University of Manitoba
The University of Manitoba is a public research university in Manitoba, Canada. Its main campus is located in the Fort Garry neighbourhood of southern Winnipeg with other campuses throughout the city. Founded in 1877, it is Western Canada's first university; the university maintains a reputation as a top research-intensive post-secondary educational institution and conducts more research annually than any other university in the region. It is the largest university both by total student enrollment and campus area in the province of Manitoba, the 17th-largest in all of Canada; the campus boasts dozens of faculties including the first medical school in Western Canada, hundreds of degree programs. It is a member of the U15 and of Universities Canada while its global affiliations include the International Association of Universities and the Association of Commonwealth Universities, its increased global outreach has resulted in one of the most internationally diverse student bodies in Canada, while its competitive academic and research programs have ranked among the top in the Canadian Prairies.
The Manitoba Bisons represent the team in athletics as a member of Canada West. As of 2018, there have been 98 Rhodes Scholars from the University of Manitoba, more than from any other university in Western Canada; the University of Manitoba has three main locations: the Bannatyne Campus, the Fort Garry Campus and the William Norrie Centre. The downtown Bannatyne campus of the university comprises a complex of ten buildings west of the Health Sciences Centre between McDermot Ave and William Ave in Central Winnipeg; this complex houses the dental instructional units of the university. The Faculty of Dentistry, the Faculty of Medicine, the School of Medical Rehabilitation, the School of Dental Hygiene are the major health sciences units on this campus; the Faculty of Pharmacy joined the Bannatyne campus with the opening of the 95,000 sq ft Apotex Centre on October 16, 2008. The Brodie Center is known as the "flagship" which connects all three faculties as well as the Neil John MacLean Health Sciences Library and the Joe Doupe Fitness Centre.
It is at 727 McDermot Avenue. The main Fort Garry campus comprises over 60 teaching and research buildings of the University and sits on 274 hectares of land. In addition, Smartpark is the location of seven buildings leased to research and development organizations involving university-industry partnerships; the address is 66 Chancellors Circle. The William Norrie Centre on Selkirk Avenue is the campus for social work education for inner-city residents; the university operates agricultural research stations near Carman, Manitoba. The Ian N. Morrison Research Farm near Carman is a 406 acres facility 70 km from Winnipeg, while the Glenlea facility is 1,000 acres and is 20 km from Winnipeg; the University of Manitoba provides services to urban and rural Indigenous people. The University of Manitoba's Department of Native Studies is the oldest such unit in Western Canada. Many of the Indigenous Access programs include summer courses that bring new Indigenous students to campus before the start of the school year for campus orientation sessions.
Indigenous Elders are present on campus at University of Manitoba to provide social supports in Migizii Agamik, the Indigenous Centre on campus. Tutoring services are available within the University of Manitoba's Medicine and Social Work ACCESS Programs; the university connects with First Nations communities to talk to potential students at a much younger age through Curry Biz Camp, which fosters entrepreneurship among young First Nations and Métis students. The University of Manitoba is a non-denominational university, founded by Alexander Morris, that received a charter on February 28, 1877, it opened on June 20, 1877 to confer degrees on students graduating from its three founding colleges: St. Boniface College, St John's College and Manitoba College; the University of Manitoba granted its first degrees in 1880. The University was the first to be established in western Canada; the university has added a number of colleges to its associative body. In 1882 the Manitoba Medical College, founded by some physicians and surgeons, became a part of the University.
Architect Charles Henry Wheeler designed the Bacteriological Research Building, part of the Manitoba Medical College. Architect George Creeford Browne designed the Science Building, 1899–1900. Other colleges followed: Methodist Church's Wesley College in 1888 Manitoba College of Pharmacy in 1902 Manitoba Agriculture College in 1906 St. Paul's College in 1931 Brandon College in 1938 St. Andrew's College in 1946In 1901 the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba changed the University Act so the university could do its own teaching, in 1905 a building in downtown Winnipeg became its first teaching facility with a staff of six science professors; the governance was modeled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership.
In the early part of the 20th century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of spe
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
Libertarian Party of Canada
The Libertarian Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada founded in 1973. The party subscribes to classical liberal tenets of the libertarian movement across Canada; the mission of the party is to reduce the size and cost of government. Policies the party advocates for include ending drug prohibition, ending government censorship, lowering taxes, protecting gun rights and non-interventionism; the party was founded on 7 July 1973 by seven others. Evoy ran for election to Parliament in the 1974 federal election in the Toronto riding of Rosedale; the party achieved registered status in the 1979 federal election by running more than fifty candidates. The party described itself as Canada's "fourth party" in the 1980s, but it has since been displaced by new parties such as the Bloc Québécois and the Green Party of Canada; the party declined to join the Reform Party of Canada when it was formed in 1987. Many libertarians were attracted to provincial Progressive Conservative parties that moved to the right during the 1990s in Ontario under Mike Harris and in Alberta under Ralph Klein.
The decline in the party's membership and resources resulted in Elections Canada removing their status as a registered party before the 1997 federal election when the party failed to run the minimum fifty candidates needed to maintain its registration. Jean-Serge Brisson led the party from 22 May 2000 until 18 May 2008, when he was succeeded by Dennis Young. Young defeated outgoing party president Alan Mercer for the leadership. Savannah Linklater was elected deputy leader. In May 2011, Katrina Chowne was elected leader of the Libertarian Party. In May 2014, Tim Moen was elected leader of the Libertarian Party. In the 2015 federal election, the party fielded 72 candidates and solidified their position as the 6th federal party in Canada, with growth over 500% from the 2011 federal election; the next Federal Libertarian Party of Canada Convention took place in Ottawa from 5 July through 7 July 2018, concluding on the 45th anniversary of the party. On 17 September, Moen announced he was considering merging the Libertarian Party with the newly formed People's Party of Canada led by former Conservative MP Maxime Bernier.
The matter is to be put to a party vote at an as of yet undisclosed date. The party nominated a number of candidates to run in by-elections: 1980 by-election: 1 1981 by-election: 1 1982 by-election: 1 1990 by-election: 2 1995 by-election: 1 2008 by-election: 1 2010 by-election: 1 2012 by-election: 3 2013 by-election: 3 2014 by-election: 2 2016 by-election: 1 2017 by-election: 4SourcesLibertarian Party of Canada News. 4. 1979-2006. "Parliament of Canada History of the Federal Electoral Ridings since 1867". British Columbia Libertarian Party Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 1988 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 1993 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2006 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2008 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2011 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2015 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Manitoba Ontario Libertarian Party Official website.
Libertarian Party of Canada - Canadian Political Parties and Political Interest Groups. Web archive created by the University of Toronto Libraries
Jon Gerrard is a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He was a Member of Parliament from 1993 to 1997, was a secretary of state in the government of Jean Chrétien, he was the leader of the Manitoba Liberal Party from 1998 until 2013, the member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba for River Heights since 1999. Gerrard was born in Birmingham and grew up in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, he holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics from the University of Saskatchewan, a Doctor of Medicine degree from McGill University, a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Minnesota, a Certificate in Pediatrics from the American Academy of Pediatrics. He worked at several prominent American institutions in the 1970s, returned to Canada in 1980 to accept a position as pediatrician at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. Gerrard served as head of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology at this hospital from 1985 to 1992, taught at the University of Manitoba from 1980 to 1993, he has authored or co-authored over 200 scientific publications, became known during the 1980s as an expert on the research and treatment of children's cancer.
Gerrard has been interested in bald eagles since his teenaged years, co-authored a book entitled The Bald Eagle: Haunts and Habits of a Wilderness Monarch in 1988. He has been studying eagles at Besnard Lake in Saskatchewan for 50 years. Gerrard became active with the Liberal Party of Canada while working on his undergraduate degree, impressed with Prime Minister Lester Pearson's positions on social and international issues, he was a delegate to the Liberal Party's 1968 leadership convention, supporting John Turner. He volunteered for the "Non" side in the 1980 Quebec referendum, became Liberal riding president for Lisgar in 1984. In 1990, he was Manitoba co-chair of Jean Chrétien's successful bid for the Liberal Party leadership. Gerrard was elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 1993 federal election, defeating two-term Progressive Conservative incumbent Felix Holtmann in the riding of Portage—Interlake. On November 4, 1993, he was appointed as Secretary of State for Science and Development.
This was not a full cabinet portfolio, but was instead affiliated with Industry Canada. Gerrard worked with Industry Minister John Manley, oversaw the development of such programs as Technology Partnerships Canada, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Canada Research Chairs. Gerrard outlined the Chrétien government's strategy for the burgeoning information highway in February 1994, as internet use increased throughout the country. One of this strategy's goals was to " Canada in cyberspace", by creating a "national network of networks" within the new media. Gerrard indicated that his plan would be targeted toward creating jobs, reinforcing Canada's cultural identity, ensuring universal internet access at affordable rates, he launched an $80 million action plan on January 30, 1995, providing funding for online applications in the fields of business, health care and education. In March 1994, Gerrard described the internet as "very much a Liberal technology in the sense that it is much more individual than collective".
Speaking to an interviewer in 2007, he said that the highlight of his political career was convincing the Chrétien government to include a reference to the information highway in its first throne speech. Gerrard's 1994 strategic statement on the information highway addressed the subject of industry mergers in the communications sector, he indicated that the Chrétien government would "apply pro-competition policies wherever... they make sense" and added: Traditionally, firms in telecommunications, broadcasting and information industries have operated in separate markets enjoying neither competition nor collaboration. We now know this lack of competition has caused us to fall behind the U. S. in the provision and price of advanced telecommunications services. In June 1994, Manley and Gerrard ordered a full review of federal technology policy; this process had three aspects: an internal review, an independent assessment from the National Advisory Board on Science and Technology, a series of consultations with interested Canadians.
Gerrard supervised the review's consultative sessions, was appointed as vice-chairman of the National Advisory Board. The government's new strategy was issued in March 1996, outlining new plans for funding and tax credits; the Chrétien government's approach to funding the science and technology sectors was given mixed reviews. Some criticized the government for cutting a number of research and science positions during the recession of the early 1990s, although at least one technological journal credited it with maintaining research and development incentives in the austerity budget of 1995. Gerrard himself was described a "passionate advocate" of research investment, as the driving force behind the government's National Technology Investment Program of 1996. Gerrard was given additional responsibilities as Secretary of State for Western Economic Diversification on January 25, 1996, he oversaw the expansion of the Community Futures Development Corporation Network throughout Western Canada, worked with Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy to ensure a secure transition of the Port of Churchill rail line from Canadian National to OmniTRAX.
Gerrard voted in favour of the Chrétien government's national gun registry program in late 1994, despite some personal reservations. The registry was unpopular with many rural Manitobans, Gerrard remarked to John Manley soon after the vote that it would cost him his seat in the next election; the Portage—Interlake riding disappeared with redistribution before the 1
Brian William Pallister, is a Canadian politician and the 22nd premier of Manitoba. He has been the leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba since 2012 and has served as premier since 2016, he was a cabinet minister in the provincial government of Gary Filmon and a member of the House of Commons of Canada from 2000 to 2008. Pallister was born in Portage la Prairie and holds Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Education degrees from Brandon University, he worked as a high school teacher in rural Manitoba from 1976 to 1979, where he served as the local union rep, became a chartered financial consultant, serving as chair of the Canadian Insurance Agents Advisory Council. Pallister is a skilled curler, won the provincial mixed curling championship in 2000; this qualified him for the 2001 Canadian Mixed Curling Championship, finishing with a 3-8 record in second last place. Pallister began his political career at the provincial level, winning a by-election in Portage la Prairie on September 15, 1992 as a candidate of the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba.
He entered the provincial legislature as a backbench supporter of the Filmon government, pushed for balanced budget legislation. In 1993, he endorsed Jean Charest's bid to lead the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, he was re-elected in the 1995 provincial election, was sworn into cabinet on May 9, 1995 as Minister of Government Services. He carried out reforms that eliminated 3,000 pages of statutory regulations as part of a government campaign against any type of regulations, presided over changes to the Manitoba Disaster Assistance Board, oversaw provincial flood claims, he stepped down from cabinet on January 1997 to prepare for his first federal campaign. Pallister defeated Paul-Emile Labossiere to win the Progressive Conservative nomination for Portage—Lisgar in the 1997 federal election, formally resigned his seat in the legislature on April 28, 1997, he lost to Reform Party incumbent Jake Hoeppner by 1,449 votes. There were rumours that Pallister would campaign to succeed Gary Filmon as leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba in 2000, but he declined.
Pallister campaigned for the leadership of the federal Progressive Conservative Party in 1998, on a platform designed to win back voters who had left the party for Reform. His supporters included former cabinet ministers Don Mazankowski and Charlie Mayer, Senator Consiglio Di Nino, Jim Jones, the sole Progressive Conservative representative in the House of Commons of Canada from Ontario, he finished fourth on the first ballot of the 1998 Progressive Conservative leadership election with 12.5% support, behind David Orchard, Hugh Segal, the eventual winner, former Prime Minister Joe Clark. He withdrew from the contest a few days and declined to endorse another candidate. Pallister said that Progressive Conservatives had "voted for the past", had missed an opportunity to renew themselves. In July 2000, Pallister wrote an open letter to Joe Clark announcing his intent to run in the next federal election with a dual endorsement from the Progressive Conservative and Canadian Alliance associations in Portage-Lisgar.
The latter party was a successor to Reform, emerged from the efforts of Reformers to merge with Blue Tory elements in the Progressive Conservative Party who were opposed to Clark's Red Tory leadership. Clark had rejected Pallister's proposal as a violation of the Progressive Conservative Party's constitution, did not respond to the letter; as a result, Pallister left the Progressive Conservatives and joined the Alliance on August 17, 2000. He won his new party's nomination for Portage—Lisgar over Dennis Desrochers and former MP Felix Holtmann, in a contest marked by some bitterness. Pallister was elected to the House of Commons in the 2000 general election, defeating his nearest opponent by over 10,000 votes while pushing Tory incumbent Hoeppner into fourth place; the Liberal Party won a majority government, Pallister served on the opposition benches. He did not endorse any candidate in the 2002 Canadian Alliance leadership election; the Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative parties merged on December 7, 2003, Pallister became a member of the resulting Conservative Party of Canada.
He considered launching a bid for the new party's leadership, but instead endorsed outgoing Alliance leader Stephen Harper for the position. He was re-elected in the 2004 election, in which the Liberals were reduced to a minority government. In July 2004, he was appointed to the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet as critic for National Revenue. Pallister gained increased national prominence in September 2005 after drawing attention to $750,000 worth of apparent spending irregularities in the office of David Dingwall, the Chief Executive Officer of the Royal Canadian Mint. Dingwall resigned after the accusations were made public, but claimed that his expenditures were inaccurately reported and fell within official guidelines. An independent review completed in late October 2005 found only minor discrepancies in Dingwall's expenses, amounting to less than $7,000 in total. Pallister criticized this review as "little more than a whitewash", argued that the auditors failed to include numerous ambiguous expenses in their findings.
Pallister sang a parody of Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall, Part Two" in the House of Commons on October 3, 2005, during the "Statements by Members" session before Question Period. The adjusted lyrics attacked the Liberal government; the Speaker ruled him out of order. Prior to the 2006 federal election, the Winnipeg Free Press reported that some Manitoba Progressive Conservatives were trying to persuade
Selkirk—Interlake—Eastman is a federal electoral district in Manitoba, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1976 to 1987, since 1997. The riding was a battleground between the New Democratic Party and conservative parties that has become more and more conservative as the years passed, is now a safe Conservative Party seat; the riding is located between Lake Winnipeg and Lake Winnipegosis and includes the northern suburbs of Winnipeg and the City of Selkirk, Manitoba. In addition to Selkirk, the riding includes the communities of St. Andrews, St. Clements, Woodlands, Stonewall, R. M. of Gimli, the R. M. of Bifrost. Selkirk itself tilts toward the NDP, but it is not enough to overcome the growing conservative bent of the rest of the riding; the electoral district was created in 1976 from the former districts of Portage and Winnipeg South Centre. It was abolished in 1987 and divided into Selkirk, Portage—Interlake and Churchill ridings, it was re-created in 1996 from Selkirk—Red River, Portage—Interlake and Churchill.
Selkirk—Interlake lost territory to Churchill—Keewatinook Aski and Portage—Lisgar, gained territory from Provencher, was renamed "Selkirk—Interlake—Eastman" during the 2012 electoral redistribution. According to the Canada 2006 CensusRacial groups: 78.83% White, 20.12% Aboriginal Languages: 84.11% English, 1.99% French, 13.70% Other Religions: 51.05% Protestant, 23.96% Catholic, 19.83% No religion, 3.13% Other ChristianAverage income: $23,818 Riding associations are the local branches of the national political parties: This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Its Member of Parliament is James Bezan, a former rancher. He was first elected in 2004, he is a member of the Conservative Party of Canada. In the last parliamentary session he served as a member on the'Standing Committee on Agriculture and Agri-Food'. Note: Conservative vote is compared to the total of the Canadian Alliance vote and Progressive Conservative vote in 2000 election. Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election.
List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-03. Riding history for Selkirk—Interlake from the Library of Parliament Riding history for Selkirk—Interlake from the Library of Parliament Expenditures - 2008 Expenditures - 2004 Expenditures - 2000 Expenditures - 1997
1984 Canadian federal election
The 1984 Canadian federal election was held on September 4 of that year to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 33rd Parliament of Canada. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Brian Mulroney, won the largest landslide majority government in Canadian history, while the Liberals suffered what at that time was the worst defeat for a governing party at the federal level. Only the Progressive Conservatives faced a larger defeat, when cut to two seats in 1993; the election marked the end of the Liberals' long dominance of federal politics in Quebec, a province, the bedrock of Liberal support for a century. This election was the last time that the winning party received over 50% of the national popular vote; the 6.3 million votes won by the Conservatives remained a record until the Liberals' victory in 2015. The election was fought entirely on the record of the Liberals, in power for all but one year since 1963. Pierre Trudeau, Prime Minister from 1968 to 1979 and since 1980, retired from politics in early 1984 after polls indicated that the Liberals would certainly be defeated at the next election had he remained in office.
He was succeeded by a former Cabinet minister under both Trudeau and Lester Pearson. Turner had been out of politics since 1975. Upon assuming the leadership, he made immediate changes in an attempt to rebuild the Liberals' tattered reputation. For example, he announced that he would not run in a by-election to return to the House of Commons, but would instead run in the next general election as the Liberal candidate in Vancouver Quadra, British Columbia; this was a sharp departure from usual practice, in which the incumbent in a safe seat resigns to allow a newly elected party leader a chance to get into Parliament. The Liberal Party had lost favour with western Canadians, policies such as the National Energy Program only aggravated this sentiment. Turner's plans to run in a western Canada riding were in part an attempt to rebuild support in that region. Going into the election, the Liberals held only one seat west of Ontario—that of Lloyd Axworthy, from Winnipeg—Fort Garry, Manitoba. More there was great disaffection in Quebec with the Liberal government, despite their traditional support for the party.
Conflict between the provincial and federal parties, a series of scandals, the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution without the approval of the Quebec provincial government had damaged the Liberal brand in the province. Hope for success there led leader Joe Clark to begin courting soft nationalist voters in the province, was one of the main reasons businessman Brian Mulroney, a fluently bilingual Quebecker, was chosen as Clark's replacement. Although Turner was not required to call an election until 1985, internal polls showed that the Liberals had regained the lead in opinion polls. Turner and his advisers were mindful of the fact that Trudeau had missed an opportunity to take advantage of favourable opinion polls in the latter half of the 1970s, when he waited the full five years to call an election only to go down to an defeat; the new Prime Minister requested that Queen Elizabeth II delay her tour of Canada, asked Governor-General Jeanne Sauvé to dissolve Parliament on July 4. In accordance with Canadian constitutional practice, Sauvé granted the request and set an election for September 4.
The initial Liberal lead began to slip. In particular, he spoke of creating new "make work programs", a concept from earlier decades, replaced by the less patronizing sounding "job creation programs", he was caught on camera patting Liberal Party President Iona Campagnolo on her posterior. Turner defended this action as being a friendly gesture, but it was seen by many women as condescending. Other voters turned against the Liberals due to their mounting legacy of corruption. An important issue was Trudeau's recommendation that Sauvé appoint over 200 Liberals to patronage posts just before he left office; the appointments enraged Canadians on all sides. Although Turner had the right to advise that the appointments be withdrawn, he didn't do so. In fact, he himself appointed more than 70 Liberals to patronage posts despite a promise to bring a new way of politics to Ottawa, he cited a written agreement with Trudeau, claiming that if Trudeau had made the appointments, the Liberals would have certainly lost the election.
However, the fact that Turner dropped the writ a year early hurt his argument. Turner found out that Mulroney was setting up a patronage machine in anticipation of victory. At the English-language televised debate between Mulroney and New Democratic Party leader Ed Broadbent, Turner started to attack Mulroney on his patronage plans, comparing them to the patronage machine run by old Union Nationale in Quebec. However, Mulroney turned the tables by pointing to the raft of patronage appointments made on the advice of Trudeau and Turner. Claiming that he'd gone so far as to apologize for making light of "these horrible appointments," Mulroney demanded that Turner apologize to the country for not cancelling the appointments advised by Trudeau and for recommending his own appointments. Turner was visibly surprised, could only reply that "I had no option" except to let the appointments stand. Mulroney famously responded: You had an option, sir. You could have said,'I am not going to do it; this is wrong fo