Nick, George, Anna Maria, Uzo and Celisse; each character is assigned a few character traits. An ensemble can be added to the production if needed. All ten actors are on stage throughout the entirety of the production; the show opens with God's voice, as spoken by Jesus, declaring his supremacy: "My name is Known: God and King. I am most in majesty, in whom no beginning may be and no end.". The cast enters and takes the roles of various philosophers who sing their philosophies, first alone in cacophonous counterpoint. In response, John the Baptist enters blowing a shofar to call the community to order.
He beckons them to "Prepare Ye, The Way of the Lord!" and baptizes the cast. John gives a short sermon. Jesus announces his presence and says that he wishes to be baptized. John instead asks to be baptized by Jesus. Jesus explains; the cast sings with Jesus. In his first parable, Jesus explains that he has come "not to abolish the law and the prophets, but to complete". Jesus explains to the cast that those who adhere to the law of God will earn the highest place in the Kingdom of Heaven, he tells them the parable of the Widow and the Judge, demonstrating that God is a just jurist who will support those who cry out to him. The cast begins to understand Jesus' teachings and take it upon themselves to tell the story of the Pharisees and the tax gatherer praying in the temple: "Every man who humbles himself shall be exalted!" As Jesus teaches the law of the offering gifts at the altar, the cast makes offerings of themselves. They are taught that to approach God's altar, they must be pure of soul, they act out the story of a master and a servant who owes him a debt.
The servant asks his master for pity in repaying the debt, the master absolves it. The servant turns to a fellow servant who "owed him a few dollars" and demands that it be paid in full; the master, hearing this condemns the servant to prison. Jesus explains the moral: "Forgive your brothers from your heart." The character telling the parable sings "Day by Day", the cast joins in. After the song, Jesus teaches that if one part of you offends God, it is better to lose it than to have the whole of the body thrown into hell; the cast plays charades to finish several statements posed by Jesus, including "If a man sues you for your shirt..." and "If a man asks you to go one mile with him...." The cast performs the Parable of the Good Samaritan as a play-within-a-play. Jesus explains the need to "love your enemies" and "not make a show of religion before men", he says: "God will reward a good deed done in secret". The cast performs the parable of Laza
Melbourne Football Club
The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Demons, is a professional Australian rules football club, playing in the Australian Football League. It is named after and based in the city of Melbourne and plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Melbourne is the world's oldest professional club of any football code; the club's origins can be traced to an 1858 letter in which Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calls for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with its own "code of laws". An informal Melbourne team played that winter and was formed in May 1859 when Wills and three other members codified "The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club"—the basis of Australian rules football; the club was a dominant force in the earliest Australian rules football competition, the Challenge Cup, was a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association in 1877 and the Victorian Football League in 1896, which became the national Australian Football League. Melbourne has won 12 VFL/AFL premierships, the latest in 1964.
The club celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2008 by naming "150 Heroes" as well as creating a birthday logo which appeared on its official guernsey. The football club has been a sporting section of the Melbourne Cricket Club since 2009, having been associated with the MCC between 1889 and 1980. In the winter and spring of 1858, a loosely organised football team known as Melbourne played in a series of scratch matches in the parklands outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this team was captained by Tom Wills, a prominent athlete and captain of the Victoria cricket team, who, on 10 July that year, had a letter of his published by the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle, in which he calls for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. Other figures associated with this embryonic Melbourne side include cricketers Jerry Bryant, William Hammersley and J. B. Thompson, teacher Thomas H. Smith. During meetings held on 17 and 21 May 1859, Hammersley and Smith met near the MCG at the Parade Hotel, owned by Bryant, to draft "The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club".
The resulting ten codified rules are the laws. The first mention of an interclub match played under the new code was between Melbourne and South Yarra in July 1859, with Hammersley as Melbourne's inaugural captain. In 1861, Melbourne participated in the Caledonian Society's Challenge Cup, but lost the trophy to the Melbourne University Football Club; the club pushed for its rules to be the accepted rules, however many of the early suburban matches were played under compromised rules decided between the captains of the competing clubs. Although some Melbourne players and officials were associated with the cricket club, the football club was not allowed to use the MCG, so it used a nearby field at Yarra Park as its home ground instead. By 1866 several other clubs had adopted an updated version of Melbourne's rules, drafted at a meeting chaired by Wills' cousin, H. C. A. Harrison. Harrison was a key figure in the early years of the club. Due to his popular reputation and administrative efforts, he was named "Father of Australian Football" in 1908, the year of the sport's golden jubilee.
During the 1870s, Melbourne fielded teams in the Seven South Yarra Cup competitions. After a visit to England by one of the club's officials, the colours of red and green were adopted by the club. Shortly afterward, the club began wearing a predominantly red strip and became informally known by supporters as the "Redlegs"; the name "Redlegs" was coined after a Melbourne official returned from a trip to England with one set of red and another of blue woollen socks. Melbourne wore the red set while the blue set was given to the Carlton Football Club; this may be the source of Carlton's nickname,'The Blueboys'. In 1877, the club became a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association. During the same year the club took part in the first interstate football match involving a South Australian side, defeating the home side 1-0. During this time, the club was known as the "Fuchsias". Melbourne never won a VFA premiership, although they were one of the stronger teams in the competition, finishing runner-up four times, to Carlton in 1877, to Geelong in 1878 and twice to Essendon in 1893 and 1894.
In 1889, the MFC was reincorporated into the MCC, for many years the two organisations remained unhappily linked. The MFC's close association with the MCC allowed it to claim the MCG as its home ground and gave it access to a wealthy membership base, but Melbourne's reputation as an "establishment" club was not always an advantage. MCC members have the automatic right to attend all events at the ground, including MFC football games; this meant many potential members had a reduced incentive to join the football club, Melbourne's membership remained one of the lowest in the competition. In 1897, the MFC was part of the breakaway Victorian Football League, has been a part of the competition since; the team became known as the "Redlegs". This nickname is still used by some members and supporter groups within the club. In 1900 Melbourne won its first VFL premiership. Melbourne's greatest player of these early years of the VFL was Ivor Warne-Smith, who in 1926 won the club's first Brownlow Medal, the League's annual award for the fairest and best player.
In that year Melbourne won its second flag. Warne-Smith went on to win a second Brownlow in 1928. Frank'Checker' Hughes became Melbourne's coach in 1933, a
Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical is a rock musical with a book and lyrics by Gerome Ragni and James Rado and music by Galt MacDermot. A product of the hippie counterculture and sexual revolution of the late 1960s, several of its songs became anthems of the anti-Vietnam War peace movement; the musical's profanity, its depiction of the use of illegal drugs, its treatment of sexuality, its irreverence for the American flag, its nude scene caused much comment and controversy. The musical broke new ground in musical theatre by defining the genre of "rock musical", using a racially integrated cast, inviting the audience onstage for a "Be-In" finale. Hair tells the story of the "tribe", a group of politically active, long-haired hippies of the "Age of Aquarius" living a bohemian life in New York City and fighting against conscription into the Vietnam War. Claude, his good friend Berger, their roommate Sheila and their friends struggle to balance their young lives and the sexual revolution with their rebellion against the war and their conservative parents and society.
Claude must decide whether to resist the draft as his friends have done, or to succumb to the pressures of his parents to serve in Vietnam, compromising his pacifist principles and risking his life. After an off-Broadway debut on October 17, 1967, at Joseph Papp's Public Theater and a subsequent run at the Cheetah nightclub from December 1967 through January 1968, the show opened on Broadway in April 1968 and ran for 1,750 performances. Simultaneous productions in cities across the United States and Europe followed shortly thereafter, including a successful London production that ran for 1,997 performances. Since numerous productions have been staged around the world, spawning dozens of recordings of the musical, including the 3 million-selling original Broadway cast recording; some of the songs from its score became Top 10 hits, a feature film adaptation was released in 1979. A Broadway revival opened in 2009, earning strong reviews and winning the Tony Award and Drama Desk Award for Best Revival of a Musical.
In 2008, Time wrote, "Today Hair seems, if anything, more daring than ever." Hair was conceived by actors James Gerome Ragni. The two met in 1964 when they performed together in the Off-Broadway flop Hang Down Your Head and Die, they began writing Hair together in late 1964; the main characters were autobiographical, with Rado's Claude being a pensive romantic and Ragni's Berger an extrovert. Their close relationship, including its volatility, was reflected in the musical. Rado explained, "We were great friends, it was a passionate kind of relationship that we directed into creativity, into writing, into creating this piece. We put the drama between us on stage."Rado described the inspiration for Hair as "a combination of some characters we met in the streets, people we knew and our own imaginations. We knew this group of kids in the East Village who were dropping out and dodging the draft, there were lots of articles in the press about how kids were being kicked out of school for growing their hair long".
He recalled, "There was so much excitement in the streets and the parks and the hippie areas, we thought if we could transmit this excitement to the stage it would be wonderful.... We hung out with them and went to their Be-Ins let our hair grow." Many cast members were recruited right off the street. Rado said, "It was important and if we hadn't written it, there'd not be any examples. You could read about it and see film clips. We thought,'This is happening in the streets', we wanted to bring it to the stage."Rado and Ragni came from different artistic backgrounds. In college, Rado wrote musical revues and aspired to be a Broadway composer in the Rodgers and Hammerstein tradition, he went on to study acting with Lee Strasberg. Ragni, on the other hand, was an active member of The Open Theater, one of several groups Off-off Broadway, that were developing experimental theatre techniques, he introduced Rado to the modern theatre methods being developed at The Open Theater. In 1966, while the two were developing Hair, Ragni performed in The Open Theater's production of Megan Terry's play, Viet Rock, a story about young men being deployed to the Vietnam War.
In addition to the war theme, Viet Rock employed the improvisational exercises being used in the experimental theatre scene and used in the development of Hair. Rado and Ragni brought their drafts of the show to producer Eric Blau who, through common friend Nat Shapiro, connected the two with Canadian composer Galt MacDermot. MacDermot had won a Grammy Award in 1961 for his composition "African Waltz"; the composer's lifestyle was in marked contrast to his co-creators: "I had short hair, a wife, and, at that point, four children, I lived on Staten Island." "I never heard of a hippie when I met Rado and Ragni." But he shared their enthusiasm to do a roll show. "We work independently", explained MacDermot in May 1968. "I prefer it that way. They hand me the material. I set it to music." MacDermot wrote the first score in three weeks, starting with the songs "I Got Life", "Ain't Got No", "Where Do I Go" and the title song. He first wrote "Aquarius" as an unconventional art piece, but rewrote it into an uplifting anthem.
The creators received many rejections. Joe Papp, who ran the New York Shakespeare Festival, decided he wanted Hair to open the new Public Theater in New York City's East Village; the musical was the first work by living authors. The production did not go
Kyabram is located in the centre of a rich irrigation district in the Goulburn River Valley, in the Australian state of Victoria, 200 kilometres north of Melbourne. Kyabram, the second-largest town in the Shire of Campaspe, is situated between the towns of Echuca and Shepparton and is close to the Murray River, Goulburn River, Campaspe River and Waranga Basin; as of the 2011 census the town had a population of 7,321 people and provides services to a district population of around 16,000. The name of the town is thought to derive from an Aboriginal word Kiambram meaning "Thick Forest"; the Bangerang people were the original inhabitants of the Goulburn valley. The township started in the 1870s with the first sale of town blocks held in 1876. Kyabram Post Office opened on 23 September 1878. Sheridan Post Office opened on 1 December 1884. On 8 April 1886, in anticipation of the arrival of the railway at what was Sheridan, Kyabram was renamed Kyabram East and Sheridan was renamed Kyabram; the Kyabram Mechanics' Institute was built in 1891.
John Allan, who lived in Kyabram from 1873, became Premier of Victoria in 1924 and Australia's first Country Party premier. Allan was associated with the Kyabram Reform Movement, a conservative political organisation formed at the start of the 20th century and led by Benjamin Goddard, a local businessman; the movement's campaign played a significant role in the downfall of the Peacock state government in June 1902 and its sound defeat in the subsequent September elections. The incoming Irvine government reduced the number of state parliamentarians, a key demand of the movement. Kyabram was formally proclaimed a town on 4 July 1973; the district is dependent on the primary industries of dairying and fruit orchards. Henry Jones IXL, a subsidiary of SPC Ardmona, operate a plant in manufacturing IXL jams; the town provides engineering, financial advisors and accounting services to the district. Nestlé, Southern Processing Ltd and Fonterra all have food processing plants nearby. Medical and aged care services in the town include a 46-bed hospital, a 30-bed home for the aged, infant welfare centre, ambulance station, several doctors and other health practitioners.
In education Kyabram has now combined three state schools to one P-12 school containing three campuses. Kyabram has a Catholic primary and secondary school, two kindergartens and the Kyabram Community & Learning Centre providing community services and adult learning opportunities for the people of Kyabram and the surrounding region; the local newspaper is called the Kyabram Free Press, a part of the McPherson media group in the region, with a circulation of 3,300 copies. Surrounding smaller towns include Merrigum, Undera, Wyuna, Girgarre and Tongala. Attractions include the Kyabram Fauna Park, a 55-hectare reserve housing five hundred species of wildlife. There are hides to observe a variety of water birds. Popular sports in Kyabram include cricket. Jim Higgs was a spin bowler from Kyabram; the local football team is known as the Bombers. Kyabram has produced a number of AFL recruits such as GWS utility and former Richmond best-and-fairest Brett Deledio, former Melbourne & Victorian Captain Garry Lyon, Richmond's Kayne Pettifer, Brisbane's Patrick Wearden, Hawthorn's Cohen Myers, Carlton's Nick Holman, former North Melbourne rookie Brad Mangan.
Netball and soccer are popular in Kyabram. Golfers play at the course of the Kyabram Valley View Golf and Bowls Club on Curr Road, Mount Scobie, or at the Kyabram Parkland Golf Club, the home of the Victorian Par 3 Amateur Championships, on Racecourse Rd, Kyabram. In 2016, former resident Kristen Hilton was appointed Victoria's Human Rights Commissioner, head of the Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission. Kyabram is referenced by Irish singer-songwriter Declan O'Rourke on his debut album Since Kyabram. O'Rourke picked up his first acoustic guitar while living in the town as a teenager. Media related to Kyabram at Wikimedia Commons Kyabram information Kyabram history