Antipyretics are substances that reduce fever. Antipyretics cause the hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin-induced increase in temperature; the body works to lower the temperature, which results in a reduction in fever. Most antipyretic medications have other purposes; the most common antipyretics in the United States are ibuprofen and aspirin, which are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used as analgesics, but which have antipyretic properties. There is some debate over the appropriate use of such medications, as fever is part of the body's immune response to infection. A study published by the Royal Society claims fever suppression causes at least 1% more influenza cases of death in the United States, which results in at least 700 extra deaths per year. Bathing or sponging with lukewarm or cool water can reduce body temperature in those with heat illness, but not in those with fever; the use of alcohol baths is not an appropriate cooling method, because there have been reported adverse events associated with systemic absorption of alcohol.
Many medications have antipyretic effects and thus are useful for fever but not in treating illness, including: NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen and nimesulide Aspirin, related salicylates such as choline salicylate, magnesium salicylate, sodium salicylate Paracetamol Metamizole, banned in over 30 countries for causing agranulocytosis Nabumetone Phenazone, available in combination with benzocaine as an ear drop in the US. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration notes that improper dosing is one of the biggest problems in giving acetaminophen to children; the effectiveness of acetaminophen alone as an antipyretic in children is uncertain, with some evidence showing it is no better than physical methods. Therapies involving alternating doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen have shown greater antipyretic effect than either drug alone. One meta-analysis indicated that ibuprofen is more effective than acetaminophen in children at similar doses when both are given alone. Due to concerns about Reye syndrome, it is recommend that aspirin and combination products containing aspirin not be given to children or teenagers during episodes of fever-causing illnesses.
Traditional use of higher plants with antipyretic properties is a common worldwide feature of many ethnobotanical cultural systems. In ethnobotany, plants with occurring antipyretic properties are referred to as febrifuge. Antipyretic was the word spelled by Joanne Lagatta to win the 1991 Scripps National Spelling Bee. On the second disc for the Final Fantasy Tactics soundtrack, there is a track titled Antipyretic
Charles Romley Alder Wright
Charles Romley Alder Wright FCS, FRS was an English lecturer in chemistry and physics researcher at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London, England, he was a founder of the Royal Institute of Chemistry. Alder Wright developed hundreds of new opiate compounds and was the first person to synthesize diamorphine, in 1874, he discovered AlSb. In addition to research papers on a wide variety of topics, Wright published several books, including one to interest young readers in The Threshold of Science: a Variety of Simple and Amusing Experiments. Charles Romley Alder Wright was born in Southend, Essex on 7 September 1844, to Romley Wright and Elizabeth Alder. From boyhood he suffered from a painful disease of the hip, he received his early education from a civil engineer. Alder Wright attended Owens College, Manchester from 1861-1865, graduating with his BSc in 1865; as a student, Wright worked as an assistant to Henry Roscoe. Wright's first published paper was on the "Action of Light on Sensitive Photographic Papers".
It appeared in the Journal of the Chemical Society in February 1866. Wright was employed by the Weston works of the Runcorn Soap and Alkali Company during 1866-1867, he moved to London where he worked with Albert James Bernays at St. Thomas's Hospital, he earned his DSc in 1870. During this time he published on alkali manufacturing, on opium alkaloids and the discovery of morphine, on iron smelting. In 1871, Wright was appointed as a lecturer in chemistry and physics researcher at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London, England, he was a founding member of the Royal Institute of Chemistry of Great Ireland. He served as its first treasurer from 1877 to 1884 and was instrumental in the establishment of the institute. In 1881, Wright was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society, he acted as an Examiner for the University of Durham and the Royal College of Physicians and the City and Guilds of London. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy elected him as a corresponding member in 1893. Wright died from complications due to diabetes mellitus on 25 June 1894, at forty-nine years of age.
He was described in one obituary as "an ardent and thorough investigator in the field of chemical and physical science." At the Annual General Meeting of March 27, 1895, President Henry Edward Armstrong of the Chemical Society of London lamented his loss: "We must regret the decease of one of these, Dr. Alder Wright, at so early an age. Wright was versatile, having considered and trained for a profession in engineering; this allowed him to make diverse contributions to the chemical field. In quest of a non-addictive alternative to morphine, Wright experimented with combining morphine with various acids, he boiled anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride over a stove for several hours and produced a more potent, acetylated form of morphine, now called diamorphine known as heroin. After Wright's death, Heinrich Dreser, a chemist at Bayer Laboratories, continued to test heroin. Bayer marketed it as an analgesic and'sedative for coughs' in 1898; when its addictive potential was recognized, Bayer ceased its production in 1913.
In 1892, Wright was the first to report the existence of the stoichiometric intermetallic compound AlSb, now recognized as a compound semiconductor with potential use in high-frequency, low-power consumption microelectronics applications, as well as gamma radiation detection. In addition to his researches in organic chemistry, Wright published works on numerous topics including soap and waterproof papers, canvas goods, insulating materials, metallurgy, iron smelting, manganese dioxide, ternary alloys, chemical dynamics. Wright, C R A, Metals and their chief industrial applications. Being, with some considerable additions, the substance of a course of lectures delivered at the Royal institution of Great Britain in 1877. London, Macmillan and co. 1878. Wright, C R A, The Threshold of Science: a Variety of Simple and Amusing Experiments, Charles Griffin, London 1891. Wright, C R A, Animal and Vegetable Fixed-oils, Fats and Waxes: Their Preparation and Properties, Charles Griffin, London 1894. Wright, C R A, J. Soc.
Chem. Ind. 11, 492
Felix Hoffmann (illustrator)
Felix Hoffmann was a Swiss graphic designer and stained glass artist. He created countless illustrations for children's books, illustrations from literature, stained glass windows and Etchings. Church of Aarau city Reformed Church Auenstein Reformed Church Bözen Reformed Church Kirchberg Reformed Church Umiken Bern Minster Mann, The Magic Mountain, 1962 for The Limited Editions Club. Stoker, Dracula, 1965 for The Limited Editions Club. Longus and Chloe, 1972 for The Imprint Society. Mann, Death in Venice, 1972 for The Limited Editions Club. "The Story of Christmas: A Picture Book"Illustrations for Brothers Grimm tales: "The Sleeping Beauty" "Rapunzel" "Four Clever Brothers" "Hans in Luck" "Tom Thumb" "Konig Drosselbart" in English "King Thrushbeard" "The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids" "The Seven Ravens" Felix Hoffmann, Kunsthaus Aarau, Aargau. Sauerland Verlag Aarau, 1977, ISBN 3-7941-1637-2. Hoffmann, Felix in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Erinnerungen an Felix Hoffmann Datenbank Schweizer Kunst, Biografie Eintrag zu F.
H. bei der Int. Holzschneider Vereinigung Xylon Felix Hoffmann - Seine Arbeit im Buch, in Glas und auf der Wand
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
University of Strathclyde
The University of Strathclyde is a public research university located in Glasgow, Scotland. Founded in 1796 as the Andersonian Institute, it is Glasgow's second-oldest university, with the university receiving its royal charter in 1964 as the UK's first technological university, it takes its name from the historic Kingdom of Strathclyde. The University of Strathclyde is Scotland's third-largest university by number of students, with students and staff from over 100 countries; the institution was awarded University of the Year 2012 and Entrepreneurial University of the year 2013 by Times Higher Education. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £304.4 million of which £68.9 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £304.0 million. Entry into many of the courses in the university is competitive and successful entrants in 2015 had an average of 480 UCAS points, it is one of the 39 old universities in the UK comprising the distinctive second cluster of elite universities after Oxbridge.
The university was founded in 1796 through the will of John Anderson, professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow who left instructions and the majority of his estate to create a second university in Glasgow which would focus on "Useful Learning" – specialising in practical subjects – "for the good of mankind and the improvement of science, a place of useful learning". The University named its city centre campus after him. In 1828, the institution was renamed Anderson's University fulfilling Anderson's vision of two universities in the city of Glasgow; the name was changed in 1887, to reflect the fact that there was no legal authority for the use of the title of'university'. As a result, the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College was formed, becoming the Royal Technical College in 1912, the Royal College of Science and Technology in 1956 concentrating on science and engineering teaching and research. Undergraduate students could qualify for degrees of the University of Glasgow or the equivalent Associate of the Royal College of Science and Technology.
Under Principal Samuel Curran, internationally respected nuclear physicist, the Royal College gained University Status, receiving its Royal Charter to become The University of Strathclyde in 1964, merging with the Scottish College of Commerce at the same time. Contrary to popular belief, The University of Strathclyde was not created as a result of the Robbins Report – the decision to grant the Royal College university status had been made earlier in the 1960s but delayed as a result of Robbins Report; the University of Strathclyde was the UK's first technological university reflecting its history and research in technological education. In 1993, the University incorporated Jordanhill College of Education; the university has grown from 4,000 full-time students in 1964 to over 20,000 students in 2003, when it celebrated the 100th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone of the original Royal College building. In July 2015, Her Majesty The Queen opened the University of Strathclyde Technology and Innovation Centre.
Since taking over the Jordanhill college in 1993, the University operated two campuses - The John Anderson Campus and the Jordanhill campus until 2012 when the Jordanhill campus was closed and everything was moved to the John Anderson Campus. The centrepiece building has long been the massive Royal College Building. Started in 1903 and completed in 1912, it was opened in 1910 and at the time was the largest educational building in Europe for technical education. Built as the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College Building, it now houses Bioscience and Electronic and Electrical Engineering; the building is undergoing major internal renovation following the relocation of the Pharmacology and Bioscience departments to new accommodation in the John Arbuthnott building, the installation of a new heating system. The Livingstone Tower is a high rise building completed in 1965, it is home to departments including and Information Sciences and Mathematics and Statistics. Meanwhile, a new biomedical sciences building was opened in early 2010.
It was designed by Shepparrd Robson, aims to bring the multi-faceted disciplines of the Institute together under one roof. Sited on Cathedral Street in Glasgow, the 8,000 m2 building is the gateway to the University campus and city centre from the motorway; the James Weir Building has been reconstructed and reopened in 2014 after a serious fire resulted in many rooms being unusable. The Architecture Building, completed in 1967, was designed by Frank Fielden and Associates, Frank Fielden being the Professor of Architecture in the Architecture School at the time. In 2012, Historic Scotland granted Listed Building Status to it, along with the Wolfson Building designed by Morris and Steedman Architects. 2012 saw the 20th Century Society select the Architecture Building as their'Building of the Month' for September due to its cultural significance and enduring appeal. The University of Strathclyde Centre for Sports and Wellbeing is a leisure facility undergoing construction situated adjacent to 100 Cathedral Street.
Construction began in November 2016 and is due to be completed in Summer 2018. The Andersonian Library is the principal library of the University of Strathclyde. Established in 1796, it is one of the largest of its type in Scotland, it is situated in the Curran building. Situated over 5 floors at present, the Andersonian Library has more than 2,000 reader places, 450 computer places and extensive wi-fi zones for laptop use, it has around one million print volumes as well as access to over 540,000 electronic books, 239 databases and ov
Bayer AG is a German multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Headquartered in Leverkusen, where its illuminated corporate logo, the Bayer cross, is a landmark, Bayer's areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Werner Baumann has been CEO since 2016. Founded in Barmen in 1863 as a dyestuffs factory, Bayer's first and best-known product was aspirin. In 1898 Bayer trademarked the name heroin for the drug diacetylmorphine and marketed it as a cough suppressant and non-addictive substitute for morphine until 1910. Bayer introduced phenobarbital. In 1925 Bayer was one of six chemical companies that merged to form IG Farben, the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical company; the Allied Control Council seized IG Farben after World War II, because of its role in the Nazi war effort and involvement in the Holocaust, which included using slave labour from concentration camps.
It was split into its six constituent companies in 1951 split again into three: BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. Bayer played a key role in the Wirtschaftswunder in post-war West Germany regaining its position as one of the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical corporations. In 2006 the company acquired Schering, in 2014 it acquired Merck & Co.'s consumer business, with brands such as Claritin, Coppertone and Dr. Scholl's, in 2018 it acquired Monsanto, a leading producer of genetically engineered crops, for $63 billion. Bayer CropScience develops genetically modified pesticides. Bayer AG was founded as a dyestuffs factory in 1863 in Barmen, Germany, by Friedrich Bayer and his partner, Johann Friedrich Weskott, a master dyer. Bayer was responsible for the commercial tasks. Fuchsine and aniline became; the headquarters and most production facilities moved from Barmen to a larger area in Elberfeld in 1866. Friedrich Bayer, son of the company's founder, was a chemist and joined the company in 1873. After the death of his father in 1880, the company became a joint-stock company, Farbenfabriken vorm.
Friedr. Bayern & Co known as Elberfelder Farbenfabriken. A further expansion in Elberfeld was impossible, so the company moved to the village Wiesdorf at Rhein and settled in the area of the alizarin producer Leverkus and Sons. A new city, was founded there in 1930 and became home to Bayer AG's headquarters; the company's corporate logo, the Bayer cross, was introduced in 1904, consisting of the word BAYER written vertically and horizontally, sharing the Y and enclosed in a circle. An illuminated version of the logo is a landmark in Leverkusen. Bayer's first major product was acetylsalicylic acid—first described by French chemist Charles Frederic Gerhardt in 1853—a modification of salicylic acid or salicin, a folk remedy found in the bark of the willow plant. By 1899 Bayer's trademark Aspirin was registered worldwide for Bayer's brand of acetylsalicylic acid, but it lost its trademark status in the United States and the United Kingdom after the confiscation of Bayer's US assets and trademarks during World War I by the United States, because of the subsequent widespread usage of the word.
The term aspirin continued to be used in the US, UK and France for all brands of the drug, but it is still a registered trademark of Bayer in over 80 countries, including Canada, Mexico and Switzerland. As of 2011 40,000 tons of aspirin were produced each year and 10–20 billion tablets consumed in the United States alone for prevention of cardiovascular events, it is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. There is an unresolved controversy over the roles played by Bayer scientists in the development of aspirin. Arthur Eichengrün, a Bayer chemist, said he was the first to discover an aspirin formulation that did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain, he said he had invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety and efficacy. Bayer contends. Various sources support the conflicting claims. Most mainstream historians attribute the invention of aspirin to Hoffmann and/or Eichengrün.
Heroin, now illegal as an addictive drug, was introduced as a non-addictive substitute for morphine, trademarked and marketed by Bayer from 1898 to 1910 as a cough suppressant and over-the-counter treatment for other common ailments, including pneumonia and tuberculosis. Bayer scientists were not the first to make heroin, but the company led the way in commercializing it. Heroin was a Bayer trademark until after World War I. In 1903 Bayer licensed the patent for the hypnotic drug diethylbarbituric acid from its inventors Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering, it was marketed under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904. Systematic investigations of the effect of structural changes on potency and duration of action at Bayer led to the discovery of phenobarbital in 1911 and the discovery of its potent anti-epileptic activity in 1912. Phenobarbital was among the most used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the 1970s, as of 2014 it remains on the World Health Organization's list of essential medications.
During World War I, Bayer's assets, including the rights to
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal. It is one of the world's oldest general medical journals. Called the British Medical Journal, the title was shortened to BMJ in 1988, changed to The BMJ in 2014; the journal is published by the global knowledge provider BMJ, a wholly owned subsidiary of the British Medical Association. The editor in chief of The BMJ is Fiona Godlee, appointed in February 2005; the journal began publishing on 3 October 1840 as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal and attracted the attention of physicians around the world through its publication of high-impact original research articles and unique case reports. The BMJ's first editors were P. Hennis Green, lecturer on the diseases of children at the Hunterian School of Medicine, its founder and Robert Streeten of Worcester, a member of the PMSA council; the first issue of the British Medical Journal was 16 pages long and contained three simple woodcut illustrations. The longest items were the editors' introductory editorial and a report of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association's Eastern Branch.
Other pages included a condensed version of Henry Warburton's medical reform bill, book reviews, clinical papers, case notes. There were 2 1⁄2 columns of advertisements. Inclusive of stamp duty it cost 7d, a price which remained until 1844. In their main article and Streeten noted that they had "received as many advertisements for our first number, as the most popular Medical Journal, after seventeen years of existence."In their introductory editorial and statements and Streeten defined "the main objects of promotion of which the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal is established". Summarised, there were two clear main objectives: the advancement of the profession in the provinces and the dissemination of medical knowledge. Green and Streeten expressed interest in promoting public well-being as well as maintaining'medical practitioners, as a class in that rank of society which, by their intellectual acquirements, by their general moral character, by the importance of the duties entrusted to them, they are justly entitled to hold'.
The BMJ published the first centrally randomised controlled trial. The journal carried the seminal papers on the causal effects of smoking on health and lung cancer and other causes of death in relation to smoking. For a long time, the journal's sole competitor was The Lancet based in the UK, but with increasing globalisation, The BMJ has faced tough competition from other medical journals The New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association; the BMJ is an advocate of evidence-based medicine. It publishes research as well as clinical reviews, recent medical advances, editorial perspectives, among others. A special "Christmas Edition" is published annually on the Friday before Christmas; this edition is known for research articles which apply a serious academic approach to investigating less serious medical questions. The results are humorous and reported by the mainstream media; the BMJ has an open peer review system. About half the original articles are rejected after review in-house.
Manuscripts chosen for peer review are first reviewed by external experts, who comment on the importance and suitability for publication, before the final decision on a manuscript is made by the editorial committee. The acceptance rate is less than 7% for original research articles; the BMJ is included in the major indexes PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, the Science Citation Index. The journal has long criticised the misuse of the impact factor to award grants and recruit researchers by academic institutions; the five journals that as of 2008 have cited The BMJ most are The BMJ, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Lancet, BMC Public Health, BMC Health Services Research. As of 2008, the five journals that have been cited most by articles published in The BMJ are The BMJ, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In the 2018 Journal Citation Reports, The BMJ's impact factor was 23.295 in 2017, ranking it fourth among general medical journals.
According to the Web of Science, the following articles have been cited the most often: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. "Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey". BMJ. 320: 1240–3. Doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240. PMC 27365. PMID 10797032. "Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, stroke in high risk patients". BMJ. 324: 71–86. January 2002. Doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7329.71. PMC 64503. PMID 11786451. Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, Cull CA, Hadden D, Turner RC, Holman RR. "Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes: prospective observational study". BMJ. 321: 405–12. Doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7258.405. PMC 27454. PMID 10938048; as of 2014, the most viewed article on The BMJ website is: Schultz WW, van Andel P, Sabelis I, Mooyaart E. "Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal".
BMJ. 319: 1596–600. Doi:10.1136/bmj.319.7225.1596. PMC 28302. PMID 10600954. In 1974, Dr. Elaine Murphy submitted a brief case report under her husband's name John which suggested a condition known as Cello Scrotum, a fictional condition which affected male ce