National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Psychopathography of Adolf Hitler
The psychopathography of Adolf Hitler is an umbrella term for psychiatric literature that deals with the hypothesis that the German Führer and Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler suffered from mental illness. Both during his lifetime and after his death, Hitler has been associated with mental disorders such as hysteria, megalomania or paranoid schizophrenia. Psychiatrists and psychoanalysts who have diagnosed Hitler as having mental disturbance include well-known figures such as Walter C. Langer and Erich Fromm. Other researchers, such as Fritz Redlich, have concluded that Hitler did not have these disorders. In psychiatry, pathography has developed a poor reputation diagnostics that have been carried out ex post, without the direct examination of the patient, it is considered unethical. The German psychiatrist Hans Bürger-Prinz went so far as to state that any remote diagnostics constitute a "fatal abuse of psychiatry"; the immense range of mental disorders that Hitler has been credited with over time indicates how inconclusive this method can be.
Another example of the deficiencies present in many of the following Hitler-pathographies is an either absent or grossly abbreviated discussion of the abundance of publications which have been submitted on this subject by other authors. In the case of Hitler, psychopathography poses particular problems. First, authors who write about Hitler's personal matters have to deal with the issue that a voyeuristic readership uncritically accepts the most sparsely proven speculations – such as that which happened in the case of Lothar Machtan's book The Hidden Hitler. More concerning is the warning issued by some authors that pathologizing Hitler would mean discharging him of at least some responsibility for his actions. Others fear that by pathologizing or demonizing Hitler, all the blame for the deeds of the Third Reich could be placed on him, whilst the populace and those in positions of power who enabled Hitler to rule would be relieved from responsibility. Famed is Hannah Arendt's coinage of the phrase the "banality of evil".
Harald Welzer came to a similar conclusion in his book Täter. Wie aus ganz normalen Menschen Massenmörder werden. In his 2015 biography, Peter Longerich pointed out how Hitler implemented his political goals as a strong dictator, with assertiveness, high readiness to assume risk and unlimited power; some authors were fundamentally opposed to any attempt to explain Hitler, for example by psychological means. Claude Lanzman went further, labeling such attempts "obscene"; as the psychiatrist Jan Ehrenwald has pointed out, the question as to how a mentally ill Hitler could have gained millions of enthusiastic followers who supported his policies until 1945 has been neglected. Daniel Goldhagen argued in 1996 that Hitler's political ascent was not in any way related to his psychopathology, but rather was a consequence of the precarious social conditions that existed at that time in Germany. On the other hand, some authors have noted that figures such as Charles Manson and Jim Jones, who have been described as suffering from crippling mental illness such as schizophrenia, nonetheless succeeded in having a tremendous influence on their groups of followers.
Early on, the view was expressed that Hitler was able to handle his psychopathology skillfully, was aware of how he could use his symptoms to steer the emotions of his audience. Still other authors have suggested; the question how Hitler's individual psychopathology might have been linked with the enthusiasm of his followers was first discussed in 2000 by the interdisciplinary team of authors Matussek/Matussek/Marbach. Oswald Bumke and contemporary of Hitler, assumed that it was never the case Hitler was examined by a psychiatrist; the only psychiatrist whom Hitler demonstrably met – the Munich Professor Kurt Schneider – was not Hitler's physician. While medical documents that allow conclusions about Hitler's physical health have been found and made accessible for research, there is a lack of original documents that would allow for an assessment of Hitler's mental condition. Speculations about a possible psychiatric evaluation of Hitler in his lifetime focus on his stay in a military hospital Pasewalk at the end of 1918.
Hitler came to this hospital after mustard gas poisoning to which he was exposed during a battle in Flanders. In Mein Kampf, he mentions this hospital stay in connection with his painful temporary blindness, with the "misfortune" and "madness" of the German Revolution of 1918–19 and of the German War defeat, both of which he learned about during his recovery, which triggered a renewed blindness. Hitler as well as his early biographers took great notice of this strong physical response to the historic events, because the relapse into blindness identified the turning point in which Hitler felt the vocation to become a politician and Germany's savior. In Hitler's lifetime, some psychiatrists judged that such a relapse without organic explanation must be described as an hysterical symptom; the hysteria diagnosis had its greatest popularity with Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis, but was still in use in the 1930s and 1940s. Loss of the sense organs were among typical symptoms, in additio
Bad Münstereifel is a historical spa town in the district of Euskirchen, with about 17,000 inhabitants, situated in the far south of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The little town is one of only few historical towns in the south of North Rhine-Westphalia, because of this is overcrowded by tourists throughout Spring and Summer. Bad Münstereifel lies about 30 kilometres southwest of Bonn and around ten south of the county town of Euskirchen in the Münstereifel Forest, a part of the Eifel mountains; the River Erft flow through the town. It has a borough of around 151 km² in area at heights of 200 to 586.1 m above sea level. The latter is the height of the Michelsberg, the highest point in the borough and rises in the northwestern part of the Ahr Hills; the borough is around 60 percent forested, several woods are designated as so-called ancient forest. Over 200 kilometres of trails enable access to the low mountain uplands, which are about 25 kilometres from the Eifel National Park. Arloff, Berresheim, Eichen, Ellesheim, Eschweiler, Hilterscheid, Holzem, Houverath, Hummerzheim, Hünkhoven, Kalkar, Bad Münstereifel, Kolvenbach, Kop Nück, Lanzerath, Limbach, Mahlberg, Mutscheid, Nitterscheid, Nöthen, Ohlerath, Rodert, Sasserath, Scheuren, Schönau, Vollmert, Willerscheid, Witscheiderhof Bad Münstereifel is the seat of SIGNO innovation society Eifel Association, Association of the greatest inventors in Germany.
Signo is a project of the Federal Ministry of Technology. Joined the Association is a youth and children's department, may acquire in the children and young people in a club's workshop, the basic knowledge of technology. Bad Münstereifel has four elementary schools in the main town as well as the subdistricts of Arloff and Houverath. A Hauptschule and Realschule share facilities, while the city has two Gymnasium: the public St. Michael-Gymnasium and the diocesan-run St.-Angela-Gymnasium. Furthermore, the Apostolic school of the Legionaries of Christ has its seat in the city. Since 1976, the city is home to the University of Applied Sciences for the Administration of Justice of North Rhine-Westphalia. There are several private training facilities in the city, including the Kurt-Schumacher-Academy of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung and the House of Labor Security of the Trade Association for Electrical and Precision Engineering. There is a house of the Youth Red Cross as an educational facility for the National Association.
Bad Münstereifel has a public library with a stock of 16,000 media. The local council has 32 seats, the elections were held in May 2014. CDU: 12 seats SPD: 8 seats FDP: 4 seats UWV: 4 seats Alliance 90/The Greens: 3 seats The Left: 1 seat As of 2013 the folk-singer Heino has lived in the town. From 1996–2012 he operated a cafe there. Friedrich Joseph Haass, the "holy doctor of Moscow", was born in Bad Münstereifel; the unofficial Nintendo fan convention, NCON, was held in the town's St.-Angela-Gymnasium in the early years of the 21st century. The Portuguese Socialist Party, one of the two main Portuguese parties, was founded here in 1973 with the guidance of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, who wanted to create a political force capable of keeping Portugal a member of NATO. Otto Graf Lambsdorff, former Bundesminister für Wirtschaft and chairman of the FDP, lived in the district of Eschweiler. Bad Münstereifel is twinned with: Ashford, United Kingdom Fougères, France. Alte Burg – the site of an old refuge castle Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope www.badmuenstereifel.de the official Website
Religious views of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler's religious beliefs have been a matter of debate. The wide consensus of historians consider him to have been irreligious, anti-Christian, anti-clerical and scientistic. In light of evidence such as his fierce criticism and vocal rejection of the tenets of Christianity, numerous private statements to confidants denouncing Christianity as a harmful superstition, his strenuous efforts to reduce the influence and independence of Christianity in Germany after he came to power, Hitler's major academic biographers conclude that he was irreligious and an opponent of Christianity. Historian Laurence Rees found no evidence that "Hitler, in his personal life expressed belief in the basic tenets of the Christian church". Ernst Hanfstaengl, a friend from his early days in politics, says Hitler "was to all intents and purposes an atheist by the time I got to know him". However, historians such as Richard Weikart and Alan Bullock doubt the assessment that he was a true atheist, suggesting that despite his dislike of Christianity he still clung to a form of spiritual belief.
Hitler was born to a practicing Catholic mother, was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church. From a young age, he expressed hostility to Christianity, but in 1904, acquiescing to his mother's wish, he was confirmed at the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Linz, where the family lived. According to John Willard Toland, witnesses indicate that Hitler's confirmation sponsor had to "drag the words out of him... as though the whole confirmation was repugnant to him". Rissmann notes that, according to several witnesses who lived with Hitler in a men's home in Vienna, Hitler never again attended Mass or received the sacraments after leaving home. Several eyewitnesses who lived with Hitler while he was in his late teens and early-to-mid 20s in Vienna state that he never attended church after leaving home at 18. In Hitler's early political statements, he attempted to express himself to the German public as a Christian. In his book Mein Kampf and in public speeches prior to and in the early years of his rule, he described himself as a Christian.
Hitler and the Nazi party promoted "Positive Christianity", a movement which rejected most traditional Christian doctrines such as the divinity of Jesus, as well as Jewish elements such as the Old Testament. In one quoted remark, he described Jesus as an "Aryan fighter" who struggled against "the power and pretensions of the corrupt Pharisees" and Jewish materialism. While a small minority of historians accept these publicly stated views as genuine expressions of his spirituality, the vast majority believe that Hitler was skeptical of religion and anti-Christian, but recognized that he could only be elected and preserve his political power if he feigned a commitment to and belief in Christianity, which the overwhelming majority of Germans believed in. Hitler deprecated Christianity, told confidants that his reluctance to make public attacks on the Church was not a matter of principle, but a pragmatic political move. In his private diaries, Goebbels wrote in April 1941 that though Hitler was "a fierce opponent" of the Vatican and Christianity, "he forbids me to leave the church.
For tactical reasons." Hitler's remarks to confidants, as described in the Goebbels Diaries, the memoirs of Albert Speer, transcripts of Hitler's private conversations recorded by Martin Bormann in Hitler's Table Talk, are further evidence of his irreligious and anti-Christian beliefs. Once in office and his regime sought to reduce the influence of Christianity on society. From the mid-1930s, his government was dominated by militant anti-church proponents like Goebbels, Himmler and Heydrich whom Hitler appointed to key posts; these anti-church radicals were permitted or encouraged to perpetrate the Nazi persecutions of the churches. The regime launched an effort toward coordination of German Protestants under a unified Protestant Reich Church, moved early to eliminate political Catholicism. Hitler agreed to the Reich concordat with the Vatican, but routinely ignored it, permitted persecutions of the Catholic Church. Smaller religious minorities faced harsher repression, with the Jews of Germany expelled for extermination on the grounds of Nazi racial ideology.
Jehovah's Witnesses were ruthlessly persecuted for refusing both military service and allegiance to Hitler's movement. Hitler said he anticipated a coming collapse of Christianity in the wake of scientific advances, that Nazism and religion could not co-exist long term. Although he was prepared to delay conflicts for political reasons, historians conclude that he intended the destruction of Christianity in Germany, or at least its distortion or subjugation to a Nazi outlook. Academic historians who specialize on the life and thought of Hitler have concluded he was irreligious and anti-Christian. Alan Bullock was an early influential Hitler expert who wrote important biographies of the dictator in the 1950s and 1960s, he wrote that Hitler had been raised Catholic, though impressed by its organizational powers, Hitler repudiated Christianity on what he considered to be rational and moral grounds. Bullock considered Hitler to be a rationalist and materialist, with no feeling for the spiritual or emotional side of human existence.
Bullock wrote that Hitler believed neither in "God nor conscience" but found both "justification and absolution" in a view of himself that echoed Hegel's that heroes were above conventional moralit
The men's dormitory on Meldemannstraße 27 in Brigittenau district, Austria was a public dormitory for men from 1905 to 2003. It is a subject of public interest because it was the residence of Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Nazi Germany, from 1910 to 1913; the construction of the dormitory in 1905 was financed by a private charitable foundation which aimed at reducing the number of Bettgeher in Vienna. Bettgeher were poor people with no fixed abode shift workers from the countryside, who paid a small fee for the use of a bed in a private house for a few hours during the day. In 1910, they numbered 80,000 in Vienna, were regarded as a threat to the morals of the host family; the six-story dormitory was among the most modern facilities of its kind when it was opened in 1905. It was lit by gas lamps and light bulbs, heated by a modern steam heater. On the ground floor, it featured a reading room with daily newspapers and a library; the underground floor held cleaning rooms, a luggage room, a bicycle storage room as well as a shoemaker's and a tailor's workshop.
Moreover, the dormitory included a sick room with a resident physician, a disinfection chamber for the de-lousing of new residents, washrooms, a shaving room and a bathroom with sixteen showers and four bathtubs. The actual dormitory was located on the upper four stories; each of the up to 544 residents had a small cabin to his own. The cabins, which were unlocked each evening at 8 p.m. and had to be vacated by 9 a.m. had a lockable door, a lightbulb, a bed, a small table, a clothes-hanger and a mirror. The weekly rent was 2.50 crowns, about as much as a Bettgeher would have to pay for the use of a bed, which made it a affordable lodging for unskilled labourers or journeyman artisans with an annual income of about 1,000 crowns. When the dormitory opened, the Viennese press praised it as "fantastical quarters, a paradise on earth" and as a "wonder of elegance and inexpensiveness". According to police registration files, Adolf Hitler – at the time unemployed and living off the sale of his paintings – lived in the dormitory for three years, 9 February 1910 to 24 May 1913.
He had moved in from a homeless shelter in Meidling, where he had stayed since December 1909, moved to Munich in 1913 after receiving his father's inheritance. Hitler himself appears to have provided no details about his daily life in Vienna, but several of his co-residents published their recollections of Hitler's stay in the dormitory, they report that he read the newspapers each morning in the non-smoking area of the reading room, where he painted, discussed politics with other residents and gave speeches. Among the men who wrote about Hitler's residence in the dormitory were Reinhold Hanisch, a vagabond and part-time labourer who died in prison in 1937 under unclear circumstances and whose recollections were published in The New Republic in 1939. Other co-residents of the dormitory with whom Hitler was involved included his Jewish friends Eduard Löffner and Josef Neumann, the Viennese druggist Rudolf Häusler who moved to Munich with Hitler in 1913, a rival painter, Karl Leidenroth. In the 1990s, the Viennese city government decided to close the timeworn dormitory, which now served as a shelter for the homeless, in favour of a new shelter in Floridsdorf.
Prior to its closure on 28 November 2003, the dormitory served in 2002 and 2003 as the venue of regular productions of George Tabori's play Mein Kampf, whose subject is Hitler's stay in Vienna. After its closure, the building was occupied by squatters. In 2007, the former dormitory was converted to a retirement home with 200 rooms, named Seniorenschlössl Brigittenau, which opened in January 2009
The Kehlsteinhaus is a Third Reich-era building erected atop the summit of the Kehlstein, a rocky outcrop that rises above the Obersalzberg near the town of Berchtesgaden. It was used by members of the Nazi Party for government and social meetings, it was visited on 14 documented instances by Adolf Hitler, who disliked the location due to his fear of heights, the risk of bad weather, the thin mountain air. Today it is open seasonally as a restaurant, beer garden, tourist site; the Kehlsteinhaus sits on a ridge atop the Kehlstein, a 1,834 m subpeak of the Hoher Göll that rises above the town of Berchtesgaden. It was commissioned by Martin Bormann in the summer of 1937. Paid for by the Nazi Party, it was completed in 13 months. Hitler first visited on September 16, 1938, returned on April 20, 1939, for its inauguration. Contrary to widespread assumptions, the Eagle's Nest was not a gift for Hitler's 50th birthday in 1939. A 4 m wide approach road climbs 800 m over 6.5 km. Costing RM 30 million to build, it includes one hairpin turn.
From a large car park, a 124 m entry tunnel leads to an ornate elevator that ascends the final 124 m to the building. The inside of the large elevator is surfaced with polished brass, Venetian mirrors, green leather. Construction of the entire project cost the lives of 12 workers; the building's main reception room is dominated by a fireplace of red Italian marble presented by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, damaged by Allied soldiers chipping off pieces to take home as souvenirs. Much of the furniture was designed by Paul László; the building had a electric appliance kitchen, unusual in 1937, but was never used to cook meals. The building has heated floors, with heating required for at least two days prior in order for the temperature to be comfortable enough for visitors. There are two ways to enter the building: the road and the Kehlsteinhaus elevator. Hitler did not trust the elevator, continually expressed his reservations of its safety, disliked using it; the Kehlsteinhaus lies several miles directly above the Berghof.
In a rare diplomatic engagement, Hitler received departing French ambassador André François-Poncet on October 18, 1938, here. A wedding reception for Eva Braun's sister Gretl was held there following her marriage to Hermann Fegelein on June 3, 1944. While Hitler more than not left the entertaining duties to others, he believed the house presented an excellent opportunity to entertain important and impressionable guests. Referred to as the "D-Haus", short for "Diplomatic Reception Haus", the Kehlsteinhaus is conflated with the Mooslahnerkopf tea house near the Berghof, which Hitler walked to daily after lunch; the teahouse was demolished by the Bavarian government after the war, due to its connection to Hitler. The Kehlsteinhaus was to be the aiming point of an April 25, 1945, Royal Air Force bombing raid conducted by No. 1, No. 5, No. 8 Group and No. 617 Squadron. The small house proved an elusive target for the force of 359 Avro Lancasters and 16 de Havilland Mosquitoes, which bombed and damaged the Berghof area instead.
It is uncertain. The matter is compounded by popular confusion of it and the town of Berchtesgaden taken on May 4 by forward elements of the 7th Infantry Regiment of the 3rd Infantry Division of XV Corps of the U. S. Seventh Army of the Sixth Army Group. Reputedly, members of the 7th went as far as the elevator to the Kehlsteinhaus, with at least one person claiming that he and a partner continued on to the top. In a Library of Congress interview and more recent interviews, Herman Louis Finnell of the 3rd Infantry Division said that his regiment entered the Berghof, not the Kehlsteinhaus. However, the 101st Airborne maintains it was first both to the Kehlsteinhaus. Elements of the French 2nd Armored Division, Laurent Touyeras, Georges Buis, Paul Répiton-Préneuf, were present on the night of May 4 to 5, took several photographs before leaving on May 10 at the request of US command, and so says the numerous testimonies of the Spanish soldiers who went along with them. Undamaged in the April 25 bombing raid, the Kehlsteinhaus was subsequently used by the Allies as a military command post until 1960, when it was handed back to the State of Bavaria.
Today the building is owned by a charitable trust, serves as a restaurant offering indoor dining and an outdoor beer garden. It is a popular tourist attraction to those who are attracted by the historical significance of the "Eagle's Nest"; the road has been closed to private vehicles since 1952 because it is too dangerous, but the house can be reached on foot from Obersalzberg, or by bus from the Documentation Center there. The Documentation Centre directs visitors to the coach station where tickets are purchased; the bus ticket is ostensibly an entry ticket as it permits the holder entry to the building's elevator. The buses have special modifications to take on a slight angle, as the steep road leading to the peak is too steep for regular vehicles; the Kehlsteinhaus itself does not mention much about its past, except in the photos displayed and described along the wall of the sun terrace that documents its pre-construction condition until now. Info