A fellow is a member of an academy, learned society or group of learned subjects which works together in pursuing mutual knowledge or practice. There are many different kinds of fellowships which are awarded for different reasons in academia and industry; these indicate a different level of scholarship. In education and academia there are several kinds of fellowships, awarded for different reasons; the title of teaching fellow is used to denote an academic teaching position at a university or similar institution and is equivalent to the title of lecturer. The title fellow can be bestowed to an academic member of staff upon retirement who continues to be affiliated to a university in the United Kingdom; the term teaching fellow or teaching assistant is used, in the United States and United Kingdom, in secondary school, high school and middle school setting for students or adults that assist a teacher with one or more classes. In US medical institutions, a fellow refers to someone who has completed residency training and is in a 1 to 3 year subspecialty training program.

The title of research fellow may be used to denote an academic position at a university or a similar institution. Research fellow may refer to the recipient of academic financial grant or scholarship. For example, in Germany, institutions such as the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation offer research fellowship for postdoctoral research and refer to the holder as research fellows, while the award holder may formally hold a specific academic title at their home institution; these are shortened to the name of the programme or organization, e.g. Dorothy Hodgkin Fellow rather than Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellow, except where this might cause confusion with another fellowship, In the context of graduate school in the United States and Canada, a fellow is a recipient of a postgraduate fellowship. Examples include the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship, the Guggenheim Fellowship, the Rosenthal Fellowship, Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowship and the Presidential Management Fellowship.

It is granted to prospective or current students, on the basis of their academic or research achievements. In the UK, research fellowships are awarded to support postdoctoral researchers such as those funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. At ETH Zurich, postdoctoral fellowships support incoming researchers; the MacArthur Fellows Program as prestigious research fellowship awarded in the United States. Fellowships may involve a short placement for capacity building, e.g. to get more experience in government, such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science's fellowships and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences#Fellowship programs. Fellows are the highest grade of membership of many professional associations or learned societies, for example, the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators or Royal College of Surgeons. Lower grades are referred to associates. Additional grades of membership exist in, for example, the IEEE and the ACM.

Fellowships of this type can be awarded as a title of honor in their own right, e.g. the Fellowship of the Royal Society. Exclusive learned. Appointment as an honorary fellow in a learned or professional society can be either to honour exceptional achievement and/or service within the professional domain of the awarding body or to honour contributions related to the domain from someone, professionally outside it. Membership of the awarding body may not be a requirement. How a fellowship is awarded varies for each society, but may involve some or all of these: A qualifying period in a lower grade Passing a series of examinations Nomination by two existing fellows who know the applicant professionally Evidence of continued formal training post-qualification Evidence of substantial achievement in the subject area Submission of a thesis or portfolio of works which will be examined Election by a vote of the fellowship At the ancient universities of the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, Trinity College, members of the teaching staff have two affiliations: one as a reader, lecturer, or other academic rank within a department of the university, as at other universities, a second affiliation as a fellow of one of the colleges of the university.

The fellows, sometimes referred to, form the governing body of the college. They may elect a council to handle day-to-day management. All fellows are entitled to certain privileges within their colleges, which may include dining at High Table and the right to a room in college. At Cambridge, retired academics may remain fellows. At Oxford, however, a Governing Body fellow would be elected a fellow emeritus and would leave the Governing Body upon his or her retirement. Distinguished old members of the college, or its benefactors and friends, might be elected'Honorary Fellow' for life. Most Oxford colleges have'Fellows by Special Election' or'Supernumerary Fellows', who may be members of the teaching staff, but not neces

Butler Grove Township, Montgomery County, Illinois

Butler Grove Township is located in Montgomery County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 775 and it contained 374 housing units. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 36.1 square miles, of which 35.77 square miles is land and 0.33 square miles is water. Arches Rail Trail Raymond Township Rountree Township Irving Township East Fork Township Hillsboro Township South Litchfield Township North Litchfield Township Zanesville Township Illinois State Archives Historical Society of Montgomery County

Mode for Mabes

Mode for Mabes is an album by tenor saxophonist Eric Alexander. It was released by Delmark Records; the album was recorded in May 1997. The sextet contains tenor saxophonist Eric Alexander, trumpeter Jim Rotondi, trombonist Steve Davis, pianist Harold Mabern, bassist John Webber, drummer George Fludas. Mode for Mabes was released by Delmark Records; the AllMusic reviewer described it as "modern mainstream post-to-hard bop at its finest". "Mode for Mabes" – 8:39 "Sugar Ray" – 8:02 "For Heaven's Sake" – 10:07 "Erik the Red" – 8:49 "Love Thy Neighbor" – 8:33 "Stay Straight" – 6:16 "Stairway to the Stars" – 8:40 "Naima" – 11:17 Eric Alexander – tenor saxophone Jim Rotondi – trumpet Steve Davis – trombone Harold Mabern – piano John Webber – bass George Fludas – drums