Lorcan O'Herlihy is an Irish architect working in Los Angeles and the founding principal of Lorcan O'Herlihy Architects. He is the son of the actor Dan O'Herlihy. O'Herlihy was educated at California Polytechnic University and the Architectural Association in London, UK. O’Herlihy spent his formative years working as a designer and associate at Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates, at Steven Holl Architects where he was responsible for the AIA National Honor Award-winning Hybrid Building, he worked at I. M. Pei and Partners in New Paris on addition to the Grand Louvre Museum; the experience working on a project that harmoniously coupled art and architecture was paramount to his design philosophy and installed a passion for aesthetic improvisation and composition. In addition, O’Herlihy worked as a painter and furniture maker; the breath of scales—from being part of a design team for a large public art institution like the Louvre to intimately producing art and objects—melds his inclination for material exploration and formal inflection which form the basis of his firm, Lorcan O’Herlihy Architects.
Since founding his firm in 1994, O’Herlihy has utilized architecture as a catalyst of change to shape and enrich the complex, urban landscape of the contemporary city. The work of his firm is guided by a conscious understanding that architecture operates within a layered context of political, developmental and social structures. With studios in Los Angeles and Detroit, LOHA has built over 90 projects across three continents; the diverse work of the firm ranges from art galleries, bus shelters, large-scale neighborhood plans, to large mixed-use developments, housing developments, university residential complexes. Each project by LOHA exhibits O’Herlihy’s belief that artistry and bold design are key to building a vibrant, social space to elevate the human condition via the built environment. O’Herlihy and LOHA have produced work, published in over 20 countries and recognized internationally with features in The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, Wallpaper*, Architectural Record, Architectural Review, Frame, Interior Design, among many more.
O'Herlihy's eponymous monograph was published by Rockport Publications in 1999 and Amplified Urbanism, a publication about the firm's design philosophy, was published in 2017. LOHA's work has received over 100 national and local design awards throughout the years including the AIA Los Angeles firm of the year. In 2004, the Architectural League of New York selected Lorcan O’Herlihy as one of the eight "emerging voices" in the United States. In 2009, O’Herlihy garnered the prestigious College of Fellows of the American Institute of Architects status. O’Herlihy has been nominated for the 2014 American Academy of Arts and Letters Award in Architecture, the 2019 Cooper Hewitt National Design Award, the 2018 Marcus Prize in Architecture. In 2018, Lorcan received the AIACC Distinguished Practice Award and his firm LOHA was ranked the #1 Design Firm in the Country by Architect Magazine’s ARCHITECT50, an annual ranking of architecture firms in the United States. Academic and intellectual pursuits are integral and ongoing pursuits within O’Herlihy’s professional design practice.
He has taught and lectured extensively throughout his career at notable institutions including: the Architectural Association. He is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Southern California, he is a licensed architect in California, Michigan and North Carolina and is a GSA Design Excellence Program Peer. Lorcan O’Herlihy Architects is an internationally recognized design firm that engages the ever-changing complexities of the urban landscape, embracing architecture’s role as a catalyst for change. With a conscious understanding that architecture operates within a layered context of political, developmental and social structures, LOHA seeks to elevate the human condition via the built environment; the social and collaborative nature of their work, demonstrates a commitment to designing spaces that encourage and promote human interaction. With over two decades of experience, LOHA's projects shape the urban environment, provide essential housing, enrich society with spaces that support and facilitate culture and community.
Driven by ruthless optimism and creative pragmatism, it is Lorcan's belief that bold, enlightened design elevates the soul and enriches communities. LOHA crafts distinctive, elegantly-resolved designs that not only meet the needs of their clients, but respond to broader civic and social ambitions. In their commitment to consider architecture’s impact on the social condition, LOHA developed a distinct approach as a guiding philosophy and method for the firm: Amplified Urbanism; as a strategy, Amplified Urbanism seeks to reimagine the creative interaction between public and private spaces, emphasize social and civic connections, work within existing ecological and infrastructural patterns to cultivate vibrant communities. LOHA's work is developed around three main design tenants—Activated Edges, Strategic Voids, Bold Materiality—that are founded on the belief that architecture should be a transformative action. With each project LOHA considers how the site and material decisions can radiate far beyond a structure’s immediate boundaries to foster positive impacts, redefine broader communities, transform the city.
Sun King Supportive Housing, Los Angeles Westlake Supportive Housing, L
Malcolm Holzman FAIA, is an American architect, who practices in New York City, is a founding partner of Holzman Moss Bottino Architecture and Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates. Malcolm has planned and designed over 130 projects for public use. Holzman was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1940, he received a B. Arch. from Pratt Institute in 1963, in 1964 began working with Hugh Hardy. Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates was established in New York City in 1967. In 1981 HHPA received the AIA’s Architecture Firm Award. In 1981, Holzman was elected to the college of Fellows at the American Institute of Architects. In 2004 HHPA separated and Holzman established HMBA with members of his HHPA project team. Paul Goldberger describes how Holzman “tends to hide behind a sort of ‘Aw, Shucks’ manner, which belies the seriousness with which he takes his profession.”He has held both the Saarinen and Davenport Visiting Professorships at Yale University, endowed chairs at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Ball State University, the University of Texas, Syracuse University, the City College of New York, as well as teaching at Lawrence Technological University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Holzman is a member of the Interior Design Hall of Fame, the Municipal Art Society, the Architectural League of New York, has served as a trustee of the Amon Carter Museum and Pratt Institute. Holzman has designed many important civic and academic structures throughout the United States libraries and performing arts venues, his collagist plans with rotated grids and eclectic sensibilities established him as a pioneer. His use of industrial and rural vernacular, as well as salvaged and local materials ran counter to reductionist modernist tendencies, resulting in a more humanist approach. In addition Holzman advocated the reuse of older buildings at a time when the profession embraced pristine modernism, exemplified by urban renewal. Holzman was an early advocate of sustainable building practices. Holzman has expressed his belief that the most effective and overlooked method of greening modern building practices is to repurpose existing buildings and to design buildings with longer lifespans.
Holzman's signature is a courageous and creative materials palette, he has published two books on the subject. "No other contemporary architect uses traditional and unconventional materials with such invention and wit.” Holzman's interiors are "legendary" for his bold and eclectic use of color and texture, exemplified by his custom-designed fabrics and carpeting. Holzman uses stone as large blocks with rich texture in a load-bearing capacity, as opposed to the contemporary stone veneers of curtain wall construction, he collaborates with artists and incorporates their works into his buildings, most notably Albert Paley and Tom Otterness. Early on, Holzman avoided a design manifesto. Practicing in an era when architecture became dominated by factions, Holzman was an architect who “would rather build than talk,” believing that successful buildings are not born from theory but from careful attention to location and clients; this garnered Peter Eisenman’s pejorative assessment of “functionalism in drag.”
His 50-year career has spanned the majority of the Late Modernist movement. Hugh Hardy Douglas Moss Nestor Bottino Holzman Moss Bottino Architecture Website Malcolm Holzman: 1992 Hall of Fame Inductee Notes
American Institute of Architects
The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D. C. the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry; the AIA is headed by Robert Ivy, FAIA as EVP/Chief Executive Officer and William J. Bates, FAIA as 2019 AIA President; the American Institute of Architects was founded in New York City in 1857 by a group of 13 architects to "promote the scientific and practical perfection of its members" and "elevate the standing of the profession." This initial group included Charles Babcock, Henry W. Cleaveland, Henry Dudley, Leopold Eidlitz, Edward Gardiner, Richard Morris Hunt, Fred A. Petersen, Jacob Wrey Mould, John Welch, Richard M. Upjohn and Joseph C. Wells, with Richard Upjohn serving as the first president.
They met on February 23, 1857, decided to invite 16 other prominent architects to join them, including Alexander Jackson Davis, Thomas U. Walter, Calvert Vaux. Prior to their establishment of the AIA, anyone could claim to be an architect, as there were no schools of architecture or architectural licensing laws in the United States, they drafted a constitution and bylaws by March 10, 1857, under the name New York Society of Architects. Thomas U. Walter, of Philadelphia suggested the name be changed to American Institute of Architects; the members signed the new constitution on April 15, 1857, having filed a certificate of incorporation two days earlier. The constitution was amended the following year with the mission "to promote the artistic and practical profession of its members. Architects in other cities were asking to join in the 1860s, by the 1880s chapters had been formed in Albany, Boston, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Rhode Island, San Francisco, St. Louis, Washington, D. C; as of 2008, AIA had more than 300 chapters.
The AIA is headquartered at 1735 New York Avenue, NW in Washington, D. C. A design competition was held in the mid-1960s to select an architect for a new AIA headquarters in Washington. Mitchell/Giurgola won the design competition but failed to get approval of the design concept from the United States Commission of Fine Arts; the firm resigned the commission and helped select The Architects Collaborative to redesign the building. The design, led by TAC principals Norman Fletcher and Howard Elkus, was approved in 1970 and completed in 1973. In honor of the 150th anniversary of the organization, the building was formally renamed in 2007 the "American Center for Architecture" and is home to the American Institute of Architecture Students, the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture and the National Architectural Accrediting Board. More than 90,000 licensed architects and associated professionals are members. AIA members adhere to a code of ethics and professional conduct intended to assure clients, the public, colleagues of an architect's dedication to the highest standards in professional practice.
There are five levels of membership in the AIA: Architect members are licensed to practice architecture by a licensing authority in the United States. Associate members are not licensed to practice architecture but they are working under the supervision of an architect in a professional or technical capacity, have earned professional degrees in architecture, are faculty members in a university program in architecture, or are interns earning credit toward licensure. International associate members hold an architecture license or the equivalent from a licensing authority outside the United States. Emeritus members have been AIA members for 15 successive years and are at least 70 years of age or are incapacitated and unable to work in the architecture profession. Allied members are individuals whose professions are related to the building and design community, such as engineers, landscape architects, or planners. Allied membership is a partnership with the American Architectural Foundation. There is no National AIA membership category for students, but they can become members of the American Institute of Architecture Students and many local and state chapters of the AIA have student membership categories.
The AIA's most prestigious honor is the designation of a member as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. This membership is awarded to members who have made contributions of national significance to the profession. More than 2,600, or 2% of all members, have been elevated to the AIA College of Fellows. Foreign architects of prominence may be elected to the College as Honorary Fellows of the AIA; the AIA has a staff of more than 200 employees. Although the AIA functions as a national organization, its 217 local and state chapters provide members with programming and direct services to support them throughout their professional lives; the chapters cover the entirety of its territories. Components operate in the United Kingdom, Continental Europe, the Middle East, Hong Kong and Canada. By speaking with a united voice, AIA architects influence government practices that affect the practice of the profession and the quality of American life; the AIA monitors legislative and regulator
Thom Mayne is an American architect. He is based in Los Angeles. In 1972, Mayne helped found the Southern California Institute of Architecture, where he is a trustee. Since he has held teaching positions at SCI-Arc, the California State Polytechnic University and the University of California, Los Angeles, he is principal of an architectural firm in Culver City, California. Mayne received the Pritzker Architecture Prize in March 2005. Mayne was born in Connecticut, he studied architecture at the University of Southern California and studied at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design in 1978, with a social agenda and urban planning focus, receiving his bachelor's degree, he began working as an urban planner under Korean-born architect Ki Suh Park. During that time he recalls that "policy and planning were not going to work for me" and that he "needed a more tangible resolution." Mayne found himself living on a commune with the grass-roots group Campaign for Economic Democracy, many of whom became his earliest clients.
In 1972, Mayne abruptly left Cal Poly Pomona and collaborated with five other students and educators whom he met at while at USC, to create the Southern California Institute of Architecture, or SCI-Arc. The rift was due to differences between the dean at Cal Poly at the time and Ray Kappe, who headed the school's architecture department; the goal of the new institute was to reinvigorate formal architectural education with a keener sense of social conscience. SCI-Arc was "to bring to Los Angeles the critical attitude toward the profession, being practiced at Cooper Union in New York and the Architectural Association in London." Mayne and some others founded Morphosis in 1972. The firm's design philosophy arises from an interest in producing work with a meaning that can be understood by absorbing the culture for which it was made, their goal was to develop an architecture that would eschew the normal bounds of traditional forms. Beginning as an informal collaboration of designers that survived on non-architectural projects, its first official commission was a school in Pasadena, attended by Mayne's son.
Publicity from this project led to a number of residential commissions, including the Lawrence Residence. Mayne describes the early days of the group as more of a "garage band" than a practice, they spent their free time experimenting with new inventions for their clients, whom consisted of friends and parents of students. When work was at a standstill, Mayne took a year off to earn his Master of Architecture degree from Harvard University, he graduated in 1978 and returned to work for Morphosis where he became the principal architect, lead designer and principal in charge for all of Morphosis' projects. The firm has grown with completed projects worldwide. Under the Design Excellence program of the United States government's General Service Administration, Thom Mayne has become a primary architect for federal projects. Recent commissions include: graduate housing at the University of Toronto; the work of Morphosis has a layered quality. Visually, the firm's architecture includes sculptural forms.
In recent years, such visual effect has been made possible through computer design techniques, which simplify the construction of complex forms. Mayne remains a presence in the academic world, he teaches at the University of Pennsylvania and has held teaching positions at many institutions including Columbia University, Harvard University, Yale University, the Berlage Institute in the Netherlands and the Bartlett School of Architecture in London. He is a tenured faculty member at the UCLA School of Arts and Architecture. In 2013, he contributed a foreword to the book "Never Built Los Angeles" by Sam Lubell and Greg Goldin. Kate Mantilini / Beverly Hills, CA, 1986 6th Street Residence, Santa Monica, CA, 1988 Cedar Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, 1988 Crawford Residence, Montecito, CA, 1990 Salick Healthcare Office Building, Los Angeles, CA, 1991 Blades Residence, Santa Barbara, California, 1995 Sun Tower in Seoul, Korea 1997 Diamond Ranch High School, California, 1999 University of Toronto Graduate House, Ontario, Canada, 2000 Hypo Alpe-Adria Center, Austria, 2002 Caltrans District 7 Headquarters, Los Angeles, California, 2004 Science Center School, Los Angeles, California, 2004 University of Cincinnati Student Recreation Center, Ohio, 2006 Public housing in Madrid, Spain, 2006 Wayne L. Morse United States Courthouse, Oregon, 2006 San Francisco Federal Building, San Francisco, California, 2006 Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the California Institute of Technology, California, 2009 National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Satellite Operation Facility, Maryland, 2007 New Academic Building at 41 Cooper Square, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, New York, 2009 Perot Museum of Nature & Science, Victory Park, Texas, 2012 Bill and Melinda Gates Hall, Cornell University, New York, 2013 Emerson College Los Angeles Center, Los Angeles, California, 2014 Vialia Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2016 Phare Tower known as "Le Phare" and "The Lighthouse", "green" wind-powered office building, La Défense, France, 2017 Cornell NYC Tech, Roosevelt Island, New York, 2017 A. Alfred Taubman Engineering and Life Sciences Complex, Lawrenc
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Michael Graves was a noted American architect and designer of consumer products. As well as principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group, he was of a member of The New York Five and the Memphis Group — and professor of architecture at Princeton University for nearly forty years. Following his own partial paralysis in 2003, Graves became an internationally recognized advocate of health care design. Graves' global portfolio of architectural work ranged from the Ministry of Culture in The Hague, a post office for Celebration, Florida, a prominent expansion of the Denver Public Library to numerous commissions for Disney — as well as the scaffolding design for the 2000 Washington Monument restoration, he was recognized as a major influence on architectural movements including New Urbanism, New Classical Architecture and Postmodernism — the latter including the noted Portland Building in Oregon and the Humana Building in Kentucky. For his architectural work, Graves received a fellowship of the American Institute of Architects as well as its highest award, the AIA Gold Medal.
He was trustee of the American Academy in Rome and was the president of its Society of Fellows from 1980 to 1984. He received the American Prize for Architecture, the National Medal of Arts and the Driehaus Architecture Prize. Nonetheless, Graves became popularly well known through his high end as well as mass consumer product designs for companies ranging from Alessi in Italy — to Target and J. C. Penney in the United States; the New York Times described Graves as "one of the most prominent and prolific American architects of the latter 20th century, who designed more than 350 buildings around the world but was best known for teakettle and pepper mill." Graves was born on July 9, 1934, in Indianapolis, Indiana, to Erma and Thomas B. Graves, he grew up in the city's suburbs and credited his mother for suggestion that he become and engineer or an architect. Graves graduated from Indianapolis's Broad Ripple High School in 1952 and earned a bachelor's degree in architecture in 1958 from the University of Cincinnati.
During college he became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. Graves earned a master's degree in architecture from Harvard University in 1959. After graduation from college, Graves spent a year working in George Nelson's office. Nelson, a furniture designer and the creative director for Herman Miller, exposed Graves to the work of fellow designers Charles and Ray Eames and Alexander Girard. In 1960 Graves won the American Academy in Rome's Prix de Rome and spent the next two years at the Academy in Italy. Graves describes himself as "transformed" by his experience in Rome: "I discovered new ways of seeing and analyzing both architecture and landscape."Little is known of Graves' married life. His marriage to Gail Devine in 1955 ended in divorce. Graves was the father of two sons and a daughter. Graves began his career in 1962 as a professor of architecture at Princeton University, where he taught for nearly four decades, established his own architectural firm in 1964 at Princeton, New Jersey. Graves worked as an architect in public practice designing a variety of buildings that included private residences, university buildings, hotel resorts, hospitals and commercial office buildings, civic buildings, monuments.
During a career that spanned nearly fifty years and his firm designed more than 350 buildings around the world, in addition to an estimated 2,000 household products. In 1962, after two years of studies in Rome, Graves returned to the United States and moved to Princeton, New Jersey, where he had accepted a professorship at the Princeton University School of Architecture. Graves taught at Princeton for thirty-nine years while practicing architecture, he retired as the Robert Schirmer Professor of Architecture, Emeritus, in 2001. Although Graves was a longtime faculty member at Princeton and trained many of its architecture students, the university did not allow its faculty to practice their profession on its campus; as a result, Graves was never commissioned to design a building for the university. In his early years as an architect, Graves did designs for home renovation projects in Princeton. In 1964 he founded the architectural firm of Michael Graves & Associate in Princeton and remained in public practice there until the end of his life.
His firm maintained offices in Princeton, New Jersey, in New York City, but his residence in Princeton served as his design studio, home office and library, a place to display the many objects he collected during his world travels. Nicknamed "The Warehouse", it displayed many of the household items he designed. After Graves's death, Kean University acquired his former home and studio in Princeton, along with two adjacent buildings. Graves spent much of early 1970s designing modern residences. Notable examples include the Snyderman House in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Graves became one of the New York Five, along with Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier; this informal group of Princeton and New York City architects known as the Whites due to the predominant color of their architectural work, espoused a pure form of modernism, characterized by clean lines and minimal ornamentation. The New York Five became the "standard-bearers of a movement to elevate modernist architectural form into a serious theoretical pursuit."
Five Architects describes some of their early work. In the late 1970s, Graves shifted away from modernism to pursue Postmodernism and New Urbanis
Robert Charles Venturi Jr. was an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, one of the major architectural figures of the twentieth century. Together with his wife and partner, Denise Scott Brown, he helped shape the way that architects and students experience and think about architecture and the American-built environment, their buildings, theoretical writings, teaching have contributed to the expansion of discourse about architecture. Venturi was awarded the Pritzker Prize in Architecture in 1991. Subsequently, a group of women architects attempted to get her name added retroactively to the prize, but the Pritzker Prize jury declined to do so. Venturi is known for having coined the maxim "Less is a bore", a postmodern antidote to Mies van der Rohe's famous modernist dictum "Less is more". Venturi lived in Philadelphia with Denise Scott Brown, he was the father of James Venturi and principal of ReThink Studio. Venturi was raised as a Quaker. Venturi attended school at the Episcopal Academy in Pennsylvania.
He graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1947 where he was a member-elect of Phi Beta Kappa and won the D'Amato Prize in Architecture. He received his M. F. A. from Princeton in 1950. The educational program at Princeton under Professor Jean Labatut, who offered provocative design studios within a Beaux-Arts pedagogical framework, was a key factor in Venturi's development of an approach to architectural theory and design that drew from architectural history and commercial architecture in analytical, as opposed to stylistic, terms. In 1951 he worked under Eero Saarinen in Bloomfield Hills and for Louis Kahn in Philadelphia, he was awarded the Rome Prize Fellowship at the American Academy in Rome in 1954, where he studied and toured Europe for two years. From 1959 to 1967, Venturi held teaching positions at the University of Pennsylvania, where he served as Kahn's teaching assistant, an instructor, as associate professor, it was there, in 1960, that he met fellow faculty member and planner Denise Scott Brown.
Venturi taught at the Yale School of Architecture and was a visiting lecturer with Scott Brown in 2003 at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design. A controversial critic of the blithely functionalist and symbolically vacuous architecture of corporate modernism during the 1950s, Venturi was considered a counterrevolutionary, he published his "gentle manifesto", Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture in 1966. The work was derived from course lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, Venturi received a grant from the Graham Foundation in 1965 to aid in its completion; the book demonstrated, through countless examples, an approach to understanding architectural composition and complexity, the resulting richness and interest. Citing vernacular as well as high-style sources, Venturi drew new lessons from the buildings of architects familiar and then-forgotten, he made a case for "the difficult whole" rather than the diagrammatic forms popular at the time, included examples — both built and unrealized — of his own work to demonstrate the possible application of such techniques.
The book has been published in 18 languages to date. Hailed as a theorist and designer with radical ideas, Venturi went to teach a series of studios at the Yale School of Architecture in the mid-1960s; the most famous of these was a studio in 1968 in which Venturi and Scott Brown, together with Steven Izenour, led a team of students to document and analyze the Las Vegas Strip the least subject for a serious research project imaginable. In 1972, Scott Brown and Izenour published the folio, A Significance for A&P Parking Lots, or Learning from Las Vegas, it was revised using the student work as a foil for new theory, reissued in 1977 as Learning from Las Vegas: the Forgotten Symbolism of Architectural Form. This second manifesto was an more stinging rebuke to orthodox modernism and elite architectural tastes; the book coined the terms "Duck" and "Decorated Shed," descriptions of the two predominant ways of embodying iconography in buildings. The work of Venturi, Scott Brown, John Rauch adopted the latter strategy, producing formally simple "decorated sheds" with rich and shocking ornamental flourishes.
Venturi and his wife co-wrote several more books at the end of the century, but these two have so far proved to the most influential. The architecture of Robert Venturi, although not as familiar today as his books, helped redirect American architecture away from a practiced banal, modernism in the 1960s to a more exploratory design approach that drew lessons from architectural history and responded to the everyday context of the American city. Venturi's buildings juxtapose architectural systems and aims, to acknowledge the conflicts inherent in a project or site; this "inclusive" approach contrasted with the typical modernist effort to resolve and unify all factors in a complete and rigidly structured—and less functional and more simplistic—work of art. The diverse range of buildings of Venturi's early career offered surprising alternatives to current architectural practice, with "impure" forms casu