Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats. A member of this family is called a felid; the term "cat" refers both to felids in general and to the domestic cat. The Felidae species exhibit the most diverse fur pattern of all terrestrial carnivores. Cats have slender muscular bodies and strong flexible forelimbs, their teeth and facial muscles allow for a powerful bite. They are all obligate carnivores, most are solitary predators ambushing or stalking their prey. Wild cats occur in Africa, Europe and the Americas; some wild cat species are adapted to forest habitats, some to arid environments, a few to wetlands and mountainous terrain. Their activity patterns range from nocturnal and crepuscular to diurnal, depending on their preferred prey species. Reginald Innes Pocock divided the extant Felidae into three subfamilies: the Pantherinae, the Felinae and the Acinonychinae, differing from each other by the ossification of the hyoid apparatus and by the cutaneous sheaths which protect their claws.
This concept has been revised following developments in molecular biology and techniques for analysis of morphological data. Today, the living Felidae are divided in two subfamilies, with the Pantherinae including seven Panthera and two Neofelis species; the Felinae include all the non-pantherine cats with 34 species. The first cats emerged during the Oligocene about 25 million years ago, with the appearance of Proailurus and Pseudaelurus; the latter species complex was ancestral to two main lines of felids: the cats in the extant subfamilies and a group of extinct cats of the subfamily Machairodontinae, which include the saber-toothed cats such as the Smilodon. The "false sabre toothed cats", the Barbourofelidae and Nimravidae, are not true cats, but are related. Together with the Felidae, Viverridae and mongooses, they constitute the Feliformia. All members of the cat family have the following characteristics in common: They are digitigrade, have five toes on their forefeet and four on their hind feet.
Their curved claws are protractile and attached to the terminal bones of the toe with ligaments and tendons. The claws are guarded except in the Acinonyx, they protract the claws by contracting muscles in the toe, they passively retract them. The dewclaws do not protract, they have 30 teeth with a dental formula of 22.214.171.124.1.2.1. The upper third premolar and lower molar are adapted as carnassial teeth, suited to tearing and cutting flesh; the canine teeth are large. The lower carnassial is smaller than the upper carnassial and has a crown with two compressed blade-like pointed cusps, their nose projects beyond the lower jaw. They have well developed and sensitive whiskers above the eyes, on the cheeks, on the muzzle, but not below the chin. Whiskers help to capture and hold prey, their skull is foreshortened with large orbits. Their tongue is covered with horny papillae, which rasp meat from aid in grooming, their eyes are large, situated to provide binocular vision. Their night vision is good due to the presence of a tapetum lucidum, which reflects light back inside the eyeball, gives felid eyes their distinctive shine.
As a result, the eyes of felids are about six times more light sensitive than those of humans, many species are at least nocturnal. The retina of felids contains a high proportion of rod cells, adapted for distinguishing moving objects in conditions of dim light, which are complemented by the presence of cone cells for sensing colour during the day, their external ears are large, sensitive to high-frequency sounds in the smaller cat species. This sensitivity allows them to locate small rodent prey, they have flexible bodies with muscular limbs. The plantar pads of both fore and hind feet form compact three-lobed cushions; the penis is boneless. Relative to body size, they have shorter bacula than canids, they can not detect the sweetness of sugar. Felids have a vomeronasal organ in the roof of the mouth; the use of this organ is associated with the Flehmen response. The standard sounds made by all felids include meowing, hissing and growling. Meowing is the main contact sound, they can purr during both phases of respiration, though pantherine cats seem to purr only during oestrus and copulation, as cubs when suckling.
Purring is a low pitch sound of less than 2 kHz and mixed with other vocalization types during the expiratory phase. Most felids are able to land on their feet after a fall due to the cat righting reflex; the colour and density of their fur is diverse. Fur colour varies from light brown to golden and reddish brown, fur pattern from distinctive small spots, stripes to small blotches and rosettes. Most cat species are born except the jaguarundi, Asian golden cat and caracal; the spotted fur of lion and cougar cubs change to a uniform fur during their ontogeny. Those living in cold environments have thick fur with long hair, like the snow leopard and the Pallas's cat; those living in tropical and hot climate zones have short fur. Several species exhibit melanism with all-black individuals. In the great majority of cat species, the tail is between a third and a half of the body length, although with some exceptions, like the Ly
The Felinae is a subfamily of the family Felidae. This subfamily comprises the small cats having a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not roar. Other authors proposed an alternative definition for this subfamily: as comprising only the living conical-toothed cat genera with two tribes, the Felini and Pantherini; the members of the Felinae have retractile claws. Their larynx is kept close to the base of the skull by an ossified hyoid, they can purr owing to the vocal folds being shorter than 6 mm. The term Felini was first used in 1817 by Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim, at the time for all the cat species, proposed as belonging to the genus Felis. In 1917, Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the following genera to the Felinae, proposed in the course of the 19th century: Lynx, Leptailurus, Pardofelis, Herpailurus and four more; the Felinae and Pantherinae diverged about 11.5 million years ago. The genera within the Felinae diverged between 4.23 million years ago. Today, the following living genera and species are recognised as belonging to the Felinae: Acinonyx † Giant cheetah A. pardinensis Croizet e Joubert, 1928 † A. intermedius Thenius, 1954 † A. aicha Geraads, 1997 † Miracinonyx Adams, 1979 Miracinonyx trumani Orr, 1969 Miracinonyx inexpectatus Miracinonyx studeri Adams, 1979 Felis † F. lunensis Martelli, 1906 † Pratifelis Hibbard, 1934 Pratifelis martini Hibbard, 1934 † Pristifelis Salesa et al. 2012 Felis attica Wagner, 1857 † Leptofelis †L. vallesiensis Salesa et al. 2012 Cats portal List of felids Media related to Felinae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Felinae at Wikispecies
Save Your Face
Save Your Face is the debut album by British alternative rock group Feline and was released worldwide in 1997. It was preceded by "Just As You Are", the video of, picked up by MTV Europe; the following year, the album was repackaged, retitled as Feline and expanded with two newly recorded tracks produced by Feline guitarist Drew Richards. Three of the Save Your Face tracks were remixed by Chris Sheldon for the new release, preceded by "Sun In My Eyes" and the cancelled "Drama Queen". Feline recorded the bulk of Save Your Face over three weeks in December 1996 at Olympic Studios in London, England with producer David M. Allen, known for his work on The Cure's Disintigration and Wish. Allen was chosen to produce the record because the band purposely did not want to sound like their influences; the album was mixed by Pat Collier in London's Eden Studios. Extra material was recorded for use as b-sides and a charity album cover version of The Hollies "The Air That I Breathe". Photography for the album package was created by Paul Spencer.
At the start of 1998, Feline recorded new material self-produced by Drew, both of which were mixed by Chris Sheldon, who remixed "Sun In My Eyes", "Fantasy World" and "Can't Help Myself". On 3 August, Save Your Face was re-released under the title Feline; the new edition was expanded with the new Chris Sheldon tracks. On 4 August 1997, the first single from Save Your Face, "Just As You Are" was released in the UK, backed with b-sides "Highway", "Shape Changing" and "Two Minds" on CD maxi and 7" vinyl. "Just As You Are" spent a single week on the Official Charts at #81. "Just As You Are" was issued in Europe on CD single and CD maxi. The music video for "Just As You Are" was directed by Howard Greenhalgh and featured the band morphing into insects and other animals. Despite the use of CGI, the video cost the label £67,000. On 11 May 1998, Chris Sheldon's new mix of "Sun In My Eyes" was released as a single on two CD singles and 7" vinyl; the first CD featured new recordings "Innocent Smile" and "Rumour Mill", while the second CD included "The Air That I Breathe" and "Germaine".
"Sun In My Eyes" peaked at #81 on the single chart the following week. In Europe, "Sun In My Eyes" was released as a single CD maxi. Newly recorded Feline cut "Drama Queen" was scheduled for single release on CD and 7" on 6 July 1998, however the single was cancelled after promos were distributed to the music press. B-sides were stated in reviews as "Wake The Dead", "Live With Me" and "Wheel" These have as yet gone unreleased. Performances vocals, bass guitar, Juno: Georgina Prebble Guitar, guitar synth, backing vocals: Drew Richards Guitar: Eduardo L. Garcia drums, backing vocals: Steve Drew Drums: Mig Production Recorded at Olympic, Raezor, Sarm West and Trident Lodge studios. Produced by David M. Allen, except "Drama Queen" and "Bad Habit" produced by Drew Richards. Mixed at Eden Studios in London, United Kingdom by Pat Collier, except "Just As You Are" and "Not What It Seems" mixed at Southbeach Studios, Florida by Tom Lord-Alge and "Drama Queen" and "Bad Habit" mixed by Chris Sheldon. Credits and personnel taken from sleeve notes to both Feline.
Grogography: Flinch, Feline + Ultraviolet tracks on YouTube Die So Fluid official website
The cat is a small carnivorous mammal. It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the family; the cat is either a house cat, kept as a pet, or a feral cat ranging and avoiding human contact. A house cat is valued for its ability to hunt rodents. About 60 cat breeds are recognized by various cat registries. Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felid species, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey, they are predators who are most active at dusk. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. Compared to humans, they see better in the dark and have a better sense of smell, but poorer color vision. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species. Cat communication includes the use of vocalizations including mewing, trilling, hissing and grunting as well as cat-specific body language.
Cats communicate by secreting and perceiving pheromones. Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens. Domestic cats can be shown as registered pedigreed cats, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as abandonment of pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, evoking population control, it was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because cats in ancient Egypt were venerated since around 3100 BC. However, the earliest indication for the taming of an African wildcat was found in Cyprus, where a cat skeleton was excavated close by a human Neolithic grave dating to around 7500 BC. African wildcats were first domesticated in the Near East; the leopard cat was tamed independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today.
As of 2017, the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the U. S. by number of pets owned, with 95 million cats owned. As of 2017, it was ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned; the number of cats in the UK has nearly doubled since 1965. The origin of the English word cat and its counterparts in other Germanic languages, descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial, it has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus,'domestic cat', from catta, compare Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, Old Church Slavonic kotъ, among others. The Late Latin word is thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" kaddîska,'wildcat', Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggests the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa. Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau,'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t, but John Huehnergard says "the source was not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."
Huehnergard opines it is "equally that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen considers the word to be native to Germanic and Northern Europe, suggests that it might be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi,'female stoat', Hungarian hölgy,'stoat'. In any case, cat is a classic example of a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures: a Wanderwort. An alternative word is English puss. Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Irish puisín or puiscín; the etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have arisen from a sound used to attract a cat. A group of cats can be referred to a glaring. A male cat is called a tom or tomcat An unspayed female is called a queen in a cat-breeding context. A juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten.
In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word catling. The male progenitor of a cat a pedigreed cat, is its sire and its mother is its dam. A pedigreed cat is one. A purebred cat is one. Many pedigreed and purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats, or as random-bred, moggies, or mongrels or mutt-cats; the semi-feral cat, a outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are wary of human interaction. Domesti
The Monster Hunter franchise is a series of fantasy-themed action role-playing video games that started with the game Monster Hunter for PlayStation 2, released in 2004. Titles have been released across a variety of platforms, including personal computer, home console, portable consoles, mobile devices; the series is published by Capcom. The games are action role-playing games; the player takes the role of a Hunter, slaying or trapping large monsters across various landscapes as part of quests given to them by the locals. As part of its core gameplay loop, players use loot gained from slaying monsters, gathering resources, quest rewards to craft improved weapons and other items that allows them to face more powerful monsters. All main series games feature multiplayer, but can be played single player; as of December 31, 2018, the series has sold 53 million units worldwide, principally in Japan and other Asian countries, where it has flourished due to the popularity of the series' ad hoc multiplayer features on portable consoles.
Monster Hunter has been critically well received in Western markets, but has languished in sales, in part due to the game's high difficult learning curve. However, with Monster Hunter: World, Capcom aimed to attract a global audience using the power of advanced home gaming consoles and computers, released the title worldwide. In addition to games, the franchise has an anime based on the spin-off game Monster Hunter Diary: Poka Poka Airou Village, Monster Hunter Stories: Ride On based on Monster Hunter Stories, a manga Monster Hunter Orage, a book Monster Hunter Episode. A feature film is scheduled for release in 2020. Monster Hunter games are action role-playing games, set in a fantasy genre. Players take the role of a Hunter that serves to help protect a village or help research the large monsters that roam the various areas near the village; this is presented through a series of quests to slay or trap a monster, but can include numerous optional challenges. The core feature of Monster Hunter is its compulsion loop.
A player's Hunter does not grow as in traditional computer role-playing games, has no intrinsic attributes. Instead, the Hunter's abilities are defined by what equipment they select prior to leaving on a mission; the games have more than ten weapon archetypes, such as sword and bow, each with various combat abilities, a vast array of specific weapons that provide attack power and the ability to inflict elemental or status effects on a monster. Multiple pieces of armor can be worn, providing defensive value, providing resistances to certain types of attacks or status effects, additional skills that boost the Hunter's attributes while in the field. Additional equipment atop armor can be worn to boost those skills. While the Hunter starts the game with basic equipment and can buy some equipment, most of the gear must be made by collecting resources from the field, including parts that are carved from downed monsters or given as rewards from completing quests successfully; the gameplay loop becomes one of selecting the best equipment to defeat a specific monster, using the parts from that monster to make better gear as to face tougher monsters.
However, as the monster parts that are obtained are distributed based on certain rarity factors, a player may need to grind, hunting the same monster to get the right parts. Once a quest is selected and the player equips their Hunter, they enter one of several fields and must track down the monster, as well as collect other resources used in crafting weapons and restorative items. While in the field, the player must watch their Hunter's stamina; the Hunter will faint if they lose all their health and be returned to the field's base camp where they can continue the mission, but fainting three times will fail the mission. Stamina is consumed by most attacks and actions, but can be regained by standing still. However, should the Hunter use all their stamina, they will be unable to react until they recover, leaving them vulnerable to any attack; the games offer a number of tools and other equipment that can be used to help defeat a monster and recover health and stamina while in the field. Combat is centered around watching for a monster's tells prior to an attack to able to dodge it and/or make a counter-attack, looking for openings to unleash strings of attack combos, depending on the Hunter's current weapon.
In most cases, once the player has initiated an action, such as a combat maneuver or taking a recovery item, they cannot cancel that move until its animation cycle is complete, which may leave them vulnerable to a monster's attack in mid-maneuver. In addition to monster parts for completed a quest, the Hunter is rewarded with Zenny, the in-game currency. Nearly all Monster Hunter games have a single-player mode. More newer games support four player cooperative online modes, allowing the group to hunt down stronger versions of monsters; the games have a main quest line called "Low Rank" quests, which can take up to fifty hours to complete. Once completed, the game opens up with new "High Rank" quests, featuring stronger versions of monsters they have faced, as well as new monsters yet seen and unique var