Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Cinecittà Studios, is a large film studio in Rome, Italy. With an area of 400,000 square metres, it is the largest film studio in Europe, is considered the hub of Italian cinema; the studios were constructed during the Fascist era as part of a plan to revive the Italian film industry. Filmmakers such as Federico Fellini, Roberto Rossellini, Luchino Visconti, Sergio Leone, Bernardo Bertolucci, Francis Ford Coppola, Martin Scorsese, Mel Gibson have worked at Cinecittà. More than 3,000 movies have been filmed there, of which 90 received an Academy Award nomination and 47 of these won it. In the 1950s, the number of international productions being made there led to Rome being dubbed "Hollywood on the Tiber." The studios were founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini, his son Vittorio, his head of cinema Luigi Freddi under the slogan "Il cinema è l'arma più forte". The purpose was not only for propaganda, but to support the recovering Italian feature film industry, which had reached its low point in 1931.
Mussolini himself inaugurated the studios on 21 April 1937. Post-production units and sets were constructed and used initially. Early films such as Scipio Africanus and The Iron Crown showcased the technological advancement of the studios. Seven thousand people were involved in the filming of the battle scene from Scipio Africanus, live elephants were brought in as a part of the re-enactment of the Battle of Zama; the studios were bombed by the Western Allies during the bombing of Rome in World War II. Following the war, between 1945 and 1947, the studios of Cinecittà were used as a displaced persons' camp for a period of about two years, following German occupation and Allied bombing that destroyed parts of the studio. An estimated 3,000 refugees lived there, divided into two camps: an Italian camp housing Italians as well as displaced people from colonized Libya and Dalmatia, an international camp, including refugees from Yugoslavia, Egypt and China. After rebuilding in the postwar years, the studios were used once again for their post-production facilities.
In the 1950s, Cinecittà, described as Hollywood on the Tiber, was the location for several large American film productions, like Roman Holiday, Beat the Devil, The Barefoot Contessa, Ben-Hur, some low-budget action pictures starring Lex Barker. Barker featured in Federico Fellini's La Dolce Vita and the studios were for many years associated with Fellini. In the same period, the studios were used for further international productions such as Francis of Assisi, The Agony and the Ecstasy, Zeffirelli's Romeo and Juliet, Fellini's Casanova, La Traviata and many other productions, it hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 1991. This was the 36th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on Stage 15. Due to the Gulf War and mounting tensions in Yugoslavia, RAI decided to move the contest from Sanremo to Rome, perceived to be more secure. After a period of near-bankruptcy, the Italian Government privatized Cinecittà in 1997, selling an 80% stake. On August 9, 2007, a fire surroundings; the historic part that houses the sets of classics such as Ben-Hur was not damaged.
In July 2012, another fire damaged Teatro 5, the vast studio where Fellini filmed La Dolce Vita and Satyricon. Since the 1990s, films have included Anthony Minghella's The English Patient, Martin Scorsese's Gangs of New York, Wes Anderson's The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou and Mel Gibson’s The Passion of the Christ. Cinecittà hosts TV productions, such as Grande Fratello, the Italian version of Big Brother, where the Big Brother house is built on Cinecittà's premises; the Eurovision Song Contest of 1991 was produced there. In addition, the BBC/HBO series Rome was filmed there from 2004 to 2007, the show being acclaimed for its sets and designs. BBC Wales reused some of these sets for an episode of the 2008 series of Doctor Who set in ancient Pompeii, Alexandre Astier reused this set for the Book VI of his television series Kaamelott set in Ancient Rome. More Paolo Sorrentino's series The Young Pope and The New Pope were entirely shot at Cincecittà, including reconstruction of the interiors of the Sistine Chapel and Saint Peter's Basilica.
In 2009 the studio announced. The movie-themed amusement park, Cinecittà World, opened in July 2014; the €250 million theme park is located 25 km southwest of Cinecittà studios, on the site of a former movie studio built by Dino De Laurentiis in the 1960s. Cinecittà World was designed by Dante Ferretti, a production designer who has won three Academy Awards. Visitors enter Cinecittà World through the jaws of the Temple of Moloch, seen in Cabiria, a silent movie filmed in Turin in 1914; the theme park features a recreation of 1920s-era Manhattan as envisioned by Ferretti. Cinecittà World expects to have 1.5 million visitors annually. Expansion plans for the theme park include a wellness center. Cinecittà metro station Official website Cinecitta World History of Cinecittà RAI International:Cinecittà Documents Cinecitta'
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Gian Maria Volontè
Gian Maria Volonté was an Italian actor, remembered for his versatility as an interpreter, his outspoken left-wing leanings and fiery temper on and off-screen. He is most famous outside Italy for his roles in four Spaghetti Western films: Ramon Rojo and El Indio in Sergio Leone's A Fistful of Dollars and For a Few Dollars More, El Chuncho Munoz in Damiano Damiani's A Bullet for the General and Professor Brad Fletcher in Sergio Sollima's Face to Face. In Italy and much of Europe, he was notable for his roles in high-profile social dramas depicting the political and social stirrings of Italian and European society in the 1960s and 1970s, including four films directed by Elio Petri – We Still Kill the Old Way, Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion, The Working Class Goes to Heaven and Todo modo, he is recognized for his performances in Jean-Pierre Melville's Le Cercle Rouge and Giuliano Montaldo's Sacco & Vanzetti. Volonté grew up in Turin, his father Mario was a fascist officer from Saronno, who in 1944 was in command of the Brigata Nera of Chivasso, near Turin.
His mother, Carolina Bianchi, belonged to a wealthy Milanese industrial family and his younger brother Claudio was an actor as well. He went to Rome to train for an acting career at the Accademia Nazionale di Arte Drammatica Silvio D'Amico, which he left in 1957, he had a brief career in television and acting in Shakespeare and Goldoni plays on the stage, before establishing his film career. Volonté made his debut in 1960 in Sotto dieci bandiere, directed by Duilio Coletti. Just four years he played "Ramón Rojo" in A Fistful of Dollars, "El Indio" in For a Few Dollars More, both for cash reasons as he did not consider either role serious. Both films were directed by the then-unknown Sergio Leone, Volonté's roles in them would bring him his greatest recognition from American audiences, he played Carlo Levi in Cristo si è fermato a Eboli, based on Levi's autobiographical account of his years in internal-exile in Aliano, south Italy, in the 1930s. The English title is Christ Stopped at Eboli. Volonté played the memorable role of the Bandito-turned-guerrilla, El Chucho, in A Bullet for the General.
Volonté's performances as memorable but neurotic characters, or as a gifted leader of brigands or revolutionaries, together with the unexpected, worldwide success of the films, gave him international fame. Volonté had played comedies, including A cavallo della tigre, by Luigi Comencini, confirmed his versatility in L'armata Brancaleone. However, he found his main dimension in dramatic roles for Banditi a Milano, by Carlo Lizzani, Sbatti il mostro in prima pagina by Marco Bellocchio, La Classe operaia va in paradiso by his friend Elio Petri and Il sospetto by Francesco Maselli. In 1968, Volonté won a Silver Ribbon as best actor for A ciascuno il suo directed by Elio Petri. Volonté received the same award for two other performances: Petri's Indagine su un cittadino al di sopra di ogni sospetto, considered by many to be his finest. In 1983 he won the award for Best Actor at the 1983 Cannes Film Festival for La Mort de Mario Ricci. Four years at the 37th Berlin International Film Festival, he won the Silver Bear for Best Actor for Il caso Moro.
1988 Cannes Film Festival Official Selection, remarkable play as a Renaissance physician in The Abyss by André Delvaux from Marguerite Yourcenar's famous novel. In 1990, Volonté was named Best European Actor for Porte aperte. In 1991, at the Venice Film Festival, he won a Golden Lion for his career as a whole. Volonté played numerous roles outside Italy. Volonté was a strong political activist and known for his pro-Communist leanings. In 1981, he helped Oreste Scalzone to flee from capture in Italy to Denmark, he was the partner of Italian actress Carla Gravina for 10 years after they met when they played Romeo and Juliet in a theatre production in 1960. The two had a daughter Giovanna, born in the early 1960s. Actress Angelica Ippolito was his companion from 1977 until his death in 1994. Volonté died from a heart attack at the age of 61 in 1994 at Florina, during the filming of Ulysses' Gaze, directed by Theo Angelopoulos. Actor Erland Josephson replaced him in the role. Volonté's grave is in a small cemetery on the Sardinian island of Isola della Maddalena.
Official website Gian Maria Volonté on IMDb Giovanni Savastano: "Gian Maria Volonté. Recito dunque sono" Edizioni Clichy, 2018
Bloodletting is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease. Bloodletting, whether by a physician or by leeches, was based on an ancient system of medicine in which blood and other bodily fluids were regarded as "humours" that had to remain in proper balance to maintain health, it is claimed to have been the most common medical practice performed by surgeons from antiquity until the late 19th century, a span of 2,000 years. In Europe the practice continued to be common until the end of the 18th century; the practice has now been abandoned by modern style medicine for all except a few specific conditions. It is conceivable that in the absence of other treatments for hypertension, bloodletting sometimes had a beneficial effect in temporarily reducing blood pressure by reducing blood volume. However, since hypertension is often asymptomatic and thus undiagnosable without modern methods, this effect was unintentional. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the historical use of bloodletting was harmful to patients.
Today, the term phlebotomy refers to the drawing of blood for laboratory analysis or blood transfusion. Therapeutic phlebotomy refers to the drawing of a unit of blood in specific cases like hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, etc. to reduce the number of red blood cells. The traditional medical practice of bloodletting is today considered to be a pseudoscience. Passages from the Ebers Papyrus may indicate that bloodletting by scarification was an accepted practice in Ancient Egypt. Egyptian burials have been reported to contain bloodletting instruments. According to some accounts, the Egyptians based the idea on their observations of the Hippopotamus, confusing its red sweat with blood, believing that it scratched itself to relieve distress. In Greece, bloodletting was in use in the fifth century BC during the lifetime of Hippocrates, who mentions this practice but relied on dietary techniques. Erasistratus, theorized that many diseases were caused by plethoras, or overabundances, in the blood and advised that these plethoras be treated by exercise, reduced food intake, vomiting.
Herophilus advocated bloodletting. Archagathus, one of the first Greek physicians to practice in Rome believed in the value of bloodletting. "Bleeding" a patient to health was modeled on the process of menstruation. Hippocrates believed that menstruation functioned to "purge women of bad humours". During the Roman Empire, the Greek physician Galen, who subscribed to the teachings of Hippocrates, advocated physician-initiated bloodletting; the popularity of bloodletting in the classical Mediterranean world was reinforced by the ideas of Galen, after he discovered that not only veins but arteries were filled with blood, not air as was believed at the time. There were two key concepts in his system of bloodletting; the first was that blood was created and used up. The second was that humoral balance was the basis of illness or health, the four humours being blood, black bile, yellow bile, relating to the four Greek classical elements of air, water and fire respectively. Galen believed that blood was the one in most need of control.
In order to balance the humours, a physician would either remove "excess" blood from the patient or give them an emetic to induce vomiting, or a diuretic to induce urination. Galen created a complex system of how much blood should be removed based on the patient's age, the season, the weather and the place. "Do-it-yourself" bleeding instructions following these systems were developed. Symptoms of plethora were believed to include fever and headache; the blood to be let was of a specific nature determined by the disease: either arterial or venous, distant or close to the area of the body affected. He linked different blood vessels according to their supposed drainage. For example, the vein in the right hand would be let for liver problems and the vein in the left hand for problems with the spleen; the more severe the disease, the more blood would be let. Fevers required copious amounts of bloodletting; the Talmud recommended a specific day of the week and days of the month for bloodletting, similar rules, though less codified, can be found among Christian writings advising which saints' days were favourable for bloodletting.
During medieval times bleeding charts were common, showing specific bleeding sites on the body in alignment with the planets and zodiacs. Islamic medical authors too advised bloodletting for fevers, it was practised according to certain phases of the moon in the lunar calendar. The practice was passed by the Greeks with the translation of ancient texts to Arabic and is different than bloodletting by cupping mentioned in the traditions of Muhammad; when Muslim theories became known in the Latin-speaking countries of Europe, bloodletting became more widespread. Together with cautery, it was central to Arabic surgery, it was known in Ayurvedic medicine, described in the Susruta Samhita. After the humoral system fell into disuse, the practice was continued by surgeons and barber-surgeons. Though the bloodletting was recommended by physicians, it was carried out by barbers; this led to the distinction between surgeons. The red-and-white-striped pole of the barbershop, still in use today, is derived from this practice: the red symbolizes blood while the white symbolizes the bandages.
Bloodletting was used to "treat" a wide range of
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe
Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni was an Italian film actor. His prominent films include: La Dolce Vita, his honours included British Film Academy Awards, Best Actor awards at the Cannes Film Festival and two Golden Globe Awards. Mastroianni was born in Fontana Liri, a small village in the Apennines in the province of Frosinone and grew up in Turin and Rome, he was the son of Ida and Ottone Mastroianni, who ran a carpentry shop, the nephew of sculptor Umberto Mastroianni. During World War II, after the division into Axis and Allied Italy, he was interned in a loosely guarded German prison camp, from which he escaped to hide in Venice, his brother Ruggero Mastroianni was a film editor who edited a number of his brother's films, appeared alongside Marcello in Scipione detto anche l'Africano, a spoof of the once popular sword and sandal film genre released in 1971. Mastroianni made his screen debut as an uncredited extra in Marionette when he was fourteen, made intermittent minor film appearances until landing his first big role in Atto d'accusa.
Within a decade he became a major international celebrity. Mastroianni followed La Dolce Vita with another signature role, that of a film director who, amidst self-doubt and troubled love affairs, finds himself in a creative block while making a movie in Fellini's 8½, his other prominent films include Days of Love with Marina Vlady. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor three times: for Divorce Italian Style, A Special Day and Dark Eyes. Mastroianni, Dean Stockwell and Jack Lemmon are the only actors to have been twice awarded the Best Actor at the Cannes Film Festival. Mastroianni won it in 1970 in 1987 for Dark Eyes. Mastroianni starred alongside his daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, in Raúl Ruiz's Three Lives and Only One Death in 1996. For this performance he won the Silver Wave Award at the Ft. Lauderdale International Film Festival, his final film, Voyage to the Beginning of the World, was released posthumously. Mastroianni married Flora Carabella on 12 August 1950, they had one daughter together, but separated in 1970 because of his affairs with younger women.
Mastroianni's first serious relationship after the separation was with Faye Dunaway, his co-star in A Place for Lovers. Dunaway wanted to marry and have children, but Mastroianni, a Catholic, refused to divorce Carabella. In 1971, after three years of waiting for Mastroianni to change his mind, Dunaway left him. Decades Dunaway said: "I wish to this day it had worked out."Mastroianni had a daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, with French actress Catherine Deneuve, nearly 20 years his junior and lived with him for four years in the 1970s. During that time, the couple made four movies together: It Only Happens to Others, La cagna, A Slightly Pregnant Man and Don't Touch the White Woman!. After Mastroianni and Deneuve broke up, Carabella offered to adopt Chiara because her parents' work kept them away so often. Deneuve would have none of it. According to People magazine, Mastroianni's other lovers included actresses Anouk Aimee, Ursula Andress, Claudia Cardinale and Lauren Hutton. Around 1976, he became involved with an author and filmmaker.
They remained together until his death. He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic in 1994. Mastroianni died of pancreatic cancer on 19 December 1996 at the age of 72. Both of his daughters, as well as Deneuve and Tatò, were at his bedside; the Trevi Fountain in Rome, associated with his role in Fellini's La Dolce Vita, was symbolically turned off and draped in black as a tribute. At the 1997 Venice Film Festival, Chiara and Deneuve tried to block the screening of Tatò's four-hour documentary, Marcello Mastroianni: I Remember; the festival refused and the movie was shown. The three women tried to do the same thing at Cannes. Tatò said. David di Donatello Best Actor 1964 Yesterday and Tomorrow 1965 Marriage Italian Style 1986 Ginger and Fred 1988 Dark Eyes 1995 Sostiene Pereira 1983 Carrer David 1995 Special David 1997 Carrer David (post